Hollywood film historiography

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FMS 502

Professor: Dr. Kevin Sandler

Email: kevin.sandler@asu.edu
Office Hours: By appointment


This course provides an overview of the methods, sources, and approaches used by modern film historians to address questions of Hollywood film history. An emphasis will be placed on economic and technological modes of historical inquiry, offering detailed case studies on a number of interesting topics, including censorship and the “fallen woman film,” the relationship between television and the emergence of the “blockbuster” film, and the connection between film festivals and female authorship. It is a course that uses primary sources as its core theoretical component – sources as diverse as promotional material, studio archival data, rating system documents – in order to better ascertain the delicate balance between industry and art, between entertainment and commercial enterprise, between “show” and business.

At the end of this course, you will be able to: 1) employ, in conversation and in writing, an extensive vocabulary of terms related to film historiography; 2) analyze how the business of film has shaped and impacted the content and reception of cinema in the twentieth century; 3) demonstrate a richer understanding of the methods and frameworks used by scholars to study film history; and 4) articulate an understanding of film historiography by strengthening your research and writing skills.
You are expected to engage in all learning tasks and attend threaded discussions in the online seminar. To access the class website and online seminar eBoard, you can use your personal computer, one in the library, and/or computer labs at ASU. 


Readings:  You will be responsible for two books in this class. The film historiography book is Film Histories: An Introduction and Reader, ed. Paul Grainge, Mark Jancovich and Sharon Monteith (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007). The other film history book is the Hollywood Film History reader, second edition, available only online through Pearson at http://www.pearsoncustom.com/az/asu_film/. A bibliography of these articles is listed at the end of this syllabus. Read both books carefully and on time for each Lesson--as they form the basis of the online seminars and exams.


Screenings:  You are responsible for screening one or more films per Lesson. They can be streamed directly from the class website. Do not watch these films simply for entertainment; watch them for study.  Take notes and view them numerous times.  The screenings also form the basis of the lectures, online seminars, and the exams.
Academic Honesty: In the “Student Academic Integrity Policy” manual, ASU defines “’Plagiarism” [as] using another's words, ideas, materials or work without properly acknowledging and documenting the source. Students are responsible for knowing the rules governing the use of another's work or materials and for acknowledging and documenting the source appropriately.” You can find this definition at: http://www.asu.edu/studentaffairs/studentlife/judicial/ Academic dishonesty, including inappropriate collaboration, will not be tolerated. There are severe sanctions for cheating, plagiarizing and any other form of dishonesty.
Disability Accommodations: Qualified students with disabilities who will require disability accommodations in this class are encouraged to make their requests to me at the beginning of the semester. Note: Prior to receiving disability accommodations, verification of eligibility from the Disability Resource Center (DRC) is required. Disability information is confidential. 

Establishing Eligibility for Disability Accommodations: Students who feel they will need disability accommodations in this class but have not registered with the Disability Resource Center (DRC) should contact DRC immediately. Their office is located on the first floor of the Matthews Center Building.  DRC staff can also be reached at: 480-965-1234 (V), 480-965-9000 (TTY).  For additional information, visit:  www.asu.edu/studentaffairs/ed/drc. Their hours are 8:00 AM to 5:00 PM, Monday through Friday.



I expect every student to leave this course with a more insightful understanding of Hollywood film history and historiography.  Along the way, we ask that you engage in all learning tasks and participate thoroughly through Blackboard.
Online Seminar (30%):  You are responsible for participating in the threaded discussions that take place on Blackboard. You must post a minimum of TWO substantive comments per Lesson, one per question.  A “substantive” post is one that is thoughtful, developed and connected to the lesson topic; typically, substantive posts are more than three sentences long.  These posts must keep up with the progress of the course.  You cannot, for example, go back to Blackboard and post to a Lesson after it has been completed and expect for the posts to be counted toward your participation grade. Questions for the Lessons will be posted to Blackboard every morning of the start of each Lesson and will be due at 11:59pm the day before the following Lesson. For example, if Lesson One falls on a Monday and Lesson Two falls on a Thursday, then you can post between 9am on Monday and 11:59pm on Wednesday. For every time you don’t post, you lose the maximum value of percentage points for that Lesson (approximately 7%). Moreover, the professor will keep track of your participation, including assessing the value of what you bring to this interactivity.  Refrain from flaming or ad hominem comments.  Please be rigorous but constructive.

