History of the christian church

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8418 The statute de haeretico comburendo, passed in 1401 (Henry IV. c. 15), was still in force under Elizabeth when two Anabaptists were burned alive, and under James I. when two Arians were burned.

9419 I For further information on Alfred see the biographies of Pauli (1851, Engl. transl. by Thorpe, 1853), Weiss (1852), Hughes (Lond. and Bost. 1869), Freeman’s Old English History, and Green’s Conquest of England (1884), ch. IV. 124-180.

0420 Brace, Gesta Christi, p. 216.

1421 See the Ordo Missae Romanae Gregorianus, compared with the Ordo Gelasianus, Ambrosianus, Gallicanus, Mozarabicus, etc., in Daniel’s Codex Liturg. vol. I. 3-168.

2422 Dialog. 1. IV. c. 58 (in Migne’s ed. III. 425 sq.): "Quis fidelium habere dubium possit, in ipsa immolationis hora ad sacerdotis vocem coelis aperiri, in illo jesu Christi mysteria angelorum choros adesse, summis ima sociari, terrena coelestibus jungi, unumque ex visibilibus atque invisibilibus fieri?"

3423 Misae pro Defunctis, Todtenmessen, Seelenmessen. Different from them are the Missae de Sanctis, celebrated on the anniversaries of the saints, and to their honor, though the sacrifice is always offered to God.

424 Even popes, though addressed by the title "Holiness," while living, have to pass through purgatory, and need the prayers of the faithful. On the marble sarcophagus of Pius IX., who reigned longer than any of his predecessors, and proclaimed his own infallibility in the Vatican Council (1870), are the words: "Orate pro eo." Prayers and masses are said only for the dead in purgatory, not for the saints in heaven who do not need them, nor for the damned in hell who would not profit by them.

5425 Quoted from the Longer Catechism of the Eastern Church (Schaff, Creeds II. 504). The Greeks have in their ritual special strophes or antiphones for the departed, called nekrwvsima. Mone, Lat. Hymnen des Mittel alters, II. 400, gives some specimens from John of Damascus and others. He says, that the Greeks have more hymns for the departed than the Latins, but that the Latins have older hymni pro defunctis, beginning with Prudentius.

6426 Missae solitariae or privatae.

7427 Can. 48. Mansi XIV. 529 sqq. Hefele IV. 64.

8428 See the next chapter, on Theological Controversies.

9429 Comp. logikh; latreiva, Rom. 12:1.

0430 Sess. IV. (April 8, 1546):"Sacrosancta Synodus … statuit et declarat, ut haec ipsa vetus et vulgata editio, quiae longo tot saeculorum usu in ipsa ecclesia probata est, in publicis lectionibus, disputationibus, praedicationibus et expositionibus pro authentica habeatur;. et ut nemo illam rejicere quovis praetextu audeat vel praesumat!" The Council made provision for an authoritative revision of the Vulgate (April 8, 1546); but when the edition of Pope Sixtus V. appeared in 1589 and was enjoined upon the church "by the fullness of apostolic power," it was found to be so full of errors and blunders that it had to be cancelled, and a new edition prepared under Clement VIII. in 1592, which remains the Roman standard edition to this day.

1431 As it is to-day in strictly Roman Catholic countries; with this difference, that what was excusable in a period of heathen and semi-heathen ignorance and superstition, is inexcusable in an age of advanced civilization furnished with all kinds of educational institutions and facilities.

2432 See the acts of this council in Haddan and Stubbs, Councils and Eccles. Doc. 360-376, and the letter of Boniface to Cuthbert, giving an account of a similar council in Germany, and recommending measures of reform in the English church, p. 376-382.

3433 A similar canon was passed by other councils. See Hefele III. 758, 764, and IV. 89, 111, 126, 197, 513, 582; Mansi XIV. 82 sqq.

434 Hefele, III. 745.

5435 F. Dahn, Des Paulus Diaconus Leben und Schriften, 1876; and Mon. Germ. Scriptores rerum Langobardicarum et Italicarum saec. VI.-IX. 1878, p. 45-187, ed. by L. Bethmann and G. Waitz; Wattenbach, Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen, 4th ed. 1877, I. 134-140.

