51585 Döllinger regards the story as open to grave suspicion because, at the time at which the disputation is set, there was no conflict between the two orders. Wetzer-Welte, X. p. 2129.
61586 This is the view of such experts in the history of mediaeval theology as Schwane, p. 78, etc., and Stöckl. Stöckl, II. 868, declines to compare Duns with Thomas as a trustworthy teachers and says that Duns’ only service to theology was through his polemics, which started an impulse to search for a firmer basis of certainty for doctrinal truth in reason and revelation.
71587 pp. 33, 668, 672, 677. Ritschl was a student of Duns and praises his clearness of thought so long as he keeps free from syllogisms. He kept the Schoolman’s Works constantly within reach. O. Ritschl, A. Ritschl’s Leben, II. 483.
81588 See the reference to the Reportata, Schwane, p. 78,
91589 Quoted in Dict. of Natl. Biog.XVI, 219,
01590 In spite of this, Seeberg, pp. 683-685, tries to make out that in his conception of God, Luther, howbeit "negatively," was influenced by Duns’ view of the divine will. Luther certainly did not acknowledge any such indebtedness.
1591 MSS. of other works are given by Ehrle, Zur Biogr. Heinrichs von Ghent, in Archiv für Lit. u. K. gesch., 1885, pp. 400 sq. See Schwane, pp. 71-76, etc., and Wetzer-Welte, V. 1704 sqq.
21592 Publ. at Venice, 1489-1509, Brescia, 1591, etc. MSS. exist in Oxford and elsewhere. See Little, Grey Friars of Oxford; Kingsford, in Dict. of Nat. Biog., XXXVII. 356 sq.; Seeberg, pp. 16-33.
31593 Bridges’ ed., p. xxiii.
41594 Opus majus, Bridges’ ed., I. 152, 176.
51595 I. 323.
61596 As an illustration of some of Bacon’s chemical and medical advice the following receipt may be given. He says a combination of gold, pearl, flower of sea dew, spermaceti, aloes, bone of stag’s heart, flesh of Tyrian snake, and Ethiopian dragon, properly prepared in due portions, might promote longevity to a length hitherto unimagined, Op. Maj., II. 206.
71597 Op. maj., I. 385 sqq.
81598 Bridges’ ed., Op. maj., I. pp. xxv., 23.
91599 Op. maj., II. 303 sqq.
01600 Bridges’ ed., 1. 66-96.
1601 Bridges’ ed., II. 366-404.
21602 I. 303, II. 367 sq.
31603 I. 41.
41604 I. 56-59.
51605 I. 37.
61606 I. 28-30.
71607 I. 33, Una scientia dominatrix aliarum.
81608 I p. lxxxix.
91609 From St. Francis to Dante, p. 293.
01610 Some idea of the importance attached to the subject of the sacraments may be derived from the space given by the Schoolmen to their treatment. Hugo of St. Victor gives 440 columns, Migne’s ed., 176. 183-617, the Lombard 90 columns out of the 462 of his Sentences, Bonaventura 1003 pages out of 3875 of his System of Theology, Peltier’s ed. and Thomas Aquinas 670 columns out of 4854 of his Summa, Migne, IV. 543-1217. Dr. Charles Hodge’s System. Theol. devotes 207 pages out of its 2260 to the sacraments, Dr. Shedd’s Dogm. Theol. 25 pages out of 1348, Dr. E. V. Gerhart’s Institutes 84 pages out of 1666, and Dr. A. H. Strong’s Sys. Theol. 30 out of 600 pages.
1611 Others about the time of Peter the Lombard had given the number as seven, as Rolandus (afterwards Alexander III.) in his Sentences and Otto of Bamberg in a sermon, 1158, reported by his biographer Herbord.
21612 Migne, 176. 127 sqq. Hugo follows up the treatment of the five sacraments with a treatment of marriage, but I do not see that he calls it a sacrament.
31613 De sacr., II. 9, Migne, 176. 473. The aqua aspersionis, or water of sprinkling mixed with salt, Hugo derived from Alexander, fifth pope from Peter. The sprinkling of ashes on the head, susceptio cineris, he placed under "the minor sacraments," but in his definition calls it an "ecclesiastical rite," as he does also the use of palm branches on Palm Sunday; Migne, 176. 423.
