51695 Albertus makes no mention of the matter in his De eucharistia and Com. on the Sentences. Peter Rokyzana, at the council of Basel in the fifteenth century, appealed to him in his argument for giving the cup to the laity.
61696 Th. Aq., III. 80. 12, Migne, IV. 808 sq., nihil derogat perfectioni hujus sacr., si populus sumat corpus sine sanguine dummodo sacerdos consecrans sumat utrumque. So also Bonaventura, Sent., IV. 11. 2.
71697 The synod of Lambeth, 1281, seems to have forbidden the cup to the laity; the synod of Exeter, 1287, to have positively enjoined it.
81698 See Migne, 89. 525. For an interesting account of the different shapes of the chalice, see Enc. Brit., XIX. 185 sq. The earlier chalices had two handles and a small base, those of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries no handles and a broad base. Some of the later chalices were very capacious.
91699 See the interesting details given by Smend, pp. 18 sqq.
01700 Vinum purum ... ut facilius sacrum corpus glutiat. Smend, who `gives elaborate details, pp. 43-75.
1701 The object was to prevent the loss of any of the sacred element by expectoration or vomiting, per sputum vel vomitum. Chrysostom made a recommendation of this sort, Smend, 44.
21702 Sent., IV. 11, 2, 2, Peltier’s ed., V. 496.
31703 Caesar of Heisterb., Dial., IV. 16.
41704 Dial., IX. 29, Strange’s ed., II. 186.
51705 IX. 3.
61706 IX. 35, Strange’s ed., II. 191.
71707 Dial., IX. 15.
81708 See Kaufmann, trans. of Caesar, II. 208-210.
91709 De la Marche’s ed., pp. 266 sq.
01710 Duns Scotus had spoken of the "satisfaction which is the doing of a laborious work," quae est executio operis laboriosi. Report IV. 16. 1, quoted by Schwane, p. 669.
1711 Tertullian, de Poen, XII. So also Jerome. See the Lombard, Sent., XIV. 1, Migne, 868; Bonaventura, Sent., XIV. 1, Peltier’s ed., V. 553; Brevil., VI. 10, VII. 323; Th. Aq., III. 84. 6, Migne, IV. 862; Supplem., VI. 3. 936; Alb. Magnus, In Sent., Borgnet’s ed., XXIX. 404 sq.
21712 The Lombard devotes two and a half times the space to penance that he does to the eucharist; Migne’s ed., pp. 868-899, as against pp. 856-868 on the eucharist; Hugo of St. Victor, Migne’s ed., 550-578, as against 462-471 on the eucharist; Th. Aquinas, Migne’s ed., 852-1023, as against 695-852 on the eucharist, and Bonaventura nearly four times as much space devoting to penance, Peltier’s ed., vol. V. 533-709, vol. VI. 1-129, and to the eucharist, vol. V. 415-533.
31713 Absolvitur homo a peccato, et reunitur ecclesiae et reconciliatur Christo, mediante clavi sacerdotali, Bonaventura, Brevil., VI. 10, Peltier’s ed., VII. 323.
41714 The Rheims Version translates the word "do penance," though not uniformly, thereby utterly confusing the English reader who involuntarily puts into the New Testament word the Church’s sacramental invention.
51715 Poenitentia dicitur et sacramentum et virtus mentis, Lombard XIV. l, p. 869; Th. Aq., Migne, IV. 850 sqq. While we use two words, "repentance" and "penance," the Schoolmen use only the one word, poenitentia, thus mystifying the mind as if repentance of heart, or metanoiva, did not include the entire meaning of the original word.
61716 Sent., XVII. 1, Migne, p. 880. The finished sacramental theory of penance owed not a little to the tract de vera et falsa poenitentia, composed perhaps in the twelfth century and foisted upon Augustine. Gratian inserted nearly all of it in his Decretals, as did Peter the Lombard. According to Lea, I. 210, the work was still quoted as Augustine’s as late as the seventeenth century. Lea regards it as the composition of two authors of the fifth and twelfth centuries.