6436 See above, p. 41, 105, 106. The paraphrase of Caedmon, the first Christian poet of England, is edited or discussed by Thorpe, Bouterweck, Grein, Wright, Ettmüller, Sandrar, Morley, Ten Brink, etc. (see Lit. in Schaff-Herzog sub Caedmon); the Saxon Heliand and Otfrid’s Krist by Sievers, Rettberg, Vilmar, Lechler, Graff, Kelle, Michelsen, etc. (see Herzog2 IV. 428-435).

7437 Neale and Pitra point out this connection, and Jacobi (l.c. p. 210 sq.) remarks: "Im Kampfe für die Bilder steigerte sich die Glut der sinnlichen Frömmigkeit, und mit dem Siege der Bilderverehrung im neunten Jahrhundert ist eine innerliche und aeusserliche Zunahme des Heiligenkultus und namentlich ein Wachsthum der Marienvehrung unverkennbar."

8438 The Mhnai'a (sc. bibliva, Monatsbücher) are published at Venice in the Tipografia Greca (hJ JEllhnikh; tupografiva tou' foivniko"). Each month has its separate title: Mhnai'on tou' Ianouarivou or Mh;n Ianouavrio" , etc. January begins with the commemoration of the circumcision of our Lord and the commemoration of St. Basil the Great, and December ends with the mnhvmh th'" oJsiva" Mhtro;" hJmw'n Melavnh" th's JRwmaiva" . The copy before me (from the Harvard University Library) is dated 1852, and printed in beautiful Greek type, with the directions in red ink. On older editions see Mone, Lat. Hymnen, II. p. x. sqq. The other books of the Greek Ritual are the Paracletice (Paraklhtikhv, sc. bivblo") or great Octoechus (jOktwvhco", sc. bivblo"), which contains the Sunday services the Triodion (Triwv/dion, the Lent-volume), and the Pentecostarion (Penthkostavrion, the office for Easter-tide). " On a moderate computation," says Neale, " these volumes comprise 5,000 closely printed quarto pages, in double columns, of which at least 4,000 are poetry." See the large works of Leo Allatius, De libris eccles. Graecorum; Goar, Euchologion sive Rituale Graecorum, and especially the Second volume of Neale’s History of the Holy Eastern Church (1850), p. 819 sqq.

9439 Hence they were called melwdoiv as well as poihtaiv in distinction from the mere uJmnovgrafoi. The Greek service books are also music books. Christ discusses Byzantine music, and gives some specimens in Prol. p. CXI-CXLII.

0440 Tropavrion, the diminutive of trovpo", as modulus is of modus, was originally a musical term.

1441 Eijrmov", tractus, a train, series, was likewise originally a musical term like ajkolouqiva and the Latin jubilatio, sequentia. See § 96.

2442 Qeotokivon, sc. tropavrion (more rarely, but more correctly, with the accent on the ante-penultima, qeotovkion), from qeotovko", Deipara. The stauro-theotokion celebrates Mary at the cross, and corresponds to the Stabat Mater dolorosa of the Latins.

3443 Idiovmelon. There are several other designations of various kinds of poems, as ajkolouqiva (the Latin sequentia), ajnabaqmoiv (tria antiphona), ajntivfwnon, ajpolutivkion (breve troparium sub finem officii vespertini), ajpovstica, auvtomelon, ejxaposteilavrion, ejwqinav, kavqisma, katabasiva, kontavria, makarismoiv, megalunavria, oi\koi, prosovmoia, stichrav, triwv/dia, tetrawv/da, diwv/dia, yalthvrion, tropolovgion. These terms and technical forms are fully discussed by Christ in the Prolegomena. Comp. also the Introduction of Neale

444 By Vormbaum (in the third volume of Daniel’s Thesaurus which needs reconstruction), Pitra, and Christ. The Continental writers seem to be ignorant of Dr. Neale, the best English connoisseur of the liturgical and poetic literature of the Greek church. His translations are, indeed, very free reproductions and transfusions, but for this very reason better adapted to Western taste than the originals. The hymn of Clement of Alexandria in praise of the Logos has undergone a similar transformation by Dr. Henry M. Dexter, and has been made useful for public worship. See vol. II. 231.

5445 Even Neale, with all his admiration for the Greek Church, admits that the Menaea contain a "deluge of worthless compositions: tautology repeated till it becomes almost sickening; the merest commonplace, again and again decked in the tawdry shreds of tragic language, ind twenty or thirty times presenting the same thought in slightly varying terms." (Hymns E.Ch. p. 88 sq., 3d ed.)

