5855 He tells a comic story of William de Madeley, at Oxford, who, finding a pair of shoes, put them on and went to matins. Going to sleep be dreamt he was attacked by thieves, and thrust out his feet to show that he was a friar. But lo! the shoes were still on, and starting up he flung them out of the window. Another poor friar, Gilbert de Vyz, so he relates, was badly treated by the devil. It happened at Cornhill. The devil at his final visit exclaimed, "Sir, do you think you have escaped me?" De Vyz picked up a handful of lice and threw it at the devil, and he vanished. p. 13.
6856 John L’Estrange says that, at the time they were falling out of favor, one English will out of every three conveyed property to the Franciscans. Quoted by Howlett in his Preface to Mon. Franc., II. p. xxvii.
7857 According to Gasquet, p. 237, there were sixty-six Franciscan houses. Addis and Scannell’s Catholic Dict., p.388, gives a list of sixty-four. The first house of the Franciscan nuns, or Poor Clares, was founded outside of Aldgate, London, 1293, and was known as "the Minories," a name the locality still retains. At the time of the dissolution of the monasteries they had three houses in England.
858 Ordo praedicatorum, fratres praedicatores, or simply praedicatores, as in the papal bulls and the constitutions of the order.
9859 His descent from the noble family of Guzman has been disputed by the Bollandists.
0860 Jordanus says, they went ad Marchias, which probably refers to the domain of Hugo of Lusignan, Count de la Marche, and not to Denmark, as often represented.
1861 The bull canonizing Dominic says, haereticos caritative ad poenitentiam et conversionem fidei hortabatur, he affectionately exhorted heretics to return to the faith.
2862 Potthast, I. 436.
3863 See Denifle, Archiv, 1885, p. 169, who says that Dominic took as the basis of his rule the rule of the Premonstrants and insists that his followers were canons regular. Denifle was a Dominican, and in his able article gives too much credit to Dominic for originality.
4864 This important office according to Echard at first gave to the incumbent the right to fix the meaning of Scripture at the Pontifical court. It has since come to have the duty of comparing all matters with the catholic doctrine before they are presented to the pope, selecting preachers for certain occasions, conferring the doctors’degree, etc. Wetzer-Welte avoids giving offence to the Dominicans by making the ambiguous statement, III. 1934, that Dominicgewissermassen der erste Mag. palatii wurde.
5865 Hauck, IV. 391-394.
6866 At the suppression of the monasteries under Henry VIII., the Dominicans had 68 houses in England (Gasquet, p. 237), or 57 according to Addis and Scannell, Dict., p. 301.
7867 Potthast, I. 810.
868 See the Constitution of 1228, Denifle, pp. 212, 215.
9869 Magister generalis. In 1862 Pius IX. limited his tenure of office to twelve years. Since 1272 he has lived at St. Maria sopra Minerva in Rome.
0870 May 16, 1227. See Potthast, I. 684. Denifle makes much of this point, pp. 176-180.
1871 Denifle gives the best edition in Archiv for 1885, pp. 193-227.
2872 Denifle, pp. 181 sqq., states that the idea of poverty was in Dominic’s mind before Honorius sanctioned the order, and that it was thoroughly as original with him as it was with Francis. This view seems to be contradicted by the bull of Honorius, 1216, which confirms Dominic and his followers in the possession of goods. Jordanus, c. 27, states that the principle of poverty was adopted that the preachers might be freed from the care of earthly goods, ne predicationis impediretur officium sollicitudine terrenorum. Francis adopted this principle as a means of personal sanctification; Dominic, in order that he and his followers might give themselves up unreservedly to the work of saving souls.
5875 Nullus fiat publicus doctor, nisi per 4 annos ad minus theologiam audierit. Const., 1228, II. 30.
6876 Ordo noster specialiter ob praedicationem et animarum salutem ab initio institutus. Prol. to Constitution of 1228.
7877 Quoted by Denifle, p. 190.
878 Const. II. 31-33.
9879 Paradiso, XII.
0880 See Potthast, II. 9386, 9388 (Gregory IX., 1284), etc. The Franciscans were made inquisitors in Italy and Southern France. See chapter on the Inquisition.
