Mr. Spear Name: ________________________________________________________ Date: ___________________ Homework 5
Unit 14: Nationalism, Revolution and Reform (1750-1850) Directions: Please read the narratives below and define the terms that appear at the bottom of the page. You can do this by either typing directly onto the document and printing it out, or by copying the questions onto loose-leaf and answering them there. Either way, keep in mind that the information contained here will not be included in class notes, but will appear on the test, so it is important that you keep this worksheet to study later.
The Conservative governments erected by Metternich and the representatives of the other great powers at the Congress of Vienna did not exist long before they were challenged by people and groups unhappy with the arrangement. Between 1820-1830 several kingdoms across the Continent were rocked by revolutions, some of them Liberal, others Nationalist.
Serbia and Greece
At the time of the Congress of Vienna, neither the Serbs nor the Greeks had their own nations. Both were provinces of the Ottoman Empire. The sprawling Ottoman Empire, once a great power in the 16th century, was now referred to as the “Sick Man of Europe” because it appeared to be slowly falling apart. It was feudal and autocratic and had failed to begin the process of industrialization. As a result, the Sultan’s government, centered on the capital city of Constantinople, was experiencing increasing difficulty maintaining authority across its vast territory. In 1815, the Serbs rose in revolt against the Ottomans and, with the assistance of the powerful Russian army, succeeded in gaining their independence. Six years later, in 1821, the Greeks rose against the Ottomans as well. Assisted by volunteers from Britain and France, the Greeks too achieved independence.
1. To what does the term autocratic refer? Why would being autocratic and failing to industrialize make a government grow weak?
2. Why would the Russians want to assist the Serbs in achieving independence?
3. Why would volunteers from France and Britain want to assist Greek independence?
The French Revolution of 1830
The Bourbon King Louis XVIII, who was restored to the French throne after the defeat of Napoleon, was the head of a constitutional monarchy. Though Metternich and the other leaders at the Congress of Vienna would have preferred to have France return to an Absolute Monarchy, they agreed that after the Revolution it was unlikely that the French people would accept that arrangement. In 1824, Louis XVIII died and was replaced by his cousin, the Bourbon King Charles X.
Charles X was much less willing to accept the status of Constitutional Monarch. In July 1830, he announced that he would begin governing by decree and released his first set of decrees called the July Ordinances.The July Ordinances suspended the rights of free speech and press and reduced the number of people eligible to vote in elections. The result was revolution. Hundreds of thousands of people took to the streets of Paris in protest and Charles was forced to abdicate.
1. What do the terms decree, ordinance and abdicate mean?
2. Was the French Revolution of 1830 Liberal, or Nationalist? Why?
Belgium and Poland (1830)
Word of the revolution in France quickly spread across Europe and inspired other revolutions. In the Netherlands, the Belgians successfully rebelled against Dutch rule and established the independent Kingdom of Belgium. To the east, Poles living in Warsaw rose up against Russia, but were quickly smashed by Tsarist troops.
1. Were the revolutions that occurred in Poland and Belgium in 1830 Liberal, or Nationalist? Why?
The Revolutions of 1848
Eighteen years later revolutions again exploded across Europe. As had occurred in 1830, revolt started in France and quickly spread across the Continent. The French King in 1848 was Louis-Philippe, a member of the Orleans family. Louis-Philippe tried earnestly to be a humble constitutional monarch and to respond to the needs of his people. He referred to himself as the “Citizen-King” and could be seen strolling around Paris in the regular gentleman’s outfit of suit, tie and top hat, rather than the excessive robes and regalia of his predecessors. The people of France were unhappy, however, because of the economy. Across Europe the 1840’s were known as “The Hungry Forties” because bad harvests had driven up bread prices in a number of countries. As protests in France grew louder. Louis-Philippe attempted to clamp down on dissent by banning political meetings. Revolution resulted. Louis-Philippe was driven from the throne and France became a republic.
1. Was the French Revolution of 1848 Liberal or Nationalist? Why
2. The republic that was created after the abdication of Louis-Philippe was known as the Second Republic. When was the first?
3. Where else in Europe was famine occurring besides France?
Following events in France, revolutions erupted in almost every major European kingdom. The Hapsburgs were hit with three at once. In Vienna, unemployed urban workers and liberal university students took to the streets demanding the end to the monarchy. Metternich was forced to flee. Meanwhile, the Northern Italian kingdoms of Venetia and Lombardy revolted against the Austrians as well, demanding independence. Following the Italian’s lead, the Hungarians then rose in revolt led by a journalist named Louis-Kossuthwho demanded Hungarian independence republican government. Three revolts at once were too much for Austria’s army. The young Emperor Franz-Josef forced to call upon neighboring Russia for support. Tsarist troops poured into Vienna and crushed street protests, while the Austrian army subdued both the Italians and the Hungarians. Louis Kossuth was sent into exile.
1. Which of the revolts in Austria were Liberal, which were Nationalist and why?
2. Why would Russia be willing to support the Absolute Monarchy of a neighboring country?
Revolutions continued to spread, however. In the Papal States, a young Italian Nationalist named Giuseppe Mazzini overthrew the Pope and established an independent Italian republic. In Prussia, the Hohenzollern family was forced to put down revolts from liberals demanding more political freedom. In the nearby German kingdom of Hesse liberals held a meeting in the city of Frankfurt called the Frankfurt Assembly.There they drafted a charter calling for the unification of all of Germany and invited the Hohenzollern King of Prussia to lead it as a constitutional monarchy. The King of Prussia refused stating that the offer had come “from the gutter.”
1. Were the revolts describe above Liberal, Nationalist, or both and why?
2. What did the Prussian king mean when he stated that the offer to lead a united Germany had come from the gutter? Why didn’t he accept the honor?