6446 See vol. II. 227, and add to the Lit. there quoted: Christ, p. 38-40, who gives from the Codex Alexandrinus and other MSS. the Greek text of the morning hymn (the expanded Angelic anthem Dovxa ejn uJyivstoi" qew'/) and two evening hymns Aijnei'te, pai'de" . kuvrion, and Fw'" iJlaro;n aJgiva" dovxh") of the Greek church.

7447 See vol. III. 581 and 921. Christ begins his collection with the hymns of Synesius, p. 3-23, and of Gregory Nazianzen, 23-32.

8448 See the specimens in vol. III. 583-585. Neale begins his translations with Anatolius. Christ treats of him p. XLI, and gives his stichra; ajnastavsima find three ijdiovmela (hymns with their own melody), 113-117. More than a hundred poems in the Menaea and the Octoechus bear the name of Anatolius, but Christ conjectures that stichra; ajnatolikav is a generic name, like katanuktikav and nekrwvsima.

9449 See a description of this most curious structure in all Palestine, in my book Through Bible Lands (N. Y. 1879), p. 278 sqq.

0450 The poetry of John of D. in his Opera ed. Le Quien (Par. 1712), Tom. I. 673-693; Poëtae Graeci veteres (Colon. 1614), Tom. II. 737 sqq.; Christ, Anthol. gr. Prol. XLIV. sqq., p. 117-121, and p. 205-236. Vormbaum, in Daniel, III. 80-97, gives six of his odes in Greek; Bässler, 162-164, two (and two in German, 21, 22); Neale nine English versions. The best of his hymns and canons are Eij" th;n cristou' gevnnhsin (or eij" th;n qeogonivan), Eij" ta; qeofavneia, Eij" th;n kuriakh;n tou' Pavsca, Eij" th;n pentekosthvn, Eij" th;n ajnavlhyin tou' Cristou',Eujchv, jIdiovmela ejn ajkolouqiva tou' ejxodiastikou', Eij" th;n koivmhsin th'" qeotovkou.. The last begins with this stanza (Christ, p. 229):

jAnoivxw to; stovma mou,

kai; plhrwqhvsetai pneuvmato":

kai; lovgou ejpeuvxomai th'/ basilivdi mhtriv:

kai; ojfqhvsomai faidrw'"panhgurivzwn:

kai; a[/sw ghqovmeno" tauvth" ta; qauvmata.

1451 Gallandi, Bibl. Patrum, XIII. 234 sqq.; Christ, XLIX sq., 161-164. Christ calls him "princeps melodorum graecorum," and gives ten of his canons and several triodia; Daniel (III. 55-79) twelve odes. Among the best are Eij" th;n tou' Cristou' gevnnhsin, Eij" ta; qeofavneia, Eij" th;n penthkosthvn, Pro;" Cristovn, Ei" th;n u{ywsin tou' staurou', Eij" to; mevga savbbaton. Neale has reproduced eight odes of Cosmas and a cento on the Transfiguration. The Nativity hymn begins (Christ p. 165):

Cristo;" genna'tai: dovxasate:

Cristo;" ejx oujranw'n: ajpanthvsate:

Cristo;" ejpi; gh'" : uJywvqhte:

a[/sate tw'/ kurivw/ pa'sa hJ gh',

kai; ejn eujfrosuvnh/

ajnumnhvsate, laoiv,

o{ti dedoxastai.

2452 o Graptov", with reference to his sufferings.

3453 According to Christ (Prol. XLIV), he was after the restoration of the images in the churches of Constantinople, 842, elected metropolitan of Nicaea and died in peace. But according to the Bollandists and other authorities, he died much earlier in exile at Samothrace about 818 or 820, in consequence of his sufferings for the Icons. Neale reports that Theophanes was betrothed in childhood to a lady named Megalis, but persuaded her, on their wedding day, to retire to a convent. Christ gives several of his idiomela and stichera necrosima, p. 121-130. See also Daniel, III. 110-112, and Neale’s translations of the idiomela on Friday of Cheese-Sunday (i.e. Quinquagesima), and the stichera at the first vespers of Cheese-Sunday (90-95). The last is entitled by Neale: "Adam’s Complaint," and he thinks that Milton, "as an universal scholar," must, in Eve’s lamentation, have had in his eye the last stanza which we give in the text. But this is very doubtful. The Chronographia of Theophanes is published in the Bonn. ed. of the Byzantine historians, 1839, and in Migne’s "Patrol. Graeca," Tom. 108 (1861). His biography see in the Acta Sanct. ed. Bolland. in XII. Martii.

