Post-WWII European security issues: Cold War; NATO & Warsaw Pact; changes in the 1980s
European security in the post-Cold War: demise of the Cold War; democratization of Eastern Europe & consequences; WEU, NATO & European defence & foreign policy' in the 1990s.
History of European Defence & forerunners to CFSP
1945 United Nations established by 51 countries committed to preserving peace through international cooperation & collective security
1945 After WWII: process of establishing 2 blocs (Soviet Union SU – US). Cold War started:
describes political & economic struggle between capitalist, democratic Western powers & communist Soviet Union (& later other Communist nations) after Allied WW II victory.
Period marked by massive military buildups (including nuclear weaponry) by both sides & by intensive economic competition & strained, hostile diplomatic relations
Strong Western Europe necessary to counter Soviet Union
1948First European organization of post-war period:
OEEC – Organization for European Economic Cooperation – US initiative to rebuild western European eonomies with US help - Marshall Plan
OEEC in 1960: US & Canada became members, changed into OECD – Organisation for European Cooperation & Development. New aim: promote economic progress in III World through development aid
1948Brussels Treaty or Brussels Pact, signed by Benelux, France, UK.
Specific European initiative on mutual defence.
Aim:deterring German revanchism, pact should be seen as contributing towards polarization of Europe into Cold War confrontation zones.
Can be seen as forerunner to NATO. European states were signalling to US superpower perception that European security questions central to post-1945 system
1949NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization signed in Washington by Benelux, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, UK, USA. (Greece & Turkey 1952, Germany 1955, Spain 1982, Czech Republic, Hungary & Poland 1999)
Military alliance, defensive arrangement
Represents group of like-minded states with similar political & economic system
Rational: Cold War & policy of containment of Soviet power & influence in Europe
Proximate cause: Berlin Crisis of 1948-9 & perception among UK & French leaders that some antidote to conventional military capability of SU was needed if Western Europe was to avoid Soviet coercion or worse in deteriorating relations after 45
Based on idea of deterrence
1951ECSC - European Coal & Steal Community – 1.step to European Economic Integration
1950s (beginning) Background: cold war & hostilities in Korea
Western powers, led by USA, envisaged rearmament of FR Germany to meet growing Soviet threat.
But prospect of German army 5 years after WW II end worried European public opinion.
In order to permit rearmament of West Germany without restoring spectre of armed Germany, European Defence Community (EDC) project invented: creation of common European army. Such military Europe in formation would have to be accompanied by political guidance. Therefore, EDC supplemented by project to create European Political Community (with establishment of federal-type political institutions).
1952 Pleven Plan – Treaty establishing European Defence Community EDC signed in Paris
1954French Parliament rejects the EDC Treaty - French defeated their own proposal
1954WEU - Background:
With NATO need for separate Brussels Treaty organization ended,
1950 Consultative Council of Brussels Treaty states agreed that organisation’s defence functions should be subsumed into NATO
This situation obtained until interest in specific European intitiative on defence revived
Following collapse of EDC, Brussels Treaty powers invited Italy & Federal Germany to join by signing protocol to 1948 Treaty & establishing WEU as result
However, WEU was seen as European pillar of NATO (particularly by British elite)
WEU played secondary role to NATO until Iran-Iraq conflict in ‘80s
Acting independently of NATO, WEU sent ships to Middle East in order to protect oil tankers in the region. This action would prove to be first step in modern rise of importance of WEU in European defence.
1955Germany joint NATO
Multilateral treaty between Soviet Union & Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania
Direct response to expansion of NATO with inclusion of FR Germany
1956 Warsaw Pact member states admitted East Germany to the Joint Command & sanctioned the transformation of East Germany's Garrisoned People's Police into a full-fledged army
But the Soviet Union took no steps to integrate the allied armies into a multinational force
Dissolution in 1991 – following events in 1989 – fall of Berlin wall
1957 EEC – European Economic Community, Euratom – European Atomic Energy Community
further economic integration
1961Fouchet Plans (1961-1962): 3 years after EEC & Euratom desire to begin political construction. "Treaty on the Union of States":
inter-State cooperation was to lead to a unified foreign policy
strengthening of Member States' security from any aggression & coordination of defence policies
In the long term, Treaty on Union of States was to encompass European Communities
France's initiatives were rejected:
desire to preserve European Communities from a form of cooperation deemed excessively inter-State &
desire to preserve defence link with US & NATO
1970European Political Cooperation EPC (1970-1993):
"Davignon" Report - marks beginning of EPC
ECP related exclusively to foreign policy & its purpose was to ensure mutual understanding & to strengthen Member States' solidarity on major international policy problems through meetings between their diplomatic services
1972Conference on Security & Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
International organization established to promote East-West cooperation
Military capability cataloguefor EU needs = Force Catalogue drawn up with help of NATO’s military expertise
Goal: by 2003, to deploy within 60 days & sustain for at least 1 year forces up to corps level (60,000 persons), constitute a pool of more than 100.000 persons & approx. 400 combat aircraft & 100 vessels. Based on analysis of Force Catalogue
Under authority of Council
2000 Dec, IGC 2000 ends – result: Treaty of Nice (EP must accept & Member States ratify it)
Rapid Reaction Force confirmed
Development of EU’s military capacity, creation of permanent political & military structures proved
(Art. 17 TEU) Provisions defining the relations between the EU & WEU have been removed
(Art 25 TEU) Creation of a Political & Security Committee (to monitor international situation) in order to manage a crisis & for the duration of that crisis