The difference between primary and secondary evidence is:
Primary: sources that are directly from the event like a diary entry or a letter.
Secondary: Sources that are written about primary sources
The members of the triple alliance and triple entente at the start of WW1 were:
Triple Alliance-Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy.
Triple Entente-Britain, France, Russia: Canada was a member of the Triple Entente because they were a part of and alliances with Britain
How does the following relate to WW1
Canada’s colonial status
Canada entered the war automatically when Great Britain declared war, not because Canadians chose to themselves.
Russia draws from the war after the czar is overthrown and his family are killed, bringing a new political system in Russia (communism)
It was his assassination in 1914 that caused the immediate cause of WW1
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty after the war that puts the blame on Germany and limits their soldiers, and no colonies, and makes Germany sign the war guilt clause, Canada signed this treaty late as a symbol of independence.
Commander of Canadian forces during WW2
In law, an enemy alien is a citizen of a country which is in a state of conflict with the land in which he or she is located. Usually, but not always, the countries are in a state of declared war.
2 ships collided at the harbour of Halifax, (Norwegian Frater into the Mont Blanc causing a huge explosion and killing off 2000 people. They were delivering war supplies to the warfront like ammunition
Some women vote in 1917
Women who had close relatives serving in the military were able to vote in federal elections; by 1918 all were able to vote in federal elections.
For these battles state the date, how it made Canada stronger, and a significant fact.
April 22 to May 27 1915
Subjected to first poison gas attack (chorine gas)
Marks the beginning of “total war”- meaning that everything is a target and you`ll do anything to win.
Canadians proved themselves
First time all Canadian units fought together
“In Flanders’s Fields” was written here
April 9th 1917
this battle is now the site of Canada`s main overseas WW1 memorial
all soldiers had their own maps, they were actually told what the plan was
July 1st 1916
tanks were used for the 1st time
over 1 million died
Ross rifle (horrible gun) was used recommended by Sam Hughes who was fired after
July 17 1917
Had horrible muddy conditions
Victory solidifies Canadians good reputation.
What Canadian city experienced a General Strike in 1919? Explain what a union is and what “collective bargaining” is.
This strike happened in support of metal workers. The people were frustrated by unemployment, inflation prices, poor working conditions, and regional disparities after WW1, mounted police were called in and the strike ended in a disaster.
Union: An organized association of workers formed to protect and further their rights and interests; a labor union
Collective bargaining is negotiation between workers and employees to determine wages, hours, rules and working conditions.
Briefly explain the Person’s Case. What started it? Who were the famous five? What was the outcome?
Women were fighting against not being known as “persons” under the law meaning they could not hold appointed office etc.
Men were considered better than women; the country became a threshold test for women’s equality.
Famous five (from Alberta):
Henrietta Muir Edwards
Oct. 1929 – women were now known as persons under the law
Describe the following
Flappers- A fashionable young woman intent on enjoying herself and flouting conventional standards and behaviors (short dresses, short hair, smoking)
Statue of Westminster- This is an act of the parliament of the UK establishing legislative equality for the self-governing dominions of the British Empire with the UK. This states that they are bound with no law but their own
Prohibition and rum running
Prohibition meant no one was allowed to drink alcohol (but they were still allowed to make it. This was wanted by mostly women in order to reduce petty crimes.
Rum running – people began to smuggle alcohol across the border and sell it in the US
The constitution act of 1982-
The Chanak Crisis- in September 1922 was the threatened attack by Turkish troops on British and French troops
The Halibut treaty- The Halibut Treaty was a 1923 Canadian–American agreement concerning fishing rights in the northern Pacific Ocean.
Balfour Declaration- the British made public their support of a Jewish homeland in Palestine
Considering that the stated goal of prohibition was to reduce petty crime, make the argument the prohibition was a failure.
although consumption of alcohol fell at the beginning of Prohibition, it subsequently increased.