71717 This is shown by Müller’s notable work,Der Umschwung, etc. Abaelard’s statement presenting the old view, and the statement of Thomas Aquinas representing the new view, are given in Köhler, pp. 11-18.
81718 Summa, III. 84. 7; Supplem., VIII. 1, Migne, IV. 864, 943.
91719 Lombard, XVI. 1, Migne, p. 877; Alb. Magnus, Borgnet’s ed., XXIX. 536. Th. Aq., 90. 1, 2, Migne, IV. 912 sq., and Bonaventura, Brevil., VI.10, Peltier’s ed., VII. 323, also call the first three "the integral parts" of penance. So also Abaelard, Ethica, 17-24.
01720 See Schwane’s strong condemnation of this opinion, which he declares to be beyond a doubt the Lombard’s, p. 662.
1721 Timor servilis principium est attritionis, Alex. of Hales quoted by Schwane, p. 664. Th. Aquinas, Supplem., I. 2, Migne, IV. 919, is much more moderate than Alexander, Bonaventura, and Duns. Caesar of Heisterbach calls "servile fear a gift of God," Koeniger, p. 31. At the close of the Middle Ages, Gabriel Biel took the position that attrition is changed by confession and absolution into contrition. See Seeberg, Dogmengesch., II. 121.
21722 See Hahn, p. 413; Schwane, p. 666. The council of Trent, XIV. 4 (Schaff’s Creeds, II. 145 sq.), adopted the word "attrition" and defined it as an imperfect contrition. The doctrine of attritio formed a centre of discussion in the warm debate over indulgences started by Janssen’s work and participated in by Kolde, Kawerau, Dieckhoff, etc. Harnmack is very severe upon the doctrine as the dry rot in the Catholic system, Dogmengesch., II. 482, 504 sqq.
31723 Aquinas quotes Augustine’s definition, Supplem., VII.1, IX. 3, Migne, IV. 940, 954.
41724 Migne, IV. 939.
51725 Th. Aq., III. 87. 1, Migne, IV. 890; Supplem., VI. 1, 3, VIII. 3, Migne, IV. 934, 936, 945. With characteristic exhaustiveness, Thomas goes into the question whether a man can confess sins he has never committed, Migne IV. 936.
61726 In Sent., IV. 17. 2, Peltier’s ed., V. 674, ante hanc determinationem hoc non erat heresis, etc. Albertus Magnus also declared it was not sufficient to confess to God only, Borgnet’s ed. XXIX. 603.
71727 Th. Aq., Supplem., VII. 1, 2, Migne, IV. 943 sq.; Bonaventura, Sent., XVII. 3. 1, Peltier’s ed., V. 695. Caesar of Heisterbach speaks of confession to an unbeliever as efficacious in the article of death, provided the unbeliever does not ridicule the sacrament, Koeniger, p. 73.
81728 Fourth Lat., can. 21, synods of Treves, 1227, Canterbury, 1236, etc.
91729 See Hefele, VI, 30.
01730 Supplem., XV. 3, Migne, IV. 978. Duns Scotus (quoted by Seeberg, 412) says, satisfaction is the voluntary return of an equivalent redditio voluntaria aequivalentis.
1731 Schwane, p. 670.
21732 Potestas solvendi et ligandi, i.e.ostendendi homines ligatos vel solutos, etc. IV. 18, 6, Migne, p. 887.
31733 See the form used by Honorius of Autun about 1130, indulgentiam et absolutionem de omnibus ... tribuat vobis Pater et Filius et Sp. Sanctus et custodiet vos a peccatis et ab omnibus malis et post hanc vitam perducat vos in consortium omnium sanctorum. Lea, I. 206.
41734 Summa, III. 84, 3, Migne, IV. 857. It was not sufficient to say, "The onmipotent God absolve thee," or "God bestow on thee absolution," etc.