Exams (35% each): You will be responsible for two essay exams during the semester. They will be due on July 23 and August 14. Prompts for the essay will be distributed one week before the due date.
Grading Scale

A+ .… 98-100%

A    ..... 93-97%

A-    ..... 90-92%

B+    ..... 88-89%

B     ..... 83-85%

B-    ..... 80-82%

C+   ..... 78-79%

C     ..... 70-79%

D     ..... 60-69%

E     ..... 00-59%


This course is comprised of 15 Lessons.  Each Lesson includes all these tasks:

1. Lecture: Listen to the Lecture for Class

2.  Reading:                            Read a Chapter from the Assigned Book

3.  Screening:                         Study Films Screened for Class

4. Website:                             Surf Relevant Websites

5.  Film Clips:                         Review Scenes Referenced in Readings & Lectures

6.  Blackboard:                        Pose and Answer Questions on the Electronic Board
Lesson 01The Birth of Cinema (Wednesday, 7/3)

Reading:      Grainge, Ch. 1, “The Emergence of Cinema” FH (Film Histories book)

Douglas Gomery, “Hollywood as Industry” Available on Web Site

Tom Gunning, “The Cinema of Attractions”

Georges Sadoul, “Founding Father: Louis Lumière in Conversation with Georges Sadoul”

Website:     Library of Congress American Memory Project

Screening:    A Trip to the Moon (George Méliès, 1902), Life of an American Fireman (Edwin S. Porter, 1902), The Great Train Robbery (Edwin S. Porter, 1903)

Lecture:     Early Cinema

Concepts:  Early Cinematic Devices, Early Film Exhibition, Edison Trust

Film Clips:  The Kiss (Edison, 1896), Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat (Lumière, 1896), The Gay Shoe Clerk (Porter, 1903), The Suburbanite (McCutcheon, 1904), Princess Nicotine (Blackton, 1909)

Seminar:      Discuss with Classmates


Lesson 02:   Narrative Integration (Saturday, 7/6)

Reading:      Grainge, Ch. 2, “Organising Early Film Audiences” FH

Daniel Bernardi, “The Birth of a Nation

D. W. Griffith, “Reply to the New York Globe,” “How I Made The Birth of a Nation,” and “The Rise and Fall of Free Speech in America”

Oscar Micheaux, “The Negro and the Photo-Play”

Website:       EarlyCinema.com

Screening:   The Birth of a Nation (D.W. Griffith, 1915) (Available free online)

Lecture: Classical Hollywood Narrative and Style

Concepts:  D. W. Griffith, Ideology, Race Cinema

Film Clips:   Those Awful Hats (Griffith, 1909), The Birth of a Nation (Griffith, 1915), Way Down East (Griffith, 1920), Within Our Gates (Micheaux, 1920)

Seminar:      Discuss with Classmates


Lesson 03:   Slapstick and the Silent Period (Tuesday, 7/9)

Reading:       Grainge, Ch. 5, “The Age of the Dream Palace and the Rise of the Star System” FH

Donald Crafton, “Pie and Chase”

Tom Gunning, “Response to ‘Pie and Chase’”

Samuel L. Rothafel, “What the Public Wants in the Picture Theater”

Harry M. Warner, “Future Developments”

Website: Slapstick-Comedy.com

ScreeningThe Immigrant (Charles Chaplin, 1917), His Wooden Wedding (Leo McCarey, 1925)

The General (Buster Keaton, 1927)

Lecture:     Slapstick

Concepts:  Film Distribution, Rise of the Studio System, Sound Technology

Film Clips:  The Freshman (Lloyd, 1925), The General (Keaton, 1927), The Jazz Singer (Crosland, 1927), The Love Parade (Lubitsch, 1929), Steamboat Bill, Jr. (Reisner, 1928)

Seminar:    Discuss with Classmates
Lesson 04:   The Production Code (Friday, 7/12)

Reading:    Grainge, Ch. 9, “Adjustment, Depression, and Regulation” FH

Lea Jacobs, “The Fallen Woman Film and the Impetus for Censorship”

Richard Maltby, “The Production Code and the Mythologies of ‘Pre-Code’ Hollywood”

Jack Vizzard, “The Monitor Ass of the Universe”

Website:    Hollywood Production Codes

Screening:   Baby Face (Alfred E. Green, 1933)

