Much of the information presented here has been garnered (almost verbatim) from the history provided by Guenther E. Frankenstein in the Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Ice, Gdansk, Poland, Vol. II (2000) pp. 41-56.
The Ice Committee or those interested in
ice problems originated with those who represented hydropower companies. They were responsible for emphasizing the problems associated with river ice and how it impacted on power production. It was through their efforts that the IAHR Council established a committee, or originally a work group, to join forces in solving these problems. At the Ice Section's first symposium it became obvious that there existed other groups that were experiencing ice problems. These included offshore oil, navigation, and flood control, etc. Our group became the world's number one association for the discussion of ice problems and research results. One cannot disagree with the above statement when a review is made of all of our conference proceedings, work group reports, and books. One cannot guess as to how many ice problems have been solved through the interaction of engineers and researchers during the IAHR Ice Symposia.
The relationship between the IAHR council and sections is not a strong one. The section's representative to the council is a council appointed division chairman who has no voting rights. This means then that the sections are background members of IAHR. The Kennedy report recommended that the division chairman be a voting member of the council, but this has never been adopted.
Confusion Concerning Numbering of the IAHR Ice Symposia
At the Second Symposium in Leningrad (1972) the members of the Section on Ice recommended that the third symposium be organized in Hanover, New Hampshire, USA, in 1975. The committee further recommended that the Section would take part in the Hungary meeting in 1974, with a limited agenda and not convene as an Ice Section Symposium. The delegates agreed to these recommendations. The council however approved the Hungarian request and forgot to inform the chairman of the Section on Ice. For this reason the 3rd IAHR Ice Symposium at Hanover, New Hampshire in 1975 was actually the 4th.
The Formative Years: 1959-1970
The Section for Ice Research and Engineering of IAHR was established in 1970. The Section on Ice Problems was established at the Montreal (8th) congress in 1959. This was the first IAHR Congress that included sessions on ice, these being focused on "Ice Problems on Hydraulic Structures." These sessions were comprised of 29 papers and were chaired by Mr. J.B. Bryce.
It was during these sessions, and because of considerable international interest in ice problems, that the council formed a "Subcommittee on Ice". The congress chairman, Mr. R. Dupuis, announced this and stated "it was a privilege granted to the few countries that have ice problems to be placed in the orbit of the association to benefit of their own research or of time". He wanted a committee formed that would meet frequently to discuss ice problems. He was appointed the first chairman of the Subcommittee on Ice by the council and planned to form a full committee as soon as possible. He recommended that the first item on the ice committee's agenda be the publication of a list of definitions and terminology for ice phenomena.
There was a lot of enthusiasm at the time of its formation but the subcommittee remained inactive. In 1961 Mr. Dupuis resigned as chairman but agreed to continue as a member of the committee. In 1962, Prof. A. T. Ippen, President of IAHR, nominated a new committee under the chairmanship of H.L. Rundgren of Sweden.
The first meeting of the new Section on Ice Problems was in September 1963 during the 10th Congress in London. The first item of business was to develop bylaws, which were completed and submitted to the IAHR Council for approval. The bylaws stated that the purpose of the section was to foster a bond between those concerned with ice phenomena in general and with ice problems in connection with hydraulic structures. This statement of purpose is still applicable today.
The Section on Ice Problems had no secretary, so the chairman proposed that Mr. F. Gerritsen, of the Netherlands, be elected to the committee and be the first secretary. The committee approved and Mr. F. Gerritsen accepted. Mr. H.L. Rundgren presented a classification at ice problems that was discussed by the members present. The members also provided information on ice research that was being conducted in their respective countries and agreed to develop a bibliography on ice. Lectures by members L. Lliboutry and O. Devik were presented to the Congress. The next meeting of the committee was at the IAHR Congress in Leningrad in 1965. The Leningrad Congress had sessions on ice problems with the theme of "Low Temperature Effects on the Flow in Rivers and Reservoirs Including Ice Problems". Fourteen individual papers were presented. In addition, each member of the Section on Ice Problems that attended discussed his country's ice research program.
