Spain’s army in the Philippines was trapped in Intramuros, a walled city within Manila built by Spanish conquerors 300 years earlier. Aguinaldo’s insurgents had besieged the stronghold for nearly two months.
They had gotten Manila almost completely surrounded to the extent that the Spaniards were running low on water and food. And Aguinaldo at this point asked the Spanish commander to surrender Manila to his forces. But the Spaniards, with their sense of pride, refused to do that. They feared that the Filipinos would take vengeance on them, that the Filipinos would murder them and rape their women.