Lecture:        Film Regulation

Concepts:  Harmless Entertainment, the Depression, the Fallen Woman Film

Film Clips:   Baby Face (Green, 1933), The Smiling Lieutenant (Lubitsch, 1931) Scarface (Hawks, 1932), The Merry Widow (Lubitsch, 1934)

Seminar:         Discuss with Classmates
Lesson 05Studios (Monday, 7/15)

Reading:  Grainge, Ch. 11, “The Common People, Historical Drama, and Preparations for War” FH

Tino Balio, “Columbia Pictures” (also in Grainge book)

“Portrait of a Vertically Integrated Company: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer”

Website:   Cinema History Around the World: Arizona

Screening:   It Happened One Night (Frank Capra, 1934)

Lecture:     The Studio System

Concepts:  Majors and Minor Studios, the Dream Palace, Poverty Row

Clips:      Blonde Venus (Sternberg, 1932), Grand Hotel (Golding, 1932), Bright Eyes (Butler, 1934), It Happened One Night (Capra, 1934), Bride of Frankenstein (Whale, 1935), G-Men (Keighley, 1935), Top Hat (Sandrich, 1935), The Awful Truth (McCarey, 1937)

Seminar:         Discuss with Classmates


Lesson 06: Genres (Thursday, 7/18)

Readings:     Jim Kitses, “Authorship and Genre”

John E. O’Connor, “The White Man’s Indian”

Jack Shaheen, “Reel Bad Arabs”

Website:        30 Greatest Westerns

Screening:     Stagecoach (John Ford, 1939)

Lecture:        The Genre System

Concepts:  Signs and Syntax, the Western, Native Americans

Film Clips:   The Battle at Elderbush Gulch (Griffith, 1913), Drums along the Mohawk (Ford, 1939), Stagecoach (Ford, 1939), Go West! (Buzzell, 1940), My Darling Clementine (Ford, 1946), Fort Apache (Ford, 1948), The Searchers (Ford, 1956), Star Wars IV: A New Hope (Lucas, 1977), The Academy Awards (March 13, 1973, TV)

Seminar:         Discuss with Classmates


Lesson 07Stars (Sunday, 7/21)

Reading:       Grainge, Ch. 12, “Wartime, Unity and Alienation” FH

Richard Dyer, “‘Introduction’ to Heavenly Bodies

James Damico, “Ingrid from Lorraine to Stromboli”

Alfred Hitchcock, “Are Stars Necessary?” and “The Enjoyment of Fear”

Website:        The Ultimate Cary Grant Pages

The Official Ingrid Bergman Web Site

Screening:      Notorious (Alfred Hitchcock, 1946)

Lecture:         The Star System 

Concepts: Film Exhibition, Blockbooking, Star Persona

Film Clips: Emperor Jones (Murphy, 1933), Pin Up Girl (Humberstone, 1944) Der Fuhrer’s Face (Kinney, 1942), Notorious (Hitchcock, 1946), Joan of Arc (Fleming, 1948), The Stratton Story (Wood, 1949), Jerry O’Connell (2008, internet)

Seminar:         Discuss with Classmates
Exam One:  Due as Email Attachment on Tuesday, 7/23 at 11:59pm PST
Lesson 08:  Anti-Communism in Hollywood (Wednesday, 7/24)

Reading:  Grainge, Ch. 13, “Postwar Challenges” FH

Brian Neve, “HUAC, the Blacklist, and the Decline of Social Cinema”

“Testimony of Walt Disney, U.S. Congress House Un-American Activities Committee”

Edward Dmytryk, “Mr. Crum: May I Request the Right of Cross-examination?”

Website:        Blacklisted: Hollywood on Trial podcast

Screening:      Salt of the Earth (Herbert Biberman, 1954)

Lecture:         Postwar Hollywood

Concepts: First Amendment Protection, Paramount Decree, Blacklist

Film Clips:    Crossfire (Dmytryk, 1947), In a Lonely Place (Ray, 1950), The Hollywood Ten (Berry, 1950), The Caine Mutiny (Dmytryk, 1951), On the Waterfront (Kazan, 1954), Salt of the Earth (Biberman, 1954), See It Now (1954, TV)

Seminar:         Discuss with Classmates
Lesson 09: Television’s Impact on Hollywood (Saturday, 7/27)