The members agreed, as they did at their London meeting, that a bibliography be compiled and made available to those working in ice. Dr. Oudshoom, of the Netherlands, agreed to compile the bibliography from the lists furnished by the section committee members and then distribute it to those requesting the list. The classification of ice problems proposed and accepted at the London Congress would be the basis for the bibliography. The members present also generally agreed that travel costs made it more favorable to combine the ice seminars with each Congress.
The theme for the ice sessions at the 12th Congress, Fort Collins, Colorado, 1967, was "Ice Effects on the Flow in Rivers and Reservoirs Including Pressure on Structures". There were sixteen technical and five discussion papers presented. The Section on Ice Problems had a new chairman in Prof. B. Michel (elected at the Leningrad Congress, 1965) and a new secretary, Dr. H.N. Oudshoom.
A number of minor changes to the bylaws, relating to the election of new members, quorum, majority vote, and the conduct of business meetings, were presented and approved by the members present and the council. In addition, the chairman proposed that the section name be changed from "Section on Ice Problems" to "Ice Section". The council decided to keep the title as is, but agreed to add a French title, "Section des glaces".
The chairman proposed the creation of a subcommittee on "terminology and graphical representation for river and lake ice" to standardize them. He recommended that the terminology be established in three languages: English, French, and Russian. The committee accepted the proposal and Dr. H. Kivisild agreed to being the subcommittee chairman. This was the beginning of the working groups, as they are now titled.
The Section on Ice Problems had no scheduled seminar at the 13th Congress, Kyoto, Japan. However, it was at this Congress that the section chairman, Prof. B. Michel, made the announcement that the first IAHR Symposium on Ice would be held in Reykjavik, Iceland, 7- 10 September 1970. In addition to the announcement of the first "Ice Symposium," a general meeting was held with those members that attended the Congress. The first item discussed was the section's bibliography. There had been so few requests for copies that the committee had to decide if the service should be continued. This would be a priority item at the next section meeting.
The subcommittee on ice terminology had been active and would have a final report completed and ready for distribution at the Reykjavik Symposium. The subcommittee chairman, Dr. H. Kivisild, had contacted the World Meteorological Organization, which had compiled a nomenclature for sea ice. He decided that the best approach would be to use their nomenclature as a guide.
Reykjavik, Iceland (7-10 September 1970)
The 1st IAHR Symposium on Ice was held at Reykjavik, Iceland, 7-10 September 1970, with Mr. S. Freysteinsson as chairman of the organizing committee. The chairman of the Section on Ice Problems, Prof. B. Michel, was responsible for this event. He conceived of the idea to have separate symposia and contacted Mr. Freysteinsson requesting that Iceland be the first organizer of an ice symposium. He even had the IAHR Council contribute to publishing the proceedings. We all owe Prof. Michel a big thank you for this outstanding accomplishment.
The title of the first symposium was "Ice and its Action on Hydraulic Structures” which attracted engineers and scientists from Europe, Canada, Japan, USA, USSR, and from each of the Scandinavian countries. There were 61 technical and four summary papers presented.
Dr. Kivisild presented the first subcommittee report, "River and Lake Ice Terminology.” During the preparation of the report the committee found that the Office of Hydrology of the United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) had done substantial studies on ice nomenclature. The committee reviewed the UNESCO report and decided to prepare a submission to them to be a representative ice terminology. The attendees were to review the list and recommend changes where needed. The final report would then be submitted to UNESCO. This first list of terms and definitions would be in English but would be translated into Russian and French by the next symposium.