1881 Leo commended the rosary in repeated encyclicals, Aug. 30, 1884, 1891, etc., coupling plenary indulgence for sin with its use. He also ordered the title regina sanctissimi rosarii, "queen of the most holy rosary," inserted into the liturgy of Loreto. On the history of the rosary, see Lea, Hist. of Auric. Conf., III. 484 sqq., and especially the dissertation St. Dominikus und der Rosenkranz, by the Franciscan, Heribert Holzapfel. This writer declares, point blank, that the rosary was not invented nor propagated by Dominic. There is no reference to it in the original Constitution of 1228, which contains detailed prescriptions concerning prayer and the worship of the Virgin, nor in any of the eighteen biographical notices of the thirteenth century. Holzapfel makes the statement, p. 12, that the entire thirteenth and fourteenth centuries know nothing of any association whatsoever of St. Dominic with the rosary. Sixtus IV., 1478, was the first pope to commend the rosary; but Sixtus does not associate it with the name of Dominic. Such association began with Leo X. What has become of the author of this bold denial of the distinct statement of Leo XIII. in his encyclical of ten years before, September, 1883, I do not know. Holzapfel distinctly asserts his opposition to the papal deliverances on the rosary, when he says, p. 37, "High as the regard is in which the Catholic holds the authority of Peter’s successors in religious things, he must be equally on his guard against extending that authority to every possible question." Perhaps Father Holzapfel’s pamphlet points to the existence of a remainder of the hot feeling which used to exist between the Thomists and Scotists.
2882 See § 60. Tacitus calls the Wends Venedi, a name which seems to come from the Slavonic voda, or the Lithuanian wandu, meaning "water," and referring to the low and often marshy lands they occupied.
3883 The two translations of Luther’s catechism, 1545, 1561, into the language of this people seem to point to their Lithuanian origin, Tschackert in Herzog, XVI. 26.
4884 Hauck gives Illustrations of the cruelties of the two peoples in time of war, III. 90 sqq.
5885 They thought nothing of strangling girls when there were a number born to the same mother. Si plures filias aliqua genuisset, ut cetera facilius providerent, aliquas ex eis jugulabant, pro nihilo ducentes parricidium. Herbord, II. 16
6886 Facilis erat in aquam descendere, Herbord, II. 16. The detailed description of the baptismal scenes leaves not a particle of doubt that immersion was practised.
7887 This is the earliest notice of the seven sacraments, provided Herbord’s report is not interpolated.
888 Herbord, II. 41.
9889 Gregory IX., as late as 1237, calls this people pagans, pagani Livoniae. Potthast, 10383.
0890 Ranke, VIII. 469, regards the fabric of the Teutonic Knights as having offered the only effective check against the invasion of Central Europe by the Mongols.
1891 Müller, Anfänge des Minoritenordens, 207 sqq., has set this mission beyond doubt.
2892 Jacob of Vitry, Hist. Occ., 32, and Giordano di Giano are our chief authorities. Sabatier, in his Life of Francis, accepts the testimony, but dismisses the tour in a few lines.
3893 The object of the chairs was declared to be to further the exposition of the Scriptures and the conversion of unbelievers. See Hefele, VI. 545. A little earlier the pamphleteer Peter Dubois had urged it as the pope’s duty to establish institutes for the study of the Oriental languages as it was his duty to see that the Gospel was preached to all peoples. See Scholz, Die Publizistik zur Zeit Philipps des Schönen, 427-431.
4894 According to the catalogue in the Escurial prepared by D. Arias de Loyola, Lullus wrote 410 tracts, most of which exist only in MS., and are distributed among the libraries of Europe. Of these, 46 are controversial works against the Mohammedans, Jews, and Averrhoists. Lea speaks of Lullus "as perhaps the most voluminous author on record." III. 581.
5895 Reuter, Gesch. der Aufklärung, II. 95 sq.
6896 In his work on the miracles of heaven and earth, de miraculis coeli es mundi, he represents a father leading his son through woods and across fields, over deserts and through cities, among plants and animals, into heaven and hell, and pointing out the wonders they saw. In his Blanquerna magister christianae perfectionis he presents an ethical drama in which the hero is introduced to all stations of religious life, monk, abbot, bishop, cardinal, and pope, and at last gives up the tiara to retire to the seclusion of a convent.
7897 The genuineness of this bull has been a subject of much controversy. Commissions were even appointed by later popes to investigate the matter, and the bull, with other documents originating with Gregory, was not found. Hergenröther pronounces for its genuineness, Kirchengesch., II. 540. Eymericus ascribed Lullus’teachings to the suggestion of the devil, and declared that Lullus maintained the erroneous proposition that "all points of faith and the sacraments, and the power of the pope may be proved by reasoning, necessary, demonstrative, and evident."