41614 Migne, IV. 597, 1025.
51615 Hergenröther, Kathol. Kirchenrecht., pp. 667 sq.
61616 Alb. Magnus has a long treatment, Cur sint sacr. septem, In IV. Sent., I. 2, vol. XXIX. 6-11.
71617 SeeBonaventura, Brevil., Vl. 3, Peltier’s ed., VII. 314; Thomas Aq.,Summa, Migne’s ed., IV. 594. sq.
81618 Bonaventura, Brevil., VI. 3; Th. Aq., Summa, III. 63. 1, Migne’s ed., IV. 571.
91619 Th. Aq., Summa, III. 62. 6, Migne, IV. 569, Sacramenta veteris legis non habebant in se aliquam virtutem qua operarentur ad conferendam gratiam justificantem. See for quotations from the Sentences of Thomas, Loofs, p. 301.
01620 In IV. Sent., I. 21, vol. XXIX. 37.
1621 Abaelard, Introd. ad Theol., Migne’s ed., p. 984, had quoted this definition. Albertus Magnus and other Schoolmen subsequent to Hugo, after quoting Augustine, usually quote Hugo, e.g. Peter the Lombard and Th. Aq, III. 66. 1.
21622 De sacr., I. 9. 4, Migne, 176. 325.
31623 Brevil., VI., Peltier’s ed., VII. 311-330. The Lombard, Alb. Magnus, Th. Aquinas, etc., also use the illustration of medicine.
41624 Interiorem sacramentorum effectum operatur Christus, III. 64. 3, Migne, IV. 583.
51625 Sacr. justificant et gratiam conferunt ex opere operato. See references in Schwane, p 581.
61626 Summa, III. 62. 1, Migne, IV. 562, causa vero instrumentalis non agit per virtutem suae formae sed solum per motum quo movetur a principali agente.
71627 Migne, IV. 568 sq. Virtus passionis Christi copulatur nobis per fidem et sacramenta.
81628 Ecclesia sicut sacramenta a Christo accepit sic ad fidelium salutem dispensat. Breviloq., VI. 5, Peltier’s ed., VII. 316.
91629 See Seeberg, Duns Scotus, pp. 356-358.
01630 Non requiritur bonus motus qui mereatur gratiam sed sufficit quod suscipiens non ponat obicem. In Sent., IV. 1. 6, quoted by Schwane, p. 581. Nisi impediat indispositio, quoted by Seeberg, p. 343.
1631 Susceptio est dispositio sufficiens ad gratiam. Seeberg, p. 349. For the differences between the Thomists and Scotists on the sacraments, see also Harnack, II. 483
21632 Ministri ecclesiae possunt sacramenta conferre etiamsi sint mali. Th. Aq., Migne’s ed., IV. 586. 821, 824.
31633 Ministri non gratiam conferunt sua virtute, sed hoc facit Christus sua potestate per eos sicut per quaedam instrumenta. Th. Aq., III. 64. 5, Migne, IV. 586.
41634 Seeberg, p. 350.
51635 Brevil., Peltier’s ed., p. 317. The illustration is carried out at length and is very interesting as an example of pious mediaeval homiletics.
61636 Th. Aq., III. 65. 4, Migne, IV. 601.
71637 See also Duns Scotus, see Seeberg, p. 338.
81638 De sacr., II. 9, 5, Migne, 176. 325. potuit Deus hominem salvare si ista non instituisset, sed homo nullatenus salvari posset si ista contemneret.
91639 Janua omnium aliorum sacramentorum. Bonavent., Brevil. VII., Peltier’s ed., p. 318; Th. Aq., Summa, III. 62. 6, Migne, IV. 569; Supplem. XXXV. 1, Migne, IV. 1047.
01640 Baptismus qui est regeneratio hominis in vitam spiritualem. Th. Aq., III. 66. 9; 67. 3; 68. 9; 72. 1, Migne, IV. 617, 626, 646, 678.
1641 Omne peccatum per baptismum tollitur. Th. Aq., 69. 1, Migne, p. 652. Baptismus institutus est contra vulnus originalis peccati. Alanus ab Insulis cont. haer., I. 39, 43, Migne, 210. 345, 347.
21642 Brevil. VI., Peltier’s ed., p. 318; Th. Aq., III. 66. 6, Migne, p. 611, quicquid desit ad plenam invocationem trinitatis tollit integritatem baptismi.
31643 They were allowed to use the vernacular in the ceremony. Synods of Treves, 1227, Mainz, 1233. And priests were instructed to teach laymen the baptismal ceremony in the vulgar tongue that they might use it if the exigency arose. Fritzlar, 1243, Hefele, V. 1099. A child taken from its mother after her death, and itself dead, was to be buried unbaptized in unconsecrated ground Treves, 1310.