This being the first of many IAHR ice symposia, the association agreed to publish the proceedings. The first volume contained the accepted abstracts; the second contained the reviewed papers, discussions, ice committee minutes, and general addresses. The papers were presented in English but four were published in French. The second chairman of our Section on Ice Problems, H.L. Rundgren, gave the banquet address. His address was both serious and humorous. He presented his now famous two laws of ice:
Ice Law 1: “Do not fight against the ice, avoid it”
Ice Law 2: “Do not fight against the ice, make use of it”
The secretary of the committee, Dr. Oudshoom, reported that there had been few requests for the bibliography. The chairman recommended, and the committee agreed, that further activities on the bibliography be suspended.
The committee recommended that the IAHR Ice Symposia should be held every two years. The next one would be held in Leningrad in September 1972. In closing, the chairman stated that Iceland, being half way between America and Europe and at the Arctic Circle, was the ideal location for the first Symposium on Ice.
Leningrad, USSR (26-29 September 1972)
The 2nd IAHR Ice Symposium was also titled "Ice and its Action on Hydraulic Structures.” The chairman of the organizing committee was M. F. Skladnev, who was President of the IAHR Soviet National Committee. Prof. Balanin was nominated to be the acting committee secretary because Mr. Oudshoom was not able to attend. A total of 170 people attended the symposium, with 60 coming from outside the USSR. There were 47 papers published in Volume I of the proceedings, while Volume II contained four plenary lectures, late papers, and discussions. B. Michel, A. Assur, T. Carstens, and K. Korzhavin presented these lectures. All the USSR papers and discussions were presented in Russian, but simultaneous translation was provided for those attending. The symposium program included tours of laboratories in the Leningrad area and a scientific tour to Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, and Bratsk to visit hydro projects and the Academic City. The latter tour was outstanding according to those who participated.
The committee of the Section on Ice Problems met on two occasions during the days of the symposium. They discussed the nominations of new committee members, the report on ice technology, and the location of the next ice symposium. The chairman proposed a list of individuals to be the future chairman and secretaries for the symposium sessions, which was adopted. The ice technology report had been translated into French and Russian but had not yet been published. The chairman recommended that the translations be published in Vol. II of the proceedings, but for some reason they were omitted.
The chairman stated that he had received three requests as to the location and date for the next ice symposium. The Hungarian National Committee was co-sponsoring a meeting in January 1974 with the Fluvial Hydraulics Section and the Section on Ice Problems of IAHR and the Section of Inland Navigation of the Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses (PIANC). The other requests came from Hanover, New Hampshire, for either 1974 or 1975 and the University of Alaska for 1974. The chairman proposed that the third ice symposium be held in 1975 in the USA-to begin in Hanover, New Hampshire and finish in Fairbanks, Alaska. In addition, he proposed to take part in the Budapest, Hungary, Symposium and that the organizing committee limit it to the hydraulic and ice phenomena associated with navigation in both regulated and non-regulated rivers. This proposal was accepted. Soon after the Leningrad Symposium the University of Alaska decided not to sponsor the proposed 1975 meeting because of its commitment to host the POAC Conference. The chairman contacted the organizing committee in Hanover and requested that they sponsor a full ice symposium.
Budapest, Hungary (14-18 January 1974)
The IAHR Sections for Fluvial Hydraulics and for Ice Problems, in cooperation with the
Section for Inland Navigation of PIANC, sponsored the Symposium on Hydraulic Research on Rivers and Ice, with special regard to navigation. The symposium was held under the auspices of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the National Water Authority of Hungary.
Mr. Vincze, Vice-President of the National Water Authority was the chairman of the local organizing committee. There were 38 papers submitted and 15 were presented. In addition, representatives from different countries and laboratories discussed their research programs and laboratory capabilities. A simultaneous translation was provided for all speakers from Hungarian to English or the reverse. Tours of local research laboratories were provided for the attendees. An ice breaking demonstration aboard a Hungarian vessel was scheduled, but due to warm weather there was no ice on the river. However, the attendees enjoyed the scenery along the Danube. Three members of the Section on Ice Problems Committee were in attendance and held a meeting. The items discussed were the Russian and French versions of the ice terminology list and the formation of a new working group. The Russian and French versions were to be completed and available by the next ice symposium. A request was made to those attending to provide versions of the ice terminology in their country's language.
