Betsy S. Barton, Specialist, History and Social Science
Office of Middle Instructional Services
James C. Firebaugh, Director
Beverly M. Thurston, Coordinator, History and Social Science, International Education
Office of Secondary Instructional Services
Maureen B. Hijar, Director
Colleen C. Bryant, Specialist, History and Social Science
Edited, designed, and produced by the CTE Resource Center
Margaret L. Watson, Administrative Coordinator
Mary C. Grattan, Writer/Editor
Bruce B. Stevens
Richmond Medical Park Phone: 804-673-3778
2002 Bremo Road, Lower Level Fax: 804-673-3798
Richmond, Virginia 23226 Web site: http://CTEresource.org
The CTE Resource Center is a Virginia Department of Education grant project
administered by the Henrico County Public Schools.
NOTICE TO THE READER
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The Virginia Department of Education does not unlawfully discriminate on the basis of sex, race, age, color, religion, handicapping conditions, or national origin in employment or in its educational programs and activities.
The content contained in this document is supported in whole or in part by the U.S. Department of Education. However, the opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the U.S. Department of Education, and no official endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education should be inferred.
Introduction The History and Social Science Standards of Learning Enhanced Scope and Sequence is a resource intended to help teachers align their classroom instruction with the History and Social Science Standards of Learning that were adopted by the Board of Education in March 2001. The History and Social Science Enhanced Scope and Sequence is organized by topics from the original Scope and Sequence document and includes the content of the Standards of Learning and the essential knowledge and skills from the Curriculum Framework. In addition, the Enhanced Scope and Sequence provides teachers with sample lesson plans that are aligned with the essential knowledge and skills in the Curriculum Framework.
School divisions and teachers can use the Enhanced Scope and Sequence as a resource for developing sound curricular and instructional programs. These materials are intended as examples of how the knowledge and skills might be presented to students in a sequence of lessons that has been aligned with the Standards of Learning. Teachers who use the Enhanced Scope and Sequence should correlate the essential knowledge and skills with available instructional resources as noted in the materials and determine the pacing of instruction as appropriate. This resource is not a complete curriculum and is neither required nor prescriptive, but it can be a useful instructional tool.
The Enhanced Scope and Sequence contains the following:
Units organized by topics from the original History and Social Science Scope and Sequence
Essential understandings, knowledge, and skills from the History and Social Science Standards of Learning Curriculum Framework
Former Social Studies Coordinator for Williamsburg-James City County
Williamsburg-James City County Public Schools
Former President, Virginia Council on Economic Education
Williamsburg-James City County Public Schools
Standard(s) of Learning
USI.1 The student will develop skills for historical and geographical analysis, including the ability to
a) identify and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history to 1877;
c) sequence events in United States history from pre-Columbian times to 1877;
f) analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events.
USI.2 The student will use maps, globes, photographs, pictures, and tables to
a) locate the seven continents;
b) locate and describe the location of the geographic regions of North America: Coastal Plain, Appalachian Mountains, Canadian Shield, Interior Lowlands, Great Plains, Rocky Mountains, Basin and Range, and Coastal Range;
c) locate and identify the water features important to the early history of the United States: Great Lakes, Mississippi River, Missouri River, Ohio River, Columbia River, Colorado River, Rio Grande, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico.
Essential Understandings, Knowledge, and Skills
Skills (to be incorporated into instruction throughout the academic year)
Identify and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history.
Sequence events in United States history.
Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events.
Describe continents as large land masses surrounded by water.
Identify the seven continents:
Europe. (Explain that Europe is considered a continent even though it is not entirely surrounded by water. The land mass is frequently called Eurasia.)
Explain that geographic regions have distinctive characteristics.
Identify the geographic regions of North America and describe the following physical characteristics of each region:
Located along the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico
Identify and locate on a map the following major bodies of water to which the United States has access:
Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Columbia, Colorado, Rio Grande
Gulf of Mexico.
Describe, using the information below, how bodies of water support interaction among regions, form borders, and create links to other areas:
Trade, transportation, and settlement
The location of the United States, with its Atlantic and Pacific coasts, has provided access to other areas of the world.
The Atlantic Ocean served as the highway for explorers, early settlers, and later immigrants.
The Ohio River was the gateway to the west.
Inland port cities grew in the Midwest along the Great Lakes.
The Mississippi and Missouri Rivers were the transportation arteries for farm and industrial products. They were links to ports and other parts of the world.
The Columbia River was explored by Lewis and Clark.
The Colorado River was explored by the Spanish.
The Rio Grande forms the border with Mexico.