Reading:        Grainge, Ch. 15, “Cinematic Spectacles and the Rise of the Independents” FH

Christopher Anderson, “Introduction: Hollywood in the Home”

Jeff Young, “A Face in the Crowd [interview with Kazan]”

Website:        The Andy Griffith Show Rerun Watchers Club

Screening:      A Face in the Crowd (Elia Kazan, 1957)

Lecture:         Hollywood and Television

Concepts: Color, Dwindling Audiences, Widescreen

Film Clips:    Disneyland (1954, TV), It’s Always Fair Weather (Donen and Kelly, 1955), Rebel without a Cause (Ray, 1955) A Face in the Crowd (Kazan, 1957), Maverick (1957, TV) Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter? (Tashlin, 1957), The Andy Griffith Show (1960, TV), Cinemascope (2005)

Seminar:         Discuss with Classmates


Lesson 10: The Birth of the Blockbuster (Tuesday, 7/30)

Readings: Grainge, Ch. 16, “New Waves, Specialist Audiences, and Adult Films” FH

Sheldon Hall and Steve Neale, “Roadshows, Showcases, and Runaways, 1956-1970”

Frank J. Taylor, “Big Boom in Outdoor Movies”

Samuel Arkoff, Flying Through Hollywood by the Seat of My Pants (excerpt)

Website       CommanderBond.net

Screening:      Goldfinger (Guy Hamilton, 1964)

Lecture:         The Decline of the Studio System

Concepts: Drive-Ins, Box-office Recession, Exploitation

Film Clips:     Lawrence of Arabia (Lean, 1962), Cleopatra (Mankiewicz, 1963), Goldfinger (Hamilton, 1964), Beach Blanket Bingo (Asher, 1965), Dr. Dolittle (Fleischer, 1967)

Seminar:         Discuss with Classmates


Lesson 11: The Rating System (Friday, 8/2)

Reading:    Grainge, Ch. 18, “Modernism, Nostalgia and the Hollywood Renaissance” FH

Kevin S. Sandler, “CARA and the Emergence of Responsible


Jack Valenti, “Statement by Jack Valenti, MPAA President, before The National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence”

Arthur Penn, “Making Waves ”

Website:        The Motion Picture Association of America and

The Motion Picture Rating System

Screening:     Bonnie and Clyde (Penn, 1967)

Lecture:        Hollywood Reinvents Itself

Concepts:   Runaway Production, European Art Cinema, Social Movements

Film Clips:    La Dolce Vita (Fellini, 1961), Blow-Up (Antonioni, 1966), Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (Nichols, 1966), Bonnie and Clyde (Penn, 1967), The Graduate (Nichols, 1967), I am Curious (Yellow) (Sjöman, 1967), The Wild Bunch (Peckinpah, 1969), Carnal Knowledge (Nichols, 1971), Deep Throat (Damiano, 1972)

Seminar:       Discuss with Classmates
Lesson 12: New Hollywood in the 1970s (Sunday, 8/4)

Reading:        Grainge, Ch. 19, “From Movie Brats to Movie Blockbusters” FH

David A. Cook, “Formative Industry Trends, 1970-1979”

Andrew Sarris, “Confessions of a Middle Class Film Critic”

Website: The Jack Nicholson Fan Page

Screening: Taxi Driver (Martin Scorsese, 1976)

Lecture: Hollywood during Vietnam

Concepts:  Film School Generation, Auteur Renaissance, Corporate Consolidation

Film Clips: Psycho (Hitchcock, 1960), Five Easy Pieces (Rafelson, 1970), Two-Lane Blacktop (Hellman, 1971), The Conversation (Coppola, 1974) The Sugarland Express (Spielberg, 1974), Taxi Driver (Scorsese, 1976)

Seminar: Discuss with Classmates

Lesson 13: The Contemporary Hollywood Blockbuster (Tuesday, 8/6)

Readings:       Grainge, Ch. 20, “The Exhibitors Strike Back” FH

Thomas Schatz, “The New Hollywood”

“Strauss Zelnick: Twentieth Century Fox”

Website:        PBS Frontline: The Monster that Ate Hollywood

Screening:     Batman (Tim Burton, 1989)