51735 De sacr., II. 14, 8, Migne, 176. 568 .... De potestate ligandi et solvendi.
61736 So the synods of Treves 1227, Canterbury 1236, London 1237, etc. The unchastity of nuns came under the bishop’s jurisdiction.
71737 Si non potest remittere quantum ad poenam temporalem, nullo modo remittere potest quod omnino contrarium dictus evangelii. Supplem., VIII. 2, Migne, IV. 988; Sent., IV. 20, 1, 1-5.
81738 Beringer-Schneider, the chief Rom. Cath. writer on Indulgences, p. 2, defines an indulgence "as an act of mercy and goodness, a salvation by the order of the Church, an act of grace and forgiveness."
91739 Kreuzablass, etc., pp. 10 sqq. Gottlob, p. xv, says indulgences occupy a central place in the political and religious life of the last three centuries of the Middle Ages.
01740 Supplem., xxv-xxvii, Migne, IV. 1013 sqq. Lea devotes the entire third volume of his Hist. of Confession to a noteworthy discussion of indulgences.
1741 See for the text Köhler, pp. 5 sq.
21742 relaxatio, remissio, indulgentia de injuncta poenitentia, etc. See Brieger for these expressions, and Brieger and Lea for numerous examples of papal indulgences of this sort.
31743 Ethica, XL. See Köhler, p. 8.
41744 Potthast, 3799, 12938, 14122.
51745 Luard’s ed., IV. 90, 643.
61746 See Jusseraud, Engl. Wayfaring Life in the M. Ages, London, 1890, pp. 41 sqq., for many cases of indulgence for building bridges.
71747 Sabatier, F. Bartholi de Assisio tractatus de indulgentia S. Mariae de Portiuncula, 1900.
81748 See p. 366, Lea, III. 270 sqq., and Wetzer-Welte, Sabbatina.
91749 Summa, IV. 83.1, relaxatio poenae debitae pro peccato, quoted by Brieger.
01750 Th. Aq., Summa, III. 83, 1. quorum meritorum tanta est copia quod omnem poenam debitam nunc viventibus excedunt. See Gottlob, pp. 271 sqq.
1751 Quanto plures ex ejus applicatione trahuntur ad justitiam, tanto magis accresit ipsorum cumulus meritorum. See Friedberg, Corp. Jur. can., II. 1304 sq.
21752 Vere poenitentibus et confessis was the common formula.
31753 Dr. Lea, III. 63, has shown the significance of this document.
41754 Köhler, p. 27, quae securam et mundatam animam ab omni culpa et poena fecerunt.
51755 See Sabatier, Fr. F. Bartholi, etc., in part reprinted by Köhler, pp. 27 sqq.
61756 See a number of instances in Brieger and especially Lea, III. 55-80. Lea quotes Piers the Ploughman’s Crede to show that this expressed the popular belief.
The power of the Apostells they posen in speche
For to sellen the synnes for silver other mede
And pulchye a pena the purple assoileth
And a culpa also, that they may cachen
Money other money wothe and mede to fonge.
One of the most striking instances of this form of indulgence is the absolutio plenaria a poena et culpa issued by Alexander V. to the members of the council of Pisa, Von der Hardt, Conc. Const. III. 688.
71757 In contrast to de fore dei, God’s tribunal. See Lea, II. 296-371, and Brieger.
81758 Lea, III. 595 sq., and the instructions of Albert, abp. of Mainz, quoted by Brieger, nec opus est, quod contribuentes pro animabus in capsam sint corde contriti et ore confessi.
91759 Schaff, Creeds, II. 205. Harnack, Hist. of Doctr., II. 511 sqq., expresses his moral indignation over the mediaeval theory of penance. Of attritio, sacramentum poenitentiae, and indulgentia, he exclaims, das ist die katholische Trias! "That is the Catholic triad!"