41644 Th. Aq., III. 67. 4 sq., Migne, IV. 628 sq.
51645 Pueri non se ipsos sed per actum eccl. salutem suscipiunt. Th. Aq., III. 68. 9, Migne, 646; Bonavent., Brevil. VII. Peltier’s ed., VII. 320; Duns Scotus, see Seeberg, p. 360.
61646 P. Lomb., IV. 6. 2, Migne, II. 853. Th. Aq., Migne, IV. 649, and Duns Scotus (Seeberg, p. 360) agree that if the head of the infant protrude from the womb, it may be baptized, for the head is the seat of the immortal agent.
71647 Th. Aq., Migne, IV. 648. One reason Duns gives is that the children of such Jews, if they are well educated, turn out to be good Christians (vere fideles) in the third and fourth generations. Seeberg, p. 364.
81648 Summa, V. 6, Migne, 176. 132.
91649 In Sent., IV. 4, 3. 3, Paris ed., XVI. 406, 410.
01650 Seeberg p. 359, Summa, III. 66. 7, Migne, IV. 613 sq.; P. Lomb., IV. 3, 8, Migne, II. 845; Bonav., Brevil. VII., Peltier’s ed., p. 319, Duns Scotus. In IV. Sent., vol. XVI. 272. Gregory IX., on being asked by the archbishop of Drontheim whether a certain baptism administered with beer was valid, water not being at hand, replied in the negative. Potthast, 11,048. The synod of Aurillac, 1278, pronouced sweet, salt, or melted snow water proper material.
1651 Quamvis tutius sit baptizare per modum immersionis, potest tamen fieri baptismus per modum aspersionis vel etiam per modum effusionis.
21652 Confirmatio est quasi ultima consummatio baptismi. Th. Aq., III. 72. 11, Migne, IV. 693
31653 Th. Aq., III. 73. 9, quotes Ezek. 3:8, "I have made thy forehead hard against their foreheads." He commends the custom whereby the candidate for confirmation is supported by another, for "though he be an adult in body he is not yet an adult spiritually."
41654 Quasi omnis devotio in ecclesia est in ordine ad illud sacramentum. Duns Scotus as quoted by Seeberg, Dogmengesch., II. 113.
61656 Corpus et sanguis in sacramento altaris sub speciebus panis et vini veraciter continentur, transubstantiatis pane in corpore et vino in sanguinem potestate divina.
71657 Migne, 171. 776.
81658 See Schwane, p. 656.
91659 Schwane, p. 641, and Rocholl under Rupert in Herzog, XV. 229 sqq
01660 Th. Aq., III. 73. 4, Migne, IV. 701; Bonaventura, Brev. VI. 9, Peltier’s ed., 322, eucharistiae dedit in sacrificium oblationis, et sacramentum communionis et viaticum refectionis.
1661 Hostia salutaris. Eph. 5:2, is quoted where the word hostia is used in the Vulgate for Christ’s sacrifice.
21662 De euchar. vol. XIII. 668. Th. Aquinas, III. 74. 1, Migne, IV. 705, speaks of the Cataphrygae and Pepuziani as mixing with the dough of the sacramental bread the blood of children gotten by pricking their bodies, and also of the Aquarii who, from considerations of temperance, used only water.
31663 He defined transubstantiation as transitus totalis substantiae in substantiam. Seeberg, p. 378.
41664 Th. Aq., III. 75. 1, Migne, IV. 716, neque sensu, neque intellectu deprehendi potest sed sola fide. Bonaventura says, Brevil. VI 9, in specierum utraque continetur totaliter, non circumscriptibiliter, nec localiter sed sacramentaliter totus Christus.
51665 Quamvis non sint substantia, habent virtutem substantiae. Th. Aq., III. 77. 6, Migne, IV. 755.
61666 Th. Aq., III. 77. 7, Migne, IV. 756; Bonaventura, Brevil., 322.
71667 Non solum caro sed totum corpus Christi, scilicet ossa, nervi et alia hujusmodi. Th. Aq., 76. 1, Migne, IV. 732. He lays stress upon the word "body," which is made up of constituent parts, and the "flesh" of John 6:56, he explains as standing for the body. Following the Aristotelian distinction of substance and form, Thomas Aquinas, Migne, IV. 726, and the other Schoolmen (see Schwane, p. 648) declared that the form of the bread and wine is also changed into the body and blood of Christ. The words forma and species are distinguished. The species of bread and wine remain, the forma disappears. Duns Scotus devoted much space to proving that a substance may have a variety of forms.
81668 Sub utraque specie sacramenti totus est Christus. Th. Aq., 76. 2, Migne, 733. Sub utraque specie est unus Christus et totus et indivisus, scilicet corpus, et anima, et Deus. Bonaventura, Brevil. Vl. 9, Peltier’s ed., VII. 322.