A new work group, proposed by Dr. J. Schwarz of Germany, would study the mechanical properties of ice, including testing techniques, sample preparation and test equipment. The section committee approved the request and a group was formed with Schwarz as chairman.
Hanover, New Hampshire, USA (18-21 August 1975)
The 4th IAHR Ice Symposium was sponsored by the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) and held on the campus of Dartmouth College. The chairman of the organizing committee was G. Frankenstein, assisted by S. Den Hartog and R. McMillen. Approximately 150 engineers and scientists attended.
Dr. O. Starosolszky, the new section chairman, opened the symposium by reviewing the history and bylaws of the Section on Ice Problems. One statement that he made is worthy of a quote, "International cooperation is based on the fact that ice, just as water, does not respect political borders and its properties and basic behavior are identical all over the globe. There is no American and no European ice, only plain ice". The technical exchanges and cooperation that have taken place at this and all-of the ice symposium have proven Dr. Starosolszky correct.
The symposium was divided into three themes: extended season navigation, ice jam control, and effects of ice on marine structures. Approximately 15 papers were presented under each theme. An invited lecturer presented a review for each of the themes.
The highlight of this IAHR Ice Symposium, was the establishment of formal working groups. Our first working group was the one covering ice terminology which presented its final report at our first symposium. Schwarz, in January 1974 while he was a visiting researcher at the University of Iowa, requested that a working group be established to standardize ice testing methods. Their first report was included in the Hanover proceedings. In addition, two new working groups were established: “Ice Jams” headed by G. Frankenstein, and “Ice Forces on Structures” headed by T. Carstens. Both working groups held their first meetings during the symposium.
The Committee on Ice Problems had a meeting on the day before the symposium. The new members of the committee were G. Ashton (USA), J. Schwarz (Germany) and T. Rekonen (Finland). The new chairman was O. Starosolszky (Hungary) and G. Ashton was elected Secretary. Also in attendance were J. Kennedy, Vice President of IAHR, and B. Michel. Much discussion was given to the formation of work groups, cooperation with other organizations with related interests, publication of the ice terminology, and future meetings. It was decided to publish the Russian and French versions of the ice terminology in the Hanover proceedings. The committee accepted Sweden's kind invitation to hold the 1978 Symposium in Lulea under the direction of Professor Lars Bengtsson.
Following the symposium a tour was made to observe the ice control techniques of the lower St. Lawrence Seaway, near Montreal.
Lulea, Sweden (7-9 August 1978)
This 5th IAHR Ice Symposium on Ice was sponsored by the Town of Lulea with assistance from the Lulea University of Technology. The symposium was held at the university under the chairmanship of Professor L. Bengtsson. Over 200 (including spouses) engineers and scientists attended and presented 70 technical papers. The section committee held meetings on 5-6 August that included representatives from the following organizations: WHO, ICSI, UNESCO, IUT AM, and IGS. By inviting the other organizations our chairman was attempting to establish better working relationships between them. The three new committee members, L. Bengtsson (Sweden), G. Frankenstein (USA) and P. Tryde (Denmark) were also present.
Dr. Starosolszky distributed copies of the multilingual ice terminology, which is now in 14 languages, to the members. This was published by the Hungarian Research Center for Water Resources. This report has turned out to be a valuable resource to those working in ice engineering research.
The committee meetings held during the Lulea Symposium were very successful and, one could say, a turning point for future success. It was at this meeting that cooperation was established with other research organizations that would benefit the world. Dr. Michel, a former chairman of our committee, volunteered to host the next symposium in 1981 in Quebec. He would also host a Port and Ocean Engineering Under Arctic Conditions Symposium at the same time. This had been discussed for many years but never undertaken because of the work involved.
