Through Industrialism History Alive! The United States Through Industrialism was developed by middle school teachers at Teachers’ Curriculum Institute (TCI). We, Bert Bower and Jim Lobdell, are two former high school teachers who started TCI. Our goal is to help students like you succeed in learning about history in a way that is fun and exciting. With the help of teachers from around the nation, we’ve created the TCI Approach to learning. This chapter explains how the TCI Approach will make U.S. history come alive for you.
The TCI Approach has three main parts. First, during class you’ll be involved in a lot of exciting activities. For example, by playing a game of Capture the Flag, you’ll learn how the Continental Army defeated the British in the Revolutionary War. You’ll participate as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention to understand the important debates that influenced the design of our Constitution. You’ll explore the experience of immigrants at the turn of the 20th century by creating and sharing immigrant scrapbooks. Every lesson is built around an activity like these.
Second, during and after these activities, you get to read this book. You’ll discover that your reading connects closely to the activities that you experience. We’ve worked hard to make the book interesting and easy to follow.
Third, during each lesson you’ll write about your learning in your Interactive Student Notebook. You’ll end up with your very own personal account of U.S. history.
With the TCI Approach, you’ll not only learn more about history than ever before, but you’ll have fun doing it. Let’s take a closer look at how this approach will help you learn U.S. history.
Two teachers, Bert Bower (above) and Jim Lobdell (below), started TCI. They work with teachers and students like you to develop new ways to learn history.
Theory-Based, Active Instruction
History Alive! The United States Through Industrialism is probably unlike any other history program you have ever encountered. Perhaps you have been in history classes where you listen to the teacher and then read a textbook and answer chapter questions. Does this approach make you excited about learning history? Most students would say no, and educational researchers would tend to agree. Researchers have discovered new ways of reaching all students in the diverse classroom. This program relies on three of their theories.
Students learn best through multiple intelligences. Howard Gardner, an educational researcher, discovered that people use their brains in very different ways to learn the same fact or concept. From this discovery, he created a theory called multiple intelligences. There are at least seven intelligences. You can think of them as different ways of being smart—with words, with pictures, with numbers, with people, with your body, with music and rhythms, and with who you are. Everyone has multiple intelligences. Using one or more of these ways of being smart can make learning easier.
Cooperative interaction increases learning gains. Through research, Elizabeth Cohen discovered that students learn more when they interact by working with others in groups. Interactive learning includes working with your classmates in many kinds of activities. You’ll work in groups, do role plays, and create simulations. This kind of learning requires you and your classmates to share your ideas and work together well.
All students can learn via the spiral curriculum.
Researcher Jerome Bruner believed that learning isn’t just up to students. Teachers need to make learning happen for all
students. Bruner believed, as the TCI Approach does, that all students can learn through a process of step-by-step discovery. This process is known as a spiral curriculum.
These three theories are the foundation of the TCI Approach. Putting them into practice in History Alive! The United States Through Industrialism gives you what you need to succeed.
Researchers have found that students learn best when they are given the opportunity to use their multiple intelligences, work cooperatively with their peers, and build on what they know.
A lot of people care about what you are learning in history. These people include your parents, your school administrators, your teachers, and even your state and national elected officials. In fact, if you’re like students in most states, you take tests at the end of the year to measure your progress.
Most end-of-year tests are based on standards. Standards are the key pieces of information about history that elected officials think are important for you to remember. When you read most standards, you might scratch your head and think, “These seem really hard to understand, and they’re probably even harder to learn and remember.” There’s no need to worry about that with History Alive! The United States Through Industrialism. Every lesson is based on standards. So every day, while you’re having fun learning U.S. history, you are also learning key standards.
You’ll be recording everything you learn in your Interactive Student Notebook. When it’s time to prepare for tests, your notebook will make it easy to review all the standards you’ve learned.
In fact, students across the nation using the TCI Approach are getting better scores than ever on standardized tests. A big reason for this success is that the TCI Approach is based on interactive learning. That means you won’t just read about history. You’ll be actively involved in experiencing it and recording what you learn. Now let’s look at what you’ll do during each part of a lesson with the TCI Approach.
History Alive! The United States Through Industrialism has been carefully developed to provide the information and learning you need to succeed on state tests.
With the TCI Approach, learning starts even before you begin studying. Most of the lessons in History Alive! The United States Through Industrialism begin with a Preview assignment. Previews are short assignments that you complete in your Interactive Student Notebook. They allow you to make a personal connection to what you will study.
After you complete a Preview assignment, your teacher will hold a brief class discussion. Several students will share their answers. Your teacher will then reveal how the assignment “previews” what is to come in the lesson.
Here are some examples of the kinds of Preview assignments you will complete:
• Before learning about daily life in colonial America in Chapter 4, you will look at a set of statements about the colonies in a fictitious British tabloid newspaper. You’ll become a British reporter and travel to colonial America to evaluate the accuracy of these claims.
• Before learning about the Bill of Rights in Chapter 10, you will reflect on the powers given to parents in a “Parents’ Constitution.” You will determine if the powers should be restricted to protect the rights of children.
• Before learning about the lives of African Americans in the mid-1800s in Chapter 20, you will analyze a story quilt. You will use the quilt to find clues about the varied experiences of African Americans during this time period.
• Before learning about the Civil War in Chapter 22, you will listen to two period songs. You will describe the mood and lyrics of each song as if you were a Confederate or a Union soldier.