Lecture:        Corporate Hollywood

Concepts:  Synergy, VCRs, Multiplexes

Film Clips:     Airport (Seaton, 1970), The Godfather (Coppola, 1972), Jaws (Spielberg, 1975), Saturday Night Fever (Badham, 1977), Star Wars IV: A New Hope (Lucas, 1977), Top Gun (Scott, 1986), Batman (Burton, 1989)

Seminar:         Discuss with Classmates


Lesson 14:     Independents: Miramax and Black Film (Friday, 8/9)

Reading:        Grainge, Ch. 21, “Postmodernism, High Concept and Eighties Excess” FH

Alisa Perren, “sex, lies and marketing,”

Jesse Algeron Rhines, “Blockbusters and Independents: 1975 to the Present”

Tiiu Lukk, “Romantic Comedy: Four Weddings and a Funeral

Website: Separate Cinema Archive: Black Film Posters

Screening:     Do the Right Thing (Spike Lee, 1989)

Lecture:        In the Shadow of Hollywood

Concepts:  Major-Independents, Blaxploitation, New Black Cinema

Film Clips:     Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song (Van Peebles, 1971), Super Fly (Parks, Jr., 1972), The Deep (Yates, 1977), Stir Crazy (Poitier, 1980), Rocky IV (Stallone, 1985), She’s Gotta Have It (Lee, 1986), Hollywood Shuffle (Townsend, 1987), The Thin Blue Line (Morris, 1988), Do the Right Thing (Lee, 1989), sex, lies and videotape (Soderbergh, 1989), Pulp Fiction (Tarantino, 1994)

Seminar:        Discuss with Classmates


Lesson 15: Women Directors and Hollywood Cinema (Sunday, 8/11)

Reading:        Grainge, Ch. 22, “Cults, Independents and ‘Guerilla’ Filmmaking” FH

Christina Lane, Just Another Girl Outside the Neo-Indie”

Denise Mann, “Negotiating the Politics of (In)Difference in Contemporary Hollywood: An Interview with Kimberly Peirce”

Wheeler Winston Dixon, “Twenty-Five Reasons Why It’s All Over”

Website:        Indiewire: Independent Film News

Screening:     Boys Don’t Cry (Kimberly Peirce, 1999)

Lecture:        Female Authorship

ConceptsFeminist Theory, Film Festivals, Arthouses

Film Clips:     The Hitchhiker (Lupino, 1953), Fast Times at Ridgemont High (Heckerling, 1982), Desperately Seeking Susan (1985), Dogfight (Savoca, 1991), Just Another Girl on the I.R.T. (Harris, 1993), The Blair Witch Project (Myrick and Sanchez, 1999), Boys Don’t Cry (Peirce, 1999), Girlfight (Kusama, 2000)

Seminar:         Discuss with Classmates


Second Exam: Due as Email Attachment on Wednesday, 8/14 at 6pm MST

Bibliography for Hollywood Film History
Christopher Anderson, “Introduction: Hollywood in the Home,” in Hollywood TV: The Studio System in the Fifties (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994), 1-21.

Samuel Arkoff with Richard Trubo, Flying Through Hollywood by the Seat of My Pants (New York: Birch Lane Press, 1992), 127-137.

Tino Balio, “Columbia Pictures: The Making of a Motion Picture Major, 1930-1943,” in Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies, David Bordwell and Noël Carroll, ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996), 419-433.

Daniel Bernardi, “The Birth of a Nation: Whiteness and the Birth of the Classical Style,” in Film Analysis: A Norton Reader (New York: W.W. Norton, 2005), 82-96.

Frank Capra, “Winning the Grail,” in The Name Above the Title: An Autobiography (New York: Macmillan, 1971), 159-172.

David A. Cook, “Formative Industry Trends, 1970-1979,” in Lost Illusions: American Cinema in the Shadow of Watergate and Vietnam, 1970-1979 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), 9-23.

Donald Crafton, “Pie and Chase: Gag, Spectacle, and Narrative in Comedy,” in Classical Hollywood Comedy, Kristine Brunovska Karnick and Henry Jenkins, ed. (New York: Routledge, 1995), 106-119.

James Damico, “Ingrid from Lorraine to Stromboli: Analyzing the Public’s Perception of a Film Star,” in Star Texts: Image and Performance in Film and Television, Jeremy G. Butler, ed. (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1991), 240-253. Originally published in Journal of Popular Film 4, no. 1 (1975): 3-19.