One of the highlights of the Lulea meeting was the decision to publish a treatise on "River and Lake Ice Engineering.” Dr. G. Ashton, CRREL, was asked to become the editor of this book and he accepted. The book was divided into eight chapters, each having an editor. It was hoped that the book would be avai1ab1e by the 1981 Quebec Symposium. That date became unrealistic and it was not published until 1986.
The Working Group on Ice Forces produced a report that contained a number of individual state-of-the-art papers. CRREL was requested to publish these papers, which they did as Special Report 80-26. After six years of effort, it was at this meeting that an ice jam was defined: "An ice jam is an accumulation of fragmented ice or frazil that restricts flow".
As usual, the individual papers presented were excellent, as was the support given by the organizing committee. At the closing ceremony it was announced that Prof. T. Carstens was nominated to become the next Ice Committee Chairman and R. Gerard (Canada), V.E. Lyapin (USSR), M. Drouin (Canada), H. Saeki (Japan), M. Maattanen (Finland), and E. Zsilak (Hungary) members. Prof. Michel invited all participants to attend the next symposium in Quebec in 1981.
Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, (26-31 July 1981)
Prof. Bernard Michel was the chairman of the organizing committee for both this 6th IAHR Ice Symposium and the POAC Conference. This was a tremendous undertaking but, as expected, both meetings were a huge success. Attendance at our IAHR Symposium was approximately 200 and for POAC over 300. In addition, representatives of six other international organizations were in attendance.
The working group chairman reported on their progress since the Lulea symposium. These working groups have been very successful and a very important part of the Section on Ice Problems. The working groups provide a means for researchers from different countries to discuss their ideas and document recent work that has not been published. This relationship should be encouraged to continue. A newly published addendum to the multilingual technology was presented that contained eight new languages. This has been a very popular publication throughout the world.
An invitation to hold the next symposium in Hamburg, Germany, August 1984 was presented by J. Schwarz and accepted by the committee. F. Hausler (W. Germany) and J.-C. Tatinclaux (USA) were nominated as the new committee members. The committee thanked Prof. B. Michel for his efforts in organizing the two conferences. It was agreed that having the two organizations meeting together created a problem that affected paper presentation and working group meetings. Therefore, it was decided that such a schedule would not be proposed in the future.
A special meeting of the Committee on Ice Problems was held at Hanover, New Hampshire, on 22 August 1982. This meeting was called by T. Carstens, chairman, to discuss the progress of the working groups and the book. The meeting was held in Hanover because many on the committee were planning to attend the IGS Symposium on Applied Glaciology.
Each chapter of "River and Ice Engineering" was discussed for content and progress. Following the discussion it was planned to complete the chapters and have the book ready for distribution by the August 1984 Hamburg Ice Meeting. J. Schwarz stated that plans for the meeting were on schedule and informed the committee that each working group chairman was asked to make a presentation at the 1983 POAC Conference to be held at Helsinki.
Hamburg, Germany (27-30 August 1984)
The 7th IAHR Ice Symposium was chaired by J. Schwarz and held at the Hamburgische Schiffbau- Versuchsanstalt (HSVA) in Hamburg. It was decided by the committee that since the IAHR was a research society, the ice committee would hold a symposium every two years, on even numbered years. This would eliminate any conflict with POAC, which met on every other odd year. This will also help maintain the quality of papers at both conferences.
The committee, through R. Gerard, suggested that a newsletter be published two times every year. Gerard volunteered to be the editor, and it was announced that members should submit news items to him to include especially publications that were unavailable in the open literature.
J. Schwarz reported that approximately 200 individuals attended and that 85 papers were presented. In summary, the Hamburg Symposium was a huge success. The technical papers and the social program were both outstanding. The symposium included a tour and celebration at the new HSVA Ice Laboratory. It was so new that it had not yet been dedicated.