898 G. Oppert, D. Presbyter Johannes in Sage u. Gesch., Berlin, 1864, 2d ed. 1870. Brunet, La légende du Prêtre-Jean, Bordeaux, 1877. Zarncke, D. Priester-Johannes, Leipzig, 1870.
9899 Chronicon, VII. 33. Otto also reports the bishop of Gabala as declaring that out of respect for his ancestors, the Magians, who had worshipped at the cradle of the Redeemer, John had started with an army to relieve Jerusalem, but for want of boats got no further than the Tigris.
0900 The letter must have had an extensive circulation, as it exists in more than 100 MSS., 13 in Paris, 15 in Munich, 8 in the British Museum, etc.
1901 It was at Kublai’s court that Marco Polo (about 1324) spent many years. The origin of the Mongols is lost in legend. The Mongol historian Sanang Setzen traces it back to a blue wolf. Zenghis Khan, 1162-1227, is known among the Chinese as Ching-sze, perfect warrior. The word "Mongol" comes from mong, meaning brave.
2902 Hulagu, one of Manguls brothers, overthrew the Caliphate of Bagdad, 1258, and established the Mongol empire of Persia. He took in marriage a daughter of the Byzantine emperor, Michael Palaeologos.
3903 See Hefele, V. 1096, 1114. A provincial synod at Erfurt, a few years before, 1241, had considered measures for defence against the Tartars. Hefele, V. 1081. For some of the papal bulls bearing on missions among the Mongols, see Potthast, 7429, 7490, 7537, 7550, 9130, 9139, 9141, 10350, 10421.
4904 Joinville, Chronicle of the Crusades, Engl. trans., pp. 384 sqq., 476 sqq.
5905 Nicolo was the father of Marco Polo, Maffei was Marco’s uncle. Marco was born in 1254 and went on his first journey to Asia when he was seventeen, 1271. The party went first to the island of Ormus on the Persian Gulf, at that time an important market for the exchange of goods. Of it Milton speaks:—
High on a throne of royal state, which far
Outshone the wealth of Ormus and of Ind.
6906 William of Newburgh, Hamilton’s ed., I. 282, says the tendency of the royal protection in England was to make them proud and stiffnecked against Christians. Green pronounces the attitude of the Jew in England one "of proud and even insolent defiance."Hist. of Engl. People, bk. III. ch. IV.
7907 Oremus et pro perfidis Judaeis. Döllinger, p. 216.
8908 The caption of Gratian’s Decretals, ch. XV. 6, is de Judaeis et Saracenis et eorum servis.
909 . Graetz, VII. l06.
0910 Perpetuam servitutem ad perpetuam Judaici sceleris ultionem, Bréholles, I. 57.
1911 Döllinger’s statement, p. 235, that the number who submitted to compulsory baptism was very insignificant compared to the number who accepted death is not justified by the statistics given by Graetz.
2912 Jacobs, Jews in Angevin England, tries to prove that the English Jews also developed a culture of their own. Graetz positively denies this, VI. 225.
3913 See art. The Treatment of the Jews, in Bibl. Sac., 1903, 552 sqq. and the authorities there cited.
4914 Agobard wrote five tracts against the Jews. See Wiegand’s instructive brochure, Agobard von Lyon und die Judenfrage, Erl., 1901. Agobard asserted that Judaism and Christianity were as far apart as Ebal and Gerizim.
5915 The reason given by the synod of Salamanca, 1335, against the employment of Jewish physicians was that they were bent upon the extermination of the Christians.
6916 VII. 4, 16.
7917 In letters to Alfonso of Castile, 1205, and to the count of Nevers, 1208.
8918 ad majus tormentum et ad majorem ignominiam … sic de damnatis damnandisque Judaeis, lib. IV. ep. 36; Migne’s ed., vol, 189, 365-367.
0920 Graetz, VI. 148, 151, pronounces Bernard "a truly holy man, a man of apostolic simplicity of heart."
1921 Howlett’s ed., p. 383.
2922 Grosseteste’s Letters, Luard’s ed., 33-39. Stevenson, Life of Grosseteste, 97-101, holds that he had no intention of discouraging the countess in her humane effort.