Edward Dmytryk, “Mr. Crum: May I Request the Right of Cross-examination?” in Odd Man Out: A Memoir of the Hollywood Ten (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1996), 57-71.

Richard Dyer, “Introduction” to Heavenly Bodies: Film Stars and Society, 2nd ed. (New York: Palgrave McMillan, 1987), 1-16.

Douglas Gomery, “Hollywood as Industry,” in American Cinema and Hollywood: Critical Approaches, John Hill and Pamela Church Gibson. ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 19-28.

D. W. Griffith, “How I Made The Birth of a Nation” and “The Rise and Fall of Free Speech in America,” in Focus on D. W. Griffith, Harry M. Geduld, ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1971), 39-45. Originally published in Henry Stephen Gordon, “The Story of David Wark Griffith,” Photoplay X (October 1916), 90-94 and The Rise and Fall of Free Speech in America (1916), pamphlet.

D. W. Griffith, “Reply to the New York Globe,” in The Birth of a Nation, Robert Lang, ed. (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994), 168-170.

Tom Gunning, “The Cinema of Attractions: Early Film, Its Spectator and the Avant-Garde” in Early Cinema: Space, Frame, Narrative, Thomas Elsaesser and Adam Barker, ed. (London: BFI, 1990). Originally published in Wide Angle 8, nos. 3-4 (1986): 66-77.

Tom Gunning, “Response to ‘Pie and Chase,’” in Classical Hollywood Comedy, Kristine Brunovska Karnick and Henry Jenkins, ed.  (New York:  Routledge, 1995), 120-122.

Sheldon Hall and Steve Neale, “Roadshows, Showcases, and Runaways, 1956-1970,” in Epics, Spectacles, and Blockbusters: A Hollywood History (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2010), 159-186.

Alfred Hitchcock, “Are Stars Necessary?” and “The Enjoyment of Fear,” from Hitchcock on Hitchcock: Selected Writings and Interviews, Sidney Gotlieb, ed. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 76-78, 116-121. “Are Stars Necessary?” originally published in Picturegoer, December 16, 1933. “The Enjoyment of Fear” originally published in Good Housekeeping 128 (February 1949): 39, 241-243.

Lea Jacobs, “The Fallen Woman Film and the Impetus for Censorship,” in The Wages of Sin: Censorship and the Fallen Woman Film (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991), 3-26, 163-169.

Jim Kitses, “Authorship and Genre: Notes on the Western,” in The Western Reader, Jim Kitses and Gregg Rickman, ed. (New York: Limelight, 1998), 57-68. Excerpted from Horizons West (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969).

Christina Lane, “Just Another Girl Outside the Neo-Indie,” in Contemporary American Independent Film: From the Margins to the Mainstream, Chris Holmlund and Justin Wyatt, ed. (London; Routledge, 2005), 193-210.

Tiiu Lukk, “Romantic Comedy: Four Weddings and a Funeral,” in Movie Marketing: Opening the Picture and Giving it Legs (Beverly Hills: Silman-James, Press, 1997), 1-20.

Richard Maltby, “The Production Code and the Mythologies of ‘Pre-Code’ Hollywood,” in The Classical Hollywood Reader, ed. Steve Neale (London: Routledge, 2012), 237-248.

Denise Mann, “Kimberley Peirce: Negotiating the Politics of (In)Difference in Contemporary Hollywood: An Interview with Kimberley Peirce,” in Filming Difference: Actors, Directors, Producers, and Writers on Gender, Race, and Sexuality in Film, Daniel Bernardi, ed. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2009).

“Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer,” in Fortune, Vol. 6 (December 1932), 51-58+. Reprinted in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), 311-326.

Oscar Micheaux, “The Negro and the Photo-Play,” Half-Century Magazine, May 6, 1919. Reprinted in Steven J. Ross, ed., Movies and American Society (Oxfored: Blackwell, 2002), 184-186.

Brian Neve, “HUAC, the Blacklist, and the Decline of Social Cinema,” in The Fifties: Transforming the Screen, 1950-59, Peter Lev, ed. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003), 65-86.

John E. O’Connor, “The White Man’s Indian,” from Hollywood’s Indian: The Portrayal of the Native American in Film (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1998), 27-38. Originally published in O’Connor’s book, The Hollywood Indian: Stereotypes of Native American in Film (Trenton: New Jersey State Museum, 1980).