01760 Legenda aurea, under All Souls and Francis d’Assisi. Temple Classics ed, VI. 113, V. 231.
1761 Supplem., XXIX. 3, Migne, IV. 1027.
21762 Th. Aq., Supplem., XXXII. 4, Migne. IV. 1038; Bonaventura, Brevil., VI. 11, Peltier’s ed., VII. 326.
31763 Cologne, 1279; Lambeth, 1330, etc.
41764 P. Lombardus, Sent., IV. XXIV. 9; Hugo of St. Victor, De sacr., II. 2, 5; Th. Aq., Supplem., XXXVII. 2, Migne, IV. 1056; Bonavent., Brevil., VI. 12.
51765 Per modum complementi superponitur episcopatus, etc., Bonavent., Brevil., VI. 12. P. Lombardus, Sent., XXIV. 9, Migne, p. 904, speaks of a fourfold rank of bishops, viz. patriarchs, archbishops, metropolitans, and bishops. These, he says, are not orders but "the names of dignities and offices." The teaching of Duns Scotus is uncertain. In one place he asserts the episcopate must be a distinct order, the eighth, because the bishop alone can administer several of the sacraments. See Seeberg, p. 441. On the other hand, he quotes Jerome to show that the episcopate was instituted by the Church and is not a matter of divine law. See Schwane, p. 684. It is still unsettled by canon law whether the episcopate is a separate order or not. See Friedberg, Kirchenrecht, p. 150. The council of Trent did not formally decide the question, though it speaks of the hierarchy of bishops, priests, and deacons. See Schaff, Creeds, II. 186 sqq. Innocent III. placed the subdeacon among the major orders. Friedberg, p. 150. According to Philip Hergenröther, Kathol. Kirchenrecht, pp. 208 sq., the episcopate is at the present time universally regarded in the Rom. Cath. Church as a distinct clerical order.
61766 Th. Aq., Supplem., XL. 1, Migne, 1071; Bonaventura, Brevil., VI. 12, Peltier’s ed., 327. The synods of London 1102, Soissons 1078, Rouen 1190, Fourth Lateran 1215, etc., decreed the tonsure must not be concealed.
71767 Th. Aq., Supplem., XXXIV. 4, 5, Migne, 1045 sq., efficacia principaliter residet penes eum qui sacramentum dispensat.
81768 Schwane, p. 681, says there was no development in the ritual of ordination during the Middle Ages. Thomas Aquinas refers to the imposition of hands only incidentally in his chapters on penance. Summa, III. 84, 3, Migne, IV. 850. The council of Florence, 1438, enjoined that the chalice and paten should be given at the consecration to some of the orders.
91769 Th. Aq., Supplem., XXXVI. I, Migne, IV. 1051, si malus ordinatur nihilominus ordinationem habet.
01770 For example the 9th (Hefele, V. 380) and 11th oecumenical Councils pronounced such judgment, naming the anti-popes. So also the synod of Piacenza, 1095, which declared invalid the ordinations of Wibert and other bishops.
1771 Th. Aq., Supplem., XXXIX. 2, Migne, 1065. Episcopus in haeresin lapsus ... non amisit potestatem quam habebat ordines conferendi. Thomas is most emphatic on this question and goes on: Omnis protestas quae datur cum aliqua consecratione, nulla casu contingente tolli protest, etc .... Unde cum episcopalisprotestas cum quadam consecratione detur, oportet quod perpetuo maneat quantumcumque aliquis peccet, vel ab ecclesia praecidatur.
21772 Th. Aq., Summa, III. 65, 2, Migne, IV. 598, quia minimum habet de spiritualitate.
31773 Abaelard, Theol Christ., 31, conjugium non confert aliquod donum sicut cetera sacramenta faciunt sed tamen mali remedium est ... datur propter incontinentiam refraenendam. Hugo of St. Vict., De sacr., II. 11. 3, Migne, p.481, conjugium ante peccatum ad officium, post peccatum ad remedium. Alanus ab Insulis, Reg. Theol., 114, Migne’s ed., p. 681, conjugium sacramentum remedii contra incontinentiam. So also, Bonaventura, Brevil., Vl. 13; Th. Aq., Supplem., XLII. 2, Migne, IV. 1084; Summa, LXI. 2, Migne, p. 558.