91669 In acceptatione sanguinis totum Christum, Deum et hominem, et in acceptatione corporis similiter totum accipimus. Ep. 4:107, Migne, vol. 159 p. 255. Anselm was making a distinction between the body and spirit of Christ, the spirit being represented by the blood and wine, and the body by the bread and flesh.
01670 Summa, II. VIII., Migne, 176. 462, ego in ejusmodi divina secreta magis venerenda quam discutienda cerneo.
1671 Summa, 81. 3, Migne, IV. 810-813. Anselm used the same words. Migne, 159. 255. Schwane agrees that this conception, that Christ ate His own body, was general among the Schoolmen, p. 645.
21672 Rex sedet in coena turba, cinctus duodena
Se tenet in manibus et cibat ipse cibus.
31673 So Hugo, II, 8. 4; the Lombard, XI. 8; Thomas Aquinas, 81. 2, Migne. pp. 811 sq. The delusion is called a fictio and also "Judas’communion." Synod of London, 1175. The argument is in clear contradiction to the meaning of the Gospel narratives on their face.
41674 For this theological and metaphysical curiosity, see Th. Aq., 80. 3, Migne, 789, non tangit mus ipsum corpus Christi, secundum propriam speciem sed solum secundum species sacramentales … nec tamen animal brutum sacramentaliter corpus Christi manducat quia non est natum uti eo ut sacramento, unde non sacramentaliter sed per accidens corpus Christi manducat, etc. Alb. Magnus, In Sent., IV. 13. 38. Borgnet’s ed., XXIX. 397, Bonaventura, Sent., IV. 13. 2. 1, Peltier’s ed., V. 550.
51675 Seeberg, p. 360.
61676 The priest being the mediator. Summa, Migne, 176. 472.
91679 Ex seipso virtutem habet gratiam conferendi. Th. Aq., III. 79. 1, Migne, IV. 774.
01680 Th. Aq., 79. 7, Supplem. III. 71. 10, Migne, IV. 782, 1246 sq.; Al. Magnus, I. 4, extended the benefits of the mass also to the glorified pro salute vivorum, pro requie defunctorum, pro gloria beatorum.
1681 Summa, III. 83. 5 sq., Migne, IV. 844-853.
21682 Th. Aq., III. 83. 5, Migne, IV. 850.
31683 Non ex hoc desinit aliquis minister esse Christi quod est malus, Th. Aq., 82. 5, 7, Migne, IV. 821, 824; Anselm, ep. IV. 107, Migne, 159. 257, had said the same thing, nec a bono sacerdote majus, etc.
41684 Th. Aq., III. 80. 12, Migne, IV. 809. Perfectio hujus sacramenti non est in usu fidelium sed in consecratione materiae.
51685 Requiritur ut cum magna devotione et reverentia ad, hoc sacramentum accedat .... Eucharistia exigit actualem devotionem in suscipiente, Th. Aq., III. 80. 10, Supplem. III, 32. 4, Migne, IV. 805, 1038.
61686 We cannot help feeling strongly with Harnack when he exclaims, "In its doctrine of the eucharist, the Church gave expression to all that she held dear,—her theology, her mystical relation to Christ, the communion of believers, the priesthood, sacrifice, not to that faith which seeks assurance and to which assurance is given,"Dogmengesch., II. 489 sq
71687 Populus indiget medio ad Deum qui per seipsum accedere ad deum non potest., Th. Aq., III. 22. 4, Migne, IV. 219.
81688 De euchar. VI. 3.
91689 Councils of Würzburg, 1287, Paris, 1212, etc. See Hefele, V. 866
01690 See artt. Fronleichnamsfest in Wetzer-Welte, IV. 2061 sqq., and Herzog, VI. 297 sqq. It was one of the first observances to call forth Luther’s protest. Köstlin, Leben Luthers, I. 560.
1691 Ep., 535, Migne, 163. 442, qui panem absorbere non possunt, etc., quoted in Herzog under Kinderkommunion, X. 289.
21692 Suppl., XXXII. 4, Migne, IV. 1038. The council of Trent anathematized those who hold the communion of children to be necessary.
31693 Migne, 163. 142. See Smend, p. 7, for other witnesses. Smend’s book is a most thorough piece of work and is indispensable in the study of the subject. With the exception of some quotations, I depend upon him for the contents of these paragraphs.
41694 Called intinctio. Hugo of St. Victor and Peter the Lombard were among the first to condemn the practice. Also the synod of London, 1175, Hefele, V. 688. See also V. 224 for the action of the synod of Clermont, 1095.