Organized crime increased as people began to realize there was lots of money to be made selling alcohol across the border in the US
Prohibition removed a significant source of tax revenue and greatly increased government spending. (increased police forces were needed to stop the rum running)
It led many drinkers to switch to opium, marijuana, patent medicines, cocaine, and other dangerous substances that they would have been unlikely to encounter in the absence of Prohibition.
Each of the following helped contribute to or cause the great depression by:
Buying stocks on margin
In margin buying, an individual could purchase a share of a company's stock and use the promise of that share's future earnings to buy more shares. Unfortunately, many people abused this system to invest huge sums of imaginary money that existed only on paper. In the 1920s, more people invested in the stock market than ever before. Stock prices rose so fast that by the end of the decade, people could become rich overnight just by selling or buying stocks. The buyer would hold the stock until the price rose and sell it for a profit. As long as the prices of stocks kept on increasing, the system worked.
In 1928 and 1929, the value of stocks went up faster than the value of the companies the stocks represented. Some experts warned that this bull market would end. In 1929, a few stock investors began to sell their stocks. Seeing these few investors begin to sell, others soon followed creating a domino effect. The sudden selling caused the stock prices to fall. Nervous brokers asked investors to pay their debts, but when they couldn't repay, they were forced to sell, causing the prices of stocks to fall even more.
Easy credit- This is increased supply of money into the banking system making it easily available for public lending with lower interest rate. It is intended to encourage economic growth, thus leading to inflation. This is also called easy money, opposite of tight money.
The great crash- The major declines in economic activity and stock prices that occurred in 1929 and the early 1930s.
Drought- While not a direct cause of the Great Depression, the drought that occurred in the Mississippi Valley in 1930 was of such proportions that many could not even pay their taxes or other debts and had to sell their farms for no profit to themselves
Reliance on exports- This became a problem because once another countries economy failed so would Canada’s
Overproduction- supply exceeded demand and drove prices down hurting farmers, especially share croppers.
Too much economic dependence on the USA- Canada’s economy is closely linked to the U.S. as learned in an earlier chapter. When the American economy got sick, Canada suffered. No longer did Americans need to buy our fish, lumber, wheat, minerals and pulp and paper.
Describe some of the ways in which the government tried to deal with the Great Depression. Did these efforts take different forms as the Depression worsened?
Some ways that the Canadian government tried to deal with depression is that the Canadian Government at the time initially refused to believe that there was a depression, and afterwards rounded up the unemployed into what amounted to slave labour camps, humiliated and demoralized needy families, and allowed wages for those who were working to be slashed below survival levels. As the Prime Minister, Mackenzie King gave the responsibility of welfare and relief to provincial governments, in 1930, federal government freed from monitoring economic problems in Canada. Furthermore, he gave “five – cent piece” to provinces, which ruled by the Liberal party. He neglected provinces those governed by his opponent political parties, such as Conservatives.
What were relief camps? Explain the role of relief camps in causing the On-to-Ottawa Trek. How did the trek end?
The Canadian Government (PM Bennet) brought in relief camps for men over 18, which were run by the Department of National Defence – caused more problem than good in the long run
Made to provide food, shelter, clothing and medical care to those who couldn't afford it
The men did labour jobs for twenty cents a day.
The men complained of bad food and no space to sleep.
In 1935, the Relief Camps Workers Union went on strike in the streets of Vancouver, demanding real wages, better food, clothing and shelter, and military discipline be stopped.
The government did nothing.
Over the whole of the depression over 170,000 men had worked in these camps
In June of 1935, after striking in Vancouver for a month the workers lead by the Relief Camp Workers Union boarded trains in Vancouver bound for Ottawa because they weren't getting enough pay.
The train was stopped in Regina by the RCMP.
Two weeks later was the start of the "Regina Riot" Using baseball bats, Billy Clubs, and tear gas, the RCMP and Regina City Police fought a crowd of mainly citizens for three hours. Dozens of protestors were injured and one police officer was killed.