454 Christ (p. LII sq., p. 140-147) reasons chiefly from chronological considerations. The poem is called ajkavqisto"(sc. u{mno") th'"qeotovkou, because it was chanted while priest and people were standing. During the singing of other hymns they were seated; hence the latter are called kaqivsmata, (from kaqivzesqai). See Christ, Prol. p. LXII and p. 54 sqq. Jacobi says of the Akathistos (l.c. p. 230): " Was Enthusiasmus für die heilige Jungfrau, was Kenntniss biblischer Typen, überhaupt religiöser Gegenstände und Gedanken zu leisten vermochten, was Schmuck der Sprache. Gewandtheit des Ausdrucks, Kunst der Rhythmen und der Reime hinzufügen komnten, das ist hier in unübertroffenem Masse bewirkt."

5455 Christ, XXVII, XXXV, LIII, 43-47 (ajnakreovntika), and 96 (ijdiovmelatw'nQeofaneivwn). Daniel, III. 20-46, gives thirteen pieces of Sophronius from Pet. Metranga, Spicilegium Romanum, 1840, Tom. IV.

6456 Poetae Gr. vet. Tom. II. 192 sqq. Daniel, III. 97-103, gives three hymns, among them a beautiful u{mno"iJkethvrio"ei"Cristovn Christ omits Maximus.

7457 See his Opera in Migne’s "Patrol. Graeca" Tom. 98 (1865); and his poems in Christ, XLIII. 98 (ijdiovmelon on the Nativity); Daniel, III. 79, a hymn in praise of Mary, beginning Salpivswmen ejn savlpiggi ajsmavtwn, and ending with ascribing to her almighty power of intercession:

Oujden ga;r ajduvnaton th'/ mesiteiva/ sou.

8458 Fr. Combefisius first edited the works of Andreas Cretensis, Par. 1644. Christ, 147-161, gives the first part of "the great canon" (about one-fourth), and a new canon in praise of Peter. The last is not in the Menaea but has been brought to light from Paris and Vatican MSS. by Card. Pitra. Daniel, III. 47-54, has seven hymns of Andreas, of which the first is on the nativity, beginning:

Eujfraivnesqe divkaioi:

Oujranoi; ajgallia'sqe:

Skirthvsate ta; o{rh,

Tou' Cristou' gennhqevnto"./

Neale translated four: Stichera for Great Thursday; Troparia for Palm Sunday; a portion of the Great Canon; Stichera for the Second Week of the Great Fast. His Opera in Migne’s " Patrol. Gr." T. 97(1860), p. 1306sqq.

9459 Christ, p. xlii. sq. and 83, aujtovmelonei"tou;"ajpost. Pevtronkai;Pau'lon. See Men., June 29.

0460 Christ and Daniel ignore Stephen. Neale calls the one and only hymn which he translated, "Idiomela in the Week of the First Oblique Tone," and adds: "These stanzas, which strike me as very sweet, are not in all the editions of the Octoechus." He ascribes to him also a poetical composition on the Martyrs of the monastery of Mar Sâba (March 20), and one on the Circumcision. "His style," he says, "seems formed on that of S. Cosmas, rather than on that of his own uncle. He is not deficient in elegance and richness of typology, but exhibits something of sameness, and is occasionally guilty of very hard metaphors."

1461 Christ, 131-140, gives his "Psalm of the Holy Apostles," and a Nativity hymn. Comp. p. li. sq. Jacobi (p. 203 sq.) discusses the data and traces in Romanus allusions to the Monotheletic controversy, which began about a.d. 630. He gives a German version in part of the beautiful description of the benefits of redemption, p. 221 sq.

2462 Christ, p. 101 sq.; Daniel, III. 101-109. Neale has translated four odes of Theodorus Studita, one on the judgment-day (oJkuvrio"e[rcetai). Pitra has brought to light from MSS. eighteen of his poems on saints. See his Opera in Migne " Patr. Gr." 99.

