History is power

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Historiography—the study of history & why and how it changes

Ethnocentrism—belief in cultural superiority

UNIT 1: A Changing World

Chapter 1: Expanding Horizons Section 1: Age of Exploration

  1. Marco Polo

    1. Italian merchant who wrote of his travels through Asia in the 1200s

    2. Inspired European Exploration

  2. MIDDLE AGES (500-1500 A.D.)

  1. Crusades--Wars between Christians & Muslims; Europe experienced an increased demand for Asian goods

  1. Problems with East-West Trade

  1. Europe looks to bypass expensive Italy & Arab cities to trade directly with Asia

  2. Strong monarchs take power of European nations—seek more wealth


  1. More accurate maps

  2. Better navigation Tools

  3. Improved Ship design


  1. Europe’s increased desire for Asian goods

  2. Nation’s(monarchs) pursuit of wealth & power

  3. New technology that supported sailing


    1. Sailed for Spain’s monarchy

    2. Search for Gold; Spread Christianity

    3. Settled Hispaniola (Haiti/Dominican Republic)

  2. De Las Casas

    1. Spanish Priest settled in Hispaniola

    2. Wrote about & condemned cruel treatment of Natives by Spanish


  1. Portugal

    1. Prince Henry the Navigator

      1. Set up center for exploration

    2. Vasco de Gama

      1. Sailed around Southern Africa to reach India

  2. Spanish Conquistadors

    1. Spanish explorers/conquerors of the Americas in the 1500s

    2. Search for Treasure for Spanish crown

    3. Cortez

      1. Conquered Aztec empire in Mexico—capital Tenochtitlan

    4. Pizarro

      1. Conquered Inca empire in Peru

    5. How Spanish conquered: brought guns/cannons/horses; Indians lacked immunity to disease

  3. Spanish Florida

    1. Search for more gold

    2. Ponce de Leon

      1. 1565—St. Augustine—First Spanish settlement in United States

    3. Established Pueblos (towns), Missions(churches) & Presidios (forts)

  4. Northwest Passage

    1. A direct water route through Americas to Asia

    2. England

      1. John Cabot—1497—NEWFOUNDLAND

    3. France

      1. Cartier-1534-St. Lawrence River

    4. Netherlands

      1. Henry Hudson-1609-Hudson Bay, NY

  5. England vs. Spain

    1. Trade Rivalry

    2. England raids Spanish ships & ports

    3. England defeats the Spanish armada

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