WW2 leaders of these countries and to which alliance each belongs:
Great Britain- Churchill (allied)
United states-Roosevelt (allied
Canada- Mackenzie king (allied)
Russia- Stalin (allied)
Germany- Hitler (axis)
Italy- Mussolini (axis)
How did the Treaty of Versailles help cause the Second World War?
It had imposed harsh conditions on Germany to prevent it from rising up again
The huge sums of money it had to pay in reparations crippled its economy. To make payment, Germany printed large amounts of money and went into inflation. By 1924 starving people roamed the streets and the country stood on the verge of anarchy.
Describe Germany’s aggression towards the following countries leading up to the Second World War:
Austria- 1938-Germany enters Austria and "anschluss" (union) is announced. There were many Germans in Austria and for the most part, the German army had little or on resistance.
German Jews- The occupied eastern territory of Poland and the Soviet Union was designed to become a huge laboratory, to be inhabited by Slavs, Jews and other nations doomed to extinction, expulsion or enslavement for the benefit of the German Reich.
Czechoslovakia- 1938-England and France agree to allow Hitler to annex the Sudetenland, part of Czechoslovakia. The Czechs do not agree. Hitler takes it anyway.
Poland- Sept 1, 1939, Hitler invades Poland (as does Russia). They divide it among themselves. Hitler & Stalin had signed a non-aggression pact. This is the official start of WWII.
Canadians contributed to each of the following battles. Canada’s role in them was:
The battle of Britain:
This invasion goes from bombing RAF targets only, industry bombing to an all-out and civilian bombing. After a while, German abandons invasion plans, but bombing continues.
Canada began to produce Hurricane fighters and train pilots to defend Britain.
The Canadian fighter group 242 began to take a powerful role in the battle of Britain.
Canadian soldiers first engaged in battle while defending the British Crown Colony of Hong Kong against a Japanese attack in December, 1941.
They had virtually no chance of victory, but refused to surrender until they were overrun by the enemy.
Those who survived the battle became prisoners of war (POWs) for the rest of the war and many endured torture and starvation by their Japanese captors. Hong Kong surrendered after almost 18 days of fighting.
The Dieppe Raid was a planned allied raid on German occupied territory to take place during the first week of July 1942; the objective was the French port of Dieppe.
Dieppe was selected as the main target of the raid partially because it was within range of fighter planes from Britain.
The Allies planned to launch a large-scale amphibious landing, damage German shipping and port facilities, and gather intelligence on enemy defences and radar technology.
The Dieppe Raid during the Second World War was one of the darkest chapters in Canada’s military history. While many men were lost and the raid did not meet most of its objectives, many historians feel that the lessons learned played an important role in the success of later actions. For example, the Dieppe Raid and later beach assaults contributed to improvements in amphibious landing techniques.
This battle was a great disaster and not very successful.
D-day (Juno Beach):
June 6th 1944-15000 Canadians landed on an 8 km stretch of beach called Juno. Despite air superiority many German defences were still intact.
The Canadian sector was the only to reach its objective. On the first day 359 Canadians died.
After D-Day Canada was assigned the task of liberating the Netherlands
The Dutch were on the verge of starvation, Canadian forces arranged food drop mission called Operation Manna.
How did the role of Aboriginal Canadians in the Military Change between the two world wars?
In WW1 if aboriginal Canadians wanted to enlist they had to give up their native status, in WW2 they no longer had to do that.
How did the following apply to the holocaust:
Nuremburg Race Laws of 1935:
Deprived German Jews of their rights of citizenship, giving them the status of "subjects" in Hitler's Reich.
The laws also made it forbidden for Jews to marry or have sexual relations with Aryans or to employ young Aryan women as household help. (An Aryan being a person with blond hair and blue eyes of Germanic heritage.)
The Final solution: Mass extermination of European Jews
A network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by the Third Reich in Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany during World War II.
It was the largest of the German concentration camps
Were camps that the Jewish, Gypsies, or other people were forced to go to, to be tortured or forced to do work.