3923 Thurston, Life of St. Hugh of Lincoln, 277 sqq., 547.
4924 See index in Hefele under Wucher. On the whole subject of Usury see Jacobson, art. Wucher, in Herzog, 2d ed., XVII. 341-349. In 1228 the king of Spain restricted Jewish money lenders to the rate of 20%. Hefele, V. 986. In 1368 the city of Frankfurt paid Jewish brokers 52% on a loan of 1000 florins. In Augsburg, Vienna, and other cities the interest was often as high as 86²/3%. See Janssen, II. 74.
5925 Lea, in his Hist. of Spain, 437-469, cites a large number of cases down to recent times.
6926 Graetz, VII. 401-406.
7927 It is possible the first Jews came to England with William the Conqueror. Jacobs, p. 3. A law of Edward the Confessor, however, has a reference to Jews.
8928 Jacobs, p. 67, 308. The mortgages were called cartae debitorum, M. Paris, Luard’s ed., II. 358, etc. Jacobs, p. 381, estimates the number of Jews in England in 1200 at 2000. London had 100 families, Lincoln 82, Norwich 42, etc. Peter the Venerable also bears witness to the money dealings of convents with Jews, de mirac., II. 15; Migne, 189, 927
929 Stubbs, Const. Hist., II. 530 sqq.
0930 Ut quos excoriaverat, comes eviscerat. Luard’s ed., V. 487 sq.
1931 M. Paris, II. 358 sq.
2932 See M. Paris and especially William of Newburgh, Hamilton’s ed., II. 2428, and de Hoveden. Matthew and de Hoveden are careful to say that the mortgage papers the Jews held were burnt with them. See Graetz’s description, VI. 219 sqq.
3933 M. Paris, Luard’s ed., III. 543, IV. 30, 377, V. 516. As usual, the guilty parties were the richest Jews in the place. The chroniclers are not agreed in regard to the exact motives actuating the Jews in these murders.
4934 Jacobs, p. 8. Hermann, a monk of Cologne, gives an account of his conversion from Judaism, Migne, 170, 806 sqq. A most singular attempt by the devil to blot out the baptism of a German Jewish girl is given by Caesar of Heisterbach, Dial., II. 26. She was to be drawn three times through the hole in the outhouse, the effects of baptism being left behind.
5935 M. Paris, III. 71.
6936 See Lea’s elaborate account in Rel. Hist. of Spain, 437-468; also Graetz, VIII. 466-472. The child’s body could not be found, but the Inquisitors easily accounted for this by the report that it had been carried to heaven on the third day after the murder.
7937 Graetz, VIII. 349, puts it at 300,000.
8938 For the use made of it by Sir John Eliot and John Selden, see Stevenson, p. 104. Among other tracts on the Jewish question were those of Rupert of Deutz; Dial. inter Christum et Judaeum, Migne, 170, 559-610; Richard of St. Victor, de Emmanuele, Migne, 196, 601-666; Alanus ab Insulis, Contra Judaeos, Migne, 210, 400-422.
939 Migne’s ed., 189, 553.
0940 viii. 83.
1941 See the quotation at length in Alphandéry, p. 29.
2942 Migne, 214. 537; 215. 654.
3943 Published by Cunitz in Beiträge zu den Theol. Wissenschhaften, 1854, IV.
4944 See Lempp’s criticism of Alphandéry’s work, Theol. Lit.-zeitung, 1905, p. 601 sq.
5945 For quotation see Döllinger, I. 111.
6946 So also Peter the Venerable in his c. Petrobrus, Migne, 189. 1185. Bernard Guy was born in Southem France, 1261. He entered the Dominican order and administered the office of inquisitor-general for sixteen years, prosecuting Cathari and other heretics. He was made bishop of Tuy, 1323. His Practica inquisitionis, a manual to be used by inquisitors, is a most interesting and valuable document.
7947 Deflorationes SS. Patrum, Migne, 157. 1050.
8948 Vulpeculae sunt heretici, quae demoliuntur vineas, Honorius of Autun, Migne, 172. 503; Etienne de Bourbon, p. 278, etc.
949 Migne, 145: 419.
0950 Epp: I. 94; II. 99; IX. 208, etc., Migne, 214. 81, etc., Morbus iste qui serpit ut cancer, Ep. II. 1.
1951 Facies quidem habentes diversas sed caudas ad invicem collegatas quia de varietate conveniunt in id ipsum, Mirbt, p. 133. The same expression in De Bourbon, p. 278
2952 Venenatorum multitudo reptilium et haeresum sanies scaturire dicitur. Gregory’s bull, 1235, bearing on the inquisitor, Robert le Bougre, in Auvray, 2736, and Fredericq, I. 100.