G. Ashton reported that the progress of the book was such that it should be available at the 1986 Iowa Symposium.
The new committee members elected were L. Billfalk (Sweden), K. Davar (Canada), K. Hirayama (Japan), W. Majewski (Poland), I. Meyer (Hungary) and E. Tesaker (Norway). The committee secretary, J.-C. Tatinclaux, reported that hereafter three new members would be elected at each symposium. G. Frankenstein was nominated as the Ice Committee chairman. J.-C. Tatinclaux was re-elected as secretary.
The individual working groups reported on their progress. Each report was included in Volume IV of the proceedings.
Iowa City, Iowa (18-22 August 1986) The 8th IAHR Ice Symposium was held at the University of Iowa and chaired by R. Ettema. Approximately 200 attended and 80 technical papers were presented. The big news at the Symposium was that the book, "River and Lake Ice Engineering", was available. The book was a great accomplishment for the IAHR Committee on Ice Problems and all of its active members. A special thanks was given to G. Ashton, Editor, for all his efforts in preparing the book.
The committee recommended that all future working group reports be published separately from the proceedings so that they would be available to students at reduced or no cost. The newsletter was discussed and the first addition was scheduled for distribution in January 1987. It was at the Iowa Symposium that the committee proposed a name change. The recommended name was the Section for Ice Research and Engineering, which was adopted by the attendees. The three new committee members elected were G. Timco (Canada), M. Lapparanta (Finland), and V. Ivanov (USSR).
J.-C. Tatinclaux, secretary, campaigned to members to sponsor future symposiums. His efforts were successful in that a schedule for future meetings was completed through 1996. The next, 1988, meeting would be held in Sapporo, Japan; 1990 Finland; 1992 Canada; 1994 Norway and 1996 China. In addition, there would be an ice seminar held during the XXIII Congress in Ottawa in August 1989.
Sapporo, Japan (22-26 August 1988) The 9th IAHR Ice Symposium was held at the University of Hokkaido and chaired by H. Saeki. The Sapporo meeting was similar to the Iowa City event in that the organizers had no idea on the number of researchers who would travel that distance to attend. Like Iowa City, approximately 200 individuals attended this outstanding symposium. Prof. H. Saeki and Prof. K. Hirayama performed an outstanding effort in organizing both the technical and social programs. The newsletter was again discussed and J.-C. Tatinclaux and G. Frankenstein volunteered to act as editors if they received cooperation from the membership. Two publications have been distributed and the third is on its way. Four new committee members were elected at Sapporo: H.T.Shen (USA), J. Wuebben (USA), E. Wessels (Germany) and J.C. Sun (China).
Each working group reported on its progress and included a report in Volume III of the proceedings. The group on ice forces completed its fourth state-of-the-art report, which was published as Special Report 89-5 by CRREL.
In April 1989 Prof. W. Majewski, chairman of the ice committee, sponsored a European meeting. Technical papers were presented and proceedings were published. Eight present and former committee members attended, along with many of those who were interested in ice problems.
W. Majewski (Poland) was elected chairman of the ice committee and J. Wuebben (USA) as secretary.
Espoo, Finland (19-23 August 1990)
The 10th IAHR Ice Symposium was held at the University of Helsinki and was chaired by Dr. M. Maattanen. Dr. Prins, secretary general of IAHR attended the symposium and briefed the attendees on IAHR in general, and their activities worldwide.
An Ice Research and Engineering Section award, proposed by L. Gerard, was established. The award would be announced at the closing of a symposium and then awarded at the next one. The award would be given by the Section to recognize significant achievements in ice research and engineering.
At the suggestion of Chairman Majewski the committee established co-opted members. They would serve for a two-year term which could be extended for an additional two years. The committee then proposed that L. Gerard and G. Frankenstein be elected to membership in this new category.
The committee recommended to the Banff organizing committee that they considered setting up a student paper competition.