Hitler and the Nazi’s put them in this type of camp mostly because of their looks and their religion.
The camps were built to fit many people. They also had many bunk beds to save room. The camps started being for killing Jewish people by poisonous gas and testing medical experiments on the people. They would often times they would work them to death.
Describe the following:
The research and development program for the atomic bomb
It started small, but as the bomb became more real, the US added scientists and funding to be sure they were the first to have the bomb. Ironically, many of the scientists involved in making the bomb had defected from Germany
Hiroshima and Nagasaki: During the final stages of World War II in 1945, the Allies of World War II conducted two atomic bombings against the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. These two events are the only use of nuclear weapons in war to date.
Internment of Japanese Canadians:
Confinement of Japanese Canadians in British Columbia during World War II. The internment began in December 1941, following the attack by carrier-borne forces of Imperial Japan on American naval and army facilities at Pearl Harbor.
The Canadian federal government gave the internment order based on speculation of sabotage and espionage, although the RCMP and defence department lacked proof.
They were treated horribly
The effects of conscription in Canada in WW1 and WW2 (based on the feeling towards conscription in Quebec and its impact on National Unity)
Conscription caused the stress of national unity because Qubec was against conscription for both wars, while the English Canadians supported it.
Caused separation on the basis of language
Canadians on the home front contributed to the war effort by
Knitting sweaters and socks for the Red Cross
Collecting newspapers and tin and rubber tires
Selling or buying war stamps and bonds
Volunteering to be a block captain when we had pretend lights out sessions to teach us what to do in case of a real air attack on cities
Using war stamps for shoes and food and by maintaining victory gardens in our back yards
Keeping our cars and other vehicles in good shape because there were no new cars made.
What international organization was created at the end of WWII to replace the League of Nations?
The United Nations - an international organization of countries set up in 1945, in succession to the League of Nations, to promote international peace.
What is the purpose of the following international organizations and which did Canada belong
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, formed by countries allied to the USA, not the USSR. It's still active. It's a military alliance (not an economic one) whose role was to defend Europe against the Soviets. Canada belonged
A union of the USSR and the "Communist Block". It included the USSR, plus East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and possibly Yugoslavia and Romania. Romania broke from Warsaw pact in the late 1960's. Canada did not participate
North American Ari Defence – born in 1958
The groundwork for NORAD was laid in the Second World War, when American and Canadian leaders met and expressed an interest in information and patrol sharing responsibilities. Since both nations were allies and both presumably had a vested interest in not being invaded, a cooperative effort was logical. After the Second World War, concerns about the growing Soviet threat led to a desire for a more coordinated and centralized cooperation
An agreement was made between Great Britian, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, making Canada the hub of a program to train air crew.
This was a major Canadian contribution to Allied air supremacy in WWII called “Aerodrome of democracy.” There were 231 training facilities and small bases all over Canada and The Windsor Flying Club was set up
Francophonie is an international organization of polities and governments with French as the mother or customary language, where in a significant proportion of people are Francophones (French speakers) or where there is a notable affiliation with the French language or culture.
Describe the following technologies and explain their impact on Canadians
The first long-range anti-aircraft missiles
Rocket boosted and then ramjet powered, they were capable of carrying conventional or nuclear warheads. Their intended role in defense was in an intrusion prevention perimeter. Bomarcs aligned on the eastern and western coasts of North America theoretically would launch and would destroy enemy bombers before the bombers could drop their payloads on industrial regions. In addition to the USAF, the Bomarc was also deployed by Canada.
To catch Soviet bombers, the Royal Canadian Air Force puts out the call for a jet that will fly faster, higher and further than anything on the market. It was a supersonic interceptor fighter plane designed and built in Canada's government owned facility,
The growth of television during the 1950's was spectacular.
In 1953, only one quarter of the population had television in their homes.
Massey Commission had hoped that television could be used as an instrument to promote Canadian nationalism. However, from the beginning, American programs were popular in the Canadian market.