3463 Christ, p. xlvii.: "Nicephorus duos Iosephos hymnorum scriptores recenset, quorum alterum Studiorum monasterii socium, alterum peregrinum dicit. Priorem intelligo Iosephum fratrem minorem Theodori, Studiorum antistitis, cuius memoriae dies XIV. mensis Iulii consecratus est. Is ob morum integritatem et doctrina laudem Thessalonicensis ecclesiae archiepiscopus electus a Theophilo rege (829-842), qui in cultores imaginum saeviebat, in vincula coniectus et omni tormentorum genere adeo vexatus est, ut in carcere mortem occumberet. Alterius losephi, qui proprie uJmnovgrafo"audit, memoriam die III. mensis Aprilis ecclesia graeca concelebrat. Is peregrinus (xevno") ab Nicephoro dictus esse dicitur, quod ex Sicilia insula oriundus erat et patria ab Arabibus capta et vastata cum matre et fratribus primum in Peloponnesum, deinde Thessalonicem confugit, qua in urbe monarchorum disciplnae severissimae sese addixit."

464 English translation by Neale. See below, p. 473.

5465 Christ, 242-253; Daniel, III. 112-114; Neale, p. 120-151; Bässler, p. 23, 165; Schaff, p. 240 sq. Joseph is also the author of hymns formerly ascribed to Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem, during the Monotheletic controversy, as Paranikas has shown (Christ, Prol., p. liii.).

6466 Neale notices him, but thinks it not worth while to translate his poetry.

7467 Kanw;neij"th;nuJperagivanqeotovkon. See Daniel, III. 17-20.

8468 Not to be confounded with Methodius Eubulius, of Patara, the martyr (d. 311), who is also counted among the poets for his psalm of the Virgins in praise of chastity (parqevnion); see vol. II. 811, and Christ, p. 33-37. Bässler (p.4 sq.) gives a German version of it by Fortlage.

9469 Pitra concludes his collection with eighty-three anonymous hymns, thirty-two of which he assigns to the poets of the Studium. See also Daniel, III. 110-138, and the last hymns in Neale’s translations.

0470 See the Marianic Te Deum in Daniel, II. 293; and in Mone, II. 229 sq.

1471 A curious mediaeval legend makes the Te Deum the joint product of St. Ambrose and St. Augustin, which was alternately uttered by both, as by inspiration, while Augustin ascended from the baptismal font; Ambrose beginning: Te Deum laudamus, Augustin responding; "Te Dominum confitemur." But neither the writings of one or the other contain the slightest trace of the hymn and its origin. The first historic testimony of its existence and use is the eleventh rule of St. Benedict of Nursia, a.d. 529, which prescribes to the monks of Monte Casino: "Post guartum autem responsorium incipiat Abbas hymnum Te Deum laudamus." But five or eight lines of the hymn are found in Greek as a part of the Gloria in Excelsis (DoxaejnuJyivstoi", etc. ) in the Alexandrian Codex of the Bible which dates from the fifth century. See Daniel, II 289 sqq.;Christ p. 39 (from kaqjhJmevranto eij"tou;"aijw'na"), and Kayser, 437 sqq. Daniel traces the whole Te Deum to a lost Greek original (of which the lines in the Cod. Alex. are a fragment), Kayser to an unknown Latin author in the second half of the fifth century, i.e. about one hundred years after the death of St. Ambrose.

2472 The dates of his birth and death are quite uncertain, and variously stated from 530 or 550 to 600 or 609.

3473 See two Latin texts with critical notes in Daniel, I. 160 sqq., rhymed English Versions by Mant, Caswall, and Neale. The originals are not rhymed, but very melodious. See vol. III. 597. The Opera of Fortunatus were edited by Luchi, Rom. 1786, and Migne in "Patrol. Lat." vol. 88 (Paris 1850). Comp. Ampère, Hist. littér. II. 275 sqq.; Ebert, l.c. I. 494 sqq. Fortunatus is a very interesting character, and deserves a special monograph. Kayser devotes to him three chapters (p. 386-434).

474 Daniel, I. 175-183, gives ten hymns of Gregory, and an additional one (Laudes canamus) in vol. V. 248. Mone adds some more of doubtful authorship, I. 370, 376 sqq.; III. 325 sqq., and includes hymns in praise of Gregory, as "O decus sacerdotum, flosque sanctorum." English translations of his Breviary hymns in Mant, Chambers, Caswall, Newman. On his merits as a poet, see Ebert, I. 827 sqq. Luther, in his Tischreden (which are a strange mixture of truth and fiction), declared the passion hymn Rex Christe,factor omnium, to be the best of all hymns ("der allerbeste Hymnus"), but this extravagant praise is inconsistent with the poetic taste of Luther and the fact that he did not reproduce it in German.
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