Arthur Penn, “Making Waves: The Directing of Bonnie and Clyde,” in Arthur Penn’s Bonnie and Clyde, Lester D. Friedman (London: Cambridge, 2000), 11-31.

Alisa Perren, “sex, lies and marketing: Miramax and the Development of the Quality Indie Blockbuster,” in Film Quarterly 55, no. 2 (2001): 30-39.

Jesse Algeron Rhines, “Blockbusters and Independents: 1975 to the Present,” in Black Film/White Money (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996), 51-78, 180-182.

Samuel L. Rothafel, “What the Public Wants in the Picture Theater,” Architectural Forum 42, no. 6 (June 1925), 361-364.

Georges Sadoul, “Founding Father: Louis Lumière in Conversation with Georges Sadoul,” in Projections 4: Film-makers on Film-making, ed. John Boorman, Tom Luddy, David Thomson, and Walter Donahue (London: Faber & Faber, 1995), 2-13.

Kevin S. Sandler, “CARA and the Emergence of Responsible Entertainment,” from The Naked Truth: Why Hollywood Doesn’t Make X-Rated Movies (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007), 42-63.

Andrew Sarris, “Confessions of a Middle Class Film Critic (interview),” in The Cineaste Interviews: On the Art and Politics of the Cinema, ed. Dan Georgakas and Lenny Rubenstein (Chicago: Lake View Press, 1983), 232-247. Originally published in the Spring 1979 issues of Cineaste.

Thomas Schatz, “The New Hollywood,” in Film Theory Goes to the Movies, Jim Collins, Hilary Radner, and Ava Preacher Collins, ed. (London: Routledge, 1993), 8-36.

Jack Shaheen, “Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Vilifies a People,” in Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 588, No. 1 (2003): 171-193.

Frank J. Taylor, “Big Boom in Outdoor Movies,” Saturday Evening Post 229 (September 15, 1956), 31, 100-102.

“Strauss Zelnick: Twentieth Century Fox,” in Making and Selling Culture, Richard Ohmann, ed., (Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press, 1996), 18-33.

“Testimony of Walt Disney, U.S. Congress House Un-American Activities Committee, Hearings Regarding the Communist Infiltration of the Motion Picture Industry,” October 24, 1947, Congressional Record. Reprinted in Hollywood and Politics: A Sourcebook, ed. Donald T. Critchlow and Emilie Raymond (New York: Routledge, 2009), 146-157.

Jack Valenti, “Statement by Jack Valenti, MPAA President, before The National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence,” December 19, 1968. Reprinted in Stephen Prince, ed., Screening Violence (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2000), 62-75.

Jack Vizzard, “The Monitor Ass of the Universe,” in See No Evil: Life Inside a Hollywood Censor (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1970), 57-71.

Harry M. Warner, “Future Developments,” in The Story of the Films, Joseph P. Kennedy, ed. (Chicago: A.W. Shaw, 1927), 330-335. Reprinted as part of Moving Pictures: Their Impact on Society (Englewood, NJ: Ozer, 1971), 319-335.

Wheeler Winston Dixon, “Twenty-Five Reasons Why It’s All Over,” in The End of Cinema as We Know It: American Film in the Nineties,” ed. Jon Lewis (New York: New York University Press, 2001), 356-366.

Jeff Young, “A Face in the Crowd,” in Kazan: The Master Director Discusses His Films: Interviews with Elia Kazan (New York: Newmarket Press, 1999), 231-254.

Supplemental Sources
Robert C. Allen and Douglas Gomery, Film History: Theory and Practice (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993).

Tino T. Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985).

John Belton, American Cinema/American Culture, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004).

David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film History: An Introduction (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002).

Drew Casper, Postwar Hollywood, 1946-1962 (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007).

David A. Cook, A History of Narrative Film, 4th ed. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2004).

Wheeler Winston Dixon and Gwendolyn Audrey Foster, A Short History of Film (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2008).

Louis Giannetti and Scott Eyman, Flashback: A Brief History of Film¸ 5th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2006).

Douglas Gomery, The Hollywood Studio System: A History (London: British Film Institute, 2008).

Richard Jewell, The Golden Age of Cinema, 1929-1945 (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007).

Leonard J. Leff and Jerold L. Simmons, The Dame in the Kimono: Hollywood, Censorship, and the Production Code (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2001).

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