Banff, Alberta, Canada (15-19 June 1992)
The 11th IAHR Ice Symposium was held in Banff, Alberta and was organized by Larry Gerard. Unfortunately Larry passed away in November 1991. K. Croasdale took over as the chairman with a lot of help from his strong committee.
The first Ice Research and Engineering A ward was presented. The recipient of this first award was Dr. Bernard Michel. During the symposium, Dr. Michel had a heart attach and stroke, so was unable to receive the award in person. One of his sons received the award for him.
A student paper award was established to be awarded at each future symposium. Professor Mauri Maattanen was elected as chairman of the Section.
Trondheim, Norway (23-26 August 1994)
The 12th IAHR Ice Symposium was held at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology and was chaired by S. Loset, with E. Tesaker being the chair of the scientific committees. There were 112 participants from 14 countries.
The first Student Paper Award was presented during the
Symposium’s Closing session. The winner was Melanie Schacter of the University of Manitoba. The title of her paper was “Parameters influencing ice arch formation.”
G. Frankenstein was selected to receive the Ice Research and Engineering Award. This award was presented at the next symposium in Beijing.
Beijing, China (27-30 August 1996)
The 13th IAHR Ice Symposium was held in Beijing, China. Yang, Xiaoqing was the secretary general of the symposium and Li Guifen was the Chairman of the organizing committee. There were 145 delegates and 126 papers accepted for presentation.
Fumihiro Hara from Hokkaido University received the Student Paper Award for his paper titled "A field survey of an ice jam in the Hassamo River and a comparison with the results of model tests".
G. Frankenstein was awarded the second Ice Research and Engineering Award, Professor Hirayama was elected Chairman of the section and K. Kato the Secretary.
Potsdam, NY, (26-31 July 1998)
The 14th IAHR Ice Symposium was held at Clarkson University and chaired by Hung Tao Shen. Over 170 engineers and scientists from 15 countries attended.
Student paper awards were presented to Daniel Iliescu (Dartmouth College) and David Kerr (Clarkson University). The committee agreed to develop guidelines for future such awards.
Mauri Maattanen was proposed by the committee to receive the Ice Research and Engineering Award, to be presented at Gdansk Symposium in 2000.
New committee members elected were Ian Jordaan (Canada) and Pat Langhorne (New Zealand). Hung Tao Shen was proposed and nominated as the new co-opted member.
Gdansk, Poland (28 August l September 2000)
The 15th IAHR Ice Symposium was held in Gdansk and chaired by W. Majewski. 57 participants from 12 countries attended the symposium.
Mauri Maattanen was awarded the third Ice Research and Engineering Award. Hung Tao Shen was elected Chairman of the Section and John Dempsey the Secretary. Other new members elected were S. daly (USA), M. Gladkov (Russia), H. Wu (China), and K. Hirayama (Japan, co-opted).
The Student Paper Award went to Knut V, Hoyland from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology for the paper “Measurements of consolidation in three first-year ridges.”
Dunedin, New Zealand (1-6 December 2002)
The 16th IAHR Ice Symposium was held in Dunedin, New Zealand at the University of Otago and chaired by P.J. Langhorne. There were approximately 150 registrants, 20 accompanying persons, with 146 oral and 30 poster presentations.
George Ashton was awarded the fourth Ice Research and Engineering Award. The Ice Committee chose Hiroshi Saeki as the next recipient of this award, to be presented at the St Petersburg Symposium in 2004.
The Student Paper Award was presented to Jan L.Lieser of
the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research,Bremerhaven, Germany for the paper (with P.Lemke) entitled “A sea ice forecast model for the arctic ocean.”
Newly nominated members of the Ice Committee were Christian Haas (Germany), Faye Hicks (Canada), Tuomo Karna (Finland), Anund Kvambekk (Norway), Victoria Lytle (Australia), Takahiro Takeuchi (Japan).
The importance of a newsletter was raised again, especially to keep the membership fully informed about the activities of the Ice Section. This concern led to the establishment of this web-site www.iahrice.com