The automobile (1950s)
Made living in the suburbs easier and more popular
This resulted in the rise of strip malls and big standalone grocery stores. And drive in theaters became popular.
Describe and explain the significance of the following cold war events:
The Korean War was an example of the US policy of containment in action. The purpose of the policy was to "contain" communism where it existed and not let it spread over any other areas in the world. It was adopted by the Truman administration and continued in one form or another by later administrations.
The Canadians fought in this war, but only through the UN as peacekeepers
Cuban Missile crisis
The US discovered that the USSR was installing nuclear missiles in Cuba.
The world held its breath as President Kennedy and the USSR’s Nikita Kutscher exchanged stern warnings and threats of nuclear war, American and some Canadian air force units were put high on alert, ready to launch attacks if the Soviet ships going to Cuba did not turn back.
When the US asked Canada to launch its units, Canada waited a few days showing that they make their own decisions – this made the US mad
The world realized how close it came to a nuclear war and decided it did not want another one to happen
Suez crisis (peacekeeping)
Suez Crisis, international confrontation along the Suez Canal in 1956 that pitted Egypt against the combined forces of Israel, Britain, and France. The crisis, which was provoked by Egypt's nationalization of the strategic waterway, triggered the diplomatic intervention of both the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). It was finally defused through the placement of a United Nations (UN) peacekeeping force in the Canal Zone.
Lester Person (a Canadian diplomat who later went on to be Prime Minister) proposed the idea of the UN peacekeeping force, he won a noble peace prize.
First time a UN peacekeeping force was used
Canada refuses to side with Britain
It was a proxy war. US was basically fighting the Soviets but without actually fighting them
North was aided by the Soviets (communist) and the south by the U.S. (against communism)
It was the first war the U.S. "lost" because the North still ended up becoming communist.
US implemented conscription, many men avoided the draft by coming to Canada
Explain in detail what is meant by the term counterculture as it applies to the 1960s (address the idea of a protest movement)
Counterculture - A culture that opposes conformity to the dominant culture) became a social force
1950s “Beatniks” - intellectual artist and writers who challenged mainstream values of society with their work.
“Hippies” took those ideas further and gained more visibilities. The “Hippy movement” encompassed artists, revolutionaries, writers, musicians etc. It also included many who saw it as a fashion, not a revolution.
The counterculture led to many “protest movements” in the 60s and 70s.
What is meant by the term Trudeaumania? Explain how Trudeau tried to create a just society. (give examples of policies or programs)
Trudeaumania was the nickname given in early 1968 to the excitement generated by Pierre Trudeau's entry into the leadership race of the Liberal Party of Canada.
“Just Society” is to illustrate his vision for the nation. He first used the term in the 1968 Liberal Party leadership contest, at the height of "Trudeaumania", and it eventually came to be identified as one of his trademark phrases.
The label Just Society was not attached to a specific set of reforms, but rather applied to all Trudeau's policies, from official bilingualism to the creation of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Briefly describe the Quiet Revolution. Whose election marks its beginning? When did it happen and what did it entail?
The Quiet Revolution occurred in the 1960’s and early 1970’s
It was a revolt against Quebec’s traditional values, art movement, manifesto of change, but it does not become main stream until 1960 (when Jean Lesage becomes premier)
The changes that took place in Quebec were:
Education reform, province takes control of education (church loses control)
System of primary, secondary, higher education
Hydro is nationalized, the province takes control of hydro and French is the language of business, engineers and technicians can work in French
Social programs- pensions – all are instituted under Lesage.
Outline some of the arguments for Quebec Sovereignty. (why did they want to leave Canada?)
Protect their French language and their French culture. They wanted to govern themselves having their own political views.
What was the FLQ? Describe their activities with special emphasis on the FLQ crisis of 1970.
Le Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) is a national liberation movement that was founded in 1963.
Its goal was to achieve Quebec independence by resorting to terrorism, if necessary.