41774 Th. Aq., Supplem., XLII. 1, Migne, IV. 1083, benedictio sacerdotis quae est quoddam sacramentale.
51775 These were supposed to be the "years of discretion." Supplem., LVIII. 5, Migne, IV. 1165. The synod of Nismes, 1096, forbade the marriage of girls under twelve. For cases of the marriage of princesses under twelve, see Eicken, pp. 448 sq.
61776 "Just as the offspring of animals follow the nature of the mother. " Thomas instances the mule, Supplem., LII. 4, Migne, 1127.
71777 This refers to a marriage in which one party is a Catholic and the other a heretic, Jew, or infidel.
81778 Synods of London 1102, 1125, 1200, Fourth Lateran 1215, Treves 1227, Magdeburg 1261, etc. The synod of London, 1200, forbade either man or wife taking a long journey without the other’s consent. Thomas Aquinas took the position that marriages between a believer and an unbeliever are not to be allowed because they prevent the education and training of children in the worship of God, which is one of the chief objects of the sacrament. Supplem., LIX. 1, Migne, IV. 1167.
91779 Th. Aq., Supplem., LXI. 2, Migne, IV. 1177. Thomas asserts that, before the carnalis copula takes place, the bond is a spiritual one and it may be broken by either party becoming spiritually dead, dying to the world and living unto God in a convent. After copulation the bond between man and wife is a carnal tie—vinculum carnale —and can be broken only by the death of the body.
01780 Th. Aq., Supplem., LXII. 5, Migne, IV. 1184, non licet uni, altero vivente, ad aliam copulam transire. Either party may, however, enter a convent without seeking the consent of the other.
1781 Carnalibus appetitis infecta, de conceptu. II. Migne, 158. 434
31783 Post peccatum non valet fieri carnalis copula absque libidinosa concupiscentia quae semper vitium est et etiam culpa. P. Lomb., Sent., II. 31, 3.
41784 Etsi anima non traducatur, quia virtus seminis non potest causare animam rationalem. Th. Aquinas, Summa, II. 81, 1, Migne, II. 629.
51785 Carentia ... defectus originalis justitiae estoriginal peccatum. Schwane, p. 401; Th. Aq., Summa, II. 81, 5.
61786 Spoliatio in gratuitis et vulneratio in naturalibus.
71787 Summa, II. 82, 3, materialiter quidem est concupiscentia, formaliter vero est defectus orig. just. Vitium and corruptio are the words most frequently used for the moral character of sin. Hugo of St. Victor, De sacr., I. 28, Migne, 176. 299.
81788 Peccatum orig. non contrahitur a matre sed a patre, etc. Summa, II. 81, 5.
91789 P. Lomb., II. 42, 9; Alb. Magnus, Borgnet’s ed., XXVII. 663 sqq., etc.
01790 P. Lomb., II. 42, enumerates them as inanis gloria, ira, invidia, acedia vel tristitia, avaritia, gastrimargia, luxuria. Albertus Magnus skilfully discusses whether there could be any more than seven. In Sent., II. 42, Borgnet’s ed., XXVII. 662 sqq.
1791 Utrum aequalis fieret multiplicatio virorum et mulierum. In Sent., II. 20, 2, Peltier’s ed., III. 85. The three reasons which Bonaventura adduces to account for the differences in sex will have to be read in the original. He enters into the subject with the precision of statement and detail which is a characteristic of scholastic discussion. It is fair to say that he pronounced the question a difficult one and one upon which the physicians and natural philosophers of his day were much divided.