The Pacific Ocean was an early exploration route.
The Gulf of Mexico provided the French and Spanish with exploration routes to Mexico and other parts of America.
Below is an annotated list of Internet resources for this organizing topic. Copyright restrictions may exist for the material on some Web sites. Please note and abide by any such restrictions.
Education Place.Houghton Mifflin, Inc. <http://www.eduplace.com/ss/maps/world.html>. This site offers access to a collection of maps that can be used for the course in United States History to 1877.
“North America Geographic Regions.” Virginia Department of Education. <http://www.pen.k12.va.us/VDOE/Instruction/History/NorthAmerica-sel-regions.pdf>. This site offers a map of the geographic regions of North America.
Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments for the 2001 History and Social Science Standards of Learning. United States History to 1877: Test Blueprint. Virginia Department of Education, 2003/04. <http://www.pen.k12.va.us/VDOE/Assessment/HistoryBlueprints03/2002Blueprint3USI.pdf>. This site provides assessment information for the course in United States History to 1877.
Session 1: Labeling a Map of the World
Outline maps of the world
Provide each student with an outline map of the world, colored pencils, and a desk atlas. For outline maps of the world, see Education Place. Houghton Mifflin, Inc. <http://www.eduplace.com/ss/maps/world.html>.
Have students label on their maps
the seven continents
the eight geographic regions of North America
the major oceans, gulfs, lakes, and rivers of North America, including the
Gulf of Mexico.
After students have completed their maps, have them answer the following questions:
What are some distinguishing physical, geographical features of the four hemispheres?
How do these features reflect the climate and the way individuals live in these hemispheres?
Have students use the information from these maps later to develop a game of geographical pursuit (see Session 3 below).
Session 2: Travel Brochure for a Geographic Region
Physical and political maps of the United States
“Travel Brochure” assignment sheet (Attachment A)
1. Before beginning this lesson, have students assess their knowledge of the geography of the United States. Challenge them to draw from memory the outline of the United States (cover all maps in the classroom) and label the following features on their map:
The Appalachian Highlands
The Rocky Mountains
The Great Lakes
The Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Columbia, and Colorado rivers, and the Rio Grande
The Great Plains
The Gulf of Mexico.
Many students will struggle to remember the location of these features. After the exercise is complete, review the map of the U.S. with students, focusing on the above features. Another option for this activity would be to let students work in pairs to label the features.
2. Have the students, working individually or in small groups, design a travel brochure surveying one of the geographic regions of the United States. Assign each student or group of students a region from the following list:
Basin and Range
To begin, students should find their region on a map and identify the outstanding physical and cultural characteristics of that region and the states located in it. After the students have completed this step, give each student or group a copy of the “Travel Brochure” assignment sheet (Attachment A). Have students use the library and/or Internet sources to complete this project. They should access official state Web sites that offer tourist information. To assist students, you may want to show students examples of some real travel brochures and point out some of the distinguishing characteristics they all share.
3. After students have completed their brochures, have them present their brochures to the class while the remaining students take notes on the main points. Another option is a “scavenger hunt” in which the brochures are posted around the room and the students examine the brochures to find answers to questions on a teacher-created worksheet.
Session 3: Geography Trivial Pursuit
Maps and information from previous lessons
1. Have students participate in a game of geography trivial pursuit. First, divide students into pairs or small groups. Then have each pair or group use various resources to write a specific number of questions for the game. To avoid duplication of questions, assign each pair or group a geographic region on which to focus. Have the students write their questions on index cards — the question on one side, and the answer on the other. Check the students’ questions for accuracy and content, and have them correct their questions as needed. The students are now ready to play the game.
2. Collect the questions, divide the students into teams, and play the game as a whole class. Assign points to teams for correct answers. (Alternatively, have students play in smaller groups. This option requires the duplication of index cards.) Students may design and make game boards or bring game boards and pieces to class in order to play.
Session 4: Assessment
Assessment (Attachment B)
1. Administer assessment. Sample assessment items are contained in Attachment B.
Attachment A: Travel Brochure Design a travel brochure according to the guidelines listed below. Your brochure should include
a catchy title
creative descriptions of the main physical features of the region (e.g., rivers, lakes)
creative descriptions of at least two main tourist attractions, either natural or man-made (e.g., a canyon, a waterfall, an amusement park, or a historical site/park)
pictures of at least three main tourist attractions (These may be found on the Internet, printed, and applied to your brochure.)
possible accommodations. (These could include hotels or camping.)
Be sure that your brochure is colorful and attractive so that it will encourage people to visit your region.