After several bombing attempts, particularly in 1968 and 1969, the FLQ orchestrated the abduction of British diplomat, James Richard Cross, on October 5, 1970, and of provincial minister, Pierre Laporte, later on October 10.
Meanwhile, negotiations were being held with Robert Bourassa's Quebec government, and the FLQ's manifesto was broadcast on CBC radio on October 8.
Faced with an impasse in the negotiations, the Quebec government demanded the help of the army on October 15 to assist the Montreal police in their efforts. The War Measures Act was implemented.
How did the government deal with the FLQ crisis? What controversies were there?
The government took care of the FLQ crisis by invoking the War Measures Act
Controversies - the War Measures Act stripped people of their rights.
What is the Parti Québécois and who was its first leader? Briefly describe the referenda of 1980 and 1995.
The Parti Québécois (PQ) is a centre-left provincial political party that advocates national sovereignty for the province of Quebec and secession from Canada. The Party traditionally has support from the labour movement.
Their leader was René Lévesque.
The first referenda of 1980 and 1995 were votes taken by Quebecers that were either for Quebec staying as a part of Canada or leaving Canada, in both referendums the “stay in Canada” won by a little.
What does the term Constitutional crisis mean? (include the Constitution of 1982, the Meech Lake Accord and the Charlottetown proposal) why did the later two fail?
A constitutional crisis is a severe breakdown in the orderly operation of government. Generally speaking, a constitutional crisis is a situation in which separate factions within a government disagree about the extent to which each of these factions hold sovereignty.
The Meech Lake Accord and the Charlottetown proposal both failed because different groups of Canadians felt like they were being left out. Some groups included Aboriginals and women’s groups. Also, western Canada felt like the Government thought Quebec was more important and Quebec thought that the Government thought that they were not important.
How does the following relate to the relationship between native Canadians and the federal government
Residential schools refer to a variety of institutions that include industrial schools, boarding schools and student residences. Although residential schools are usually considered part of the assimilative policies that the Canadian government directed at aboriginal peoples from the 1880s onward, their roots lie deeper.
Comprehensive claims deal with the unfinished business of treaty-making in Canada. These claims arise in areas of Canada where Aboriginal land rights have not been dealt with by past treaties or through other legal means. In these areas, forward-looking modern treaties are negotiated between the Aboriginal group, Canada and the province or territory.
Oka – involved the Mohawks
a golf course wanted to expand, but the expansion would be onto sacred Mohawk land
the Natives erected a barricade and when police intervened, one was killed
Ipperwash – this territory was “shared” by the Chippewas and the British Crown in the early 1800s but now they want it back, especially what is now Ipperwash Provincial Park because they believe it is a sacred burial ground
One aboriginal (Dudley George) was accidentally shot and killed
In 1969, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and his Minister of Indian Affairs, Jean Chrétien, unveiled a policy paper that proposed ending the special legal relationship between Aboriginal peoples and the Canadian state and dismantling the Indian Act. This white paper was met with forceful opposition from Aboriginal leaders across the country and sparked a new era of Indigenous political organizing in Canada.
Meech lake and Charlottetown
The Meech Lake Accord was a package of proposed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated. It was intended to persuade the government of Quebec to endorse the 1982 constitutional amendment and increase support in Quebec for remaining within Canada. Its rejection had the effect of energizing support for Quebec sovereignty.
Whether the accord would pass or not was left up to one person – Elijah Harper from Manitoba (an Aboriginal Leader) who voted it down because it did no meet the demand for Aboriginal rights
The Charlottetown Accord was a package of proposed amendments to the Constitution of Canada, proposed by the Canadian federal and provincial governments. It was submitted to a public referendum, and was defeated.
Differed from the Meech Lake accord because the government spent a whole year going all around Canada to hear Canadian’s ideas about what should be encompassed.
35. The prime minister associated with each of the following:
WW1- Robert Borden
WW2- Mackenzie King
The worst year of the great depression- R. B. Bennett