Preview assignments like these will spark your interest and get you ready to tackle new concepts. Next come the exciting activities that make up the heart of each lesson. As you’re about to see, these activities draw on many ways of being smart—our multiple intelligences.
Preview assignments like the ones shown here help introduce you to new topics.
The teaching strategies in the TCI Approach are based on hands-on learning. Every lesson in History Alive! The United States Through Industrialism is built around a fun and exciting activity. We mentioned some examples earlier. Here are some other things you and your classmates will do to experience U.S. history:
• For Chapter 3, you’ll prepare a booth for a colonial fair to see the similarities and differences between the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies.
• For Chapter 16, you’ll become groups of people traveling to the West in the 1800s, bringing to life the challenges and successes of your move westward.
• For Chapter 25, you’ll pretend to be workers in a garment factory, experiencing life on the assembly line.
Activities like these will challenge you to use your multiple intelligences. Think about times when learning new things has been easier for you. Were you looking at pictures about the new ideas? Were you writing about them? Does acting out an event help you to better understand what happened? Studying history is a lot easier and more fun when you learn new ideas in ways that best suit your learning styles. Here’s a list of seven different intelligences:
• Linguistic (word smart)
• Logical-mathematical (number/reasoning smart)
• Spatial (picture smart)
• Body-kinesthetic (body smart)
• Musical (music smart)
• Interpersonal (people smart)
• Intrapersonal (self smart)
While you’re engaged in fun and exciting activities, you’ll also be reading this book to learn more about U.S. history. The next page explains why this book is so easy to read.
Using your multiple intelligences helps you learn and remember what you study.
The TCI Approach is all about being successful and having fun while you learn. You’re about to discover that History Alive! The United States Through Industrialism is interesting to read and easy to understand. That’s because this book is “reader friendly,” which is another of saying that it makes readers want to read it. Some people call this considerate text. The writers of this book considered your needs as a reader and made sure you would have fun reading.
Here are some of the ways this book is considerate of all levels of readers:
• Each chapter is organized around key concepts. The summary section reminds you of the big ideas in the chapter.
• Each chapter begins with a graphic organizer—a picture that represents the main ideas of the chapter. The graphic organizer also appears in the Reading Notes in your Interactive Student Notebook. It will help you remember key ideas long after you’ve read the chapter.
• Short chapters make it easier for you to understand and remember what each one is about.
• Each section has a clear focus and a subtitle that provides an outline for your reading. Research shows that presenting new information in easy-to-manage chunks makes it easier to understand.
• Important new words are in bold teal-colored type. These words are defined in the margins and in the Glossary at the back of the book.
• Photos and illustrations provide additional information about the topic on the page. A great way to check your understanding is to ask yourself, “How does this picture show what I just read?”
Most importantly, History Alive! The United States Through Industrialism is as exciting to read as a good story. The next section explains a special way of taking notes that will help you remember what you read.
You’ll use History Alive! The United States Through Industrialism during classroom activities. You’ll be turning to it over and over again to find the information you need to know.
Graphically Organized Reading Notes
Note taking is very important in the TCI Approach. As you read this book, you’ll complete Reading Notes in your Interactive Student Notebook. You’ll answer important questions, find main ideas, and connect new ideas to what you already know.
Your Reading Notes will leave you with a picture in your mind of each chapter’s key ideas. The graphic organizers at the start of each chapter will be a visual reminder of what you read. In your Reading Notes, you’ll use those same graphic organizers to help you record key ideas. For example, in Chapter 6, you’ll use a visual metaphor of a rope tying the American colonies to Britain. You’ll take notes on the rope’s unraveling strands to record the weakening ties that led to the Declaration of Independence. For Chapter 15, you will take notes on map of the United States. You will trace and annotate new boundaries to follow the country’s expansion across the continent. For Chapter 18, you’ll take notes on signs carried by people demonstrating for change. The signs represent the different reform movements of the mid-19th century.
Completing your Reading Notes will help you study in two ways. First, it will encourage you to think carefully about what you read. Second, recording key ideas will help you remember them for a long time.
There’s one more part of the TCI Approach that will help you remember the important ideas you are learning. Read the next page to find out.
You’ll record key ideas on the Reading Notes pages in your Interactive Student Notebook. This will help you remember what you learned long after the lesson is over.
At the end of each lesson, you’ll complete a Processing assignment in your Interactive Student Notebook. Here you’ll show that you understand the key concepts of the lesson.
These pages encourage you to relate ideas to one another. You’ll make connections between the past and present. You’ll show your understanding of concepts by creating illustrations, diagrams, flowcharts, poetry, and cartoons. As one student said, “It’s really cool to have a place in our notebooks where we can record our own ideas. It makes learning history a lot more fun.”
Here are some examples of the kinds of Processing assignments you’ll complete:
• In Chapter 5, you will learn about the tensions between the colonies and Britain from 1763 to 1775. In the Processing assignment, you’ll write a dialogue between the two sides.
• In Chapter 14, you will assess the presidency of Andrew Jackson. In the Processing assignment, you’ll design a hero’s commemorative plaque to highlight his positive contributions and a Wanted poster to show his negative impact.
• In Chapter 28, you will analyze early 20th-century political cartoons to learn about U.S. expansionism. In the Processing assignment, you’ll create your own political cartoon to show your support or opposition to U.S. involvement in World War I.
Students across the country report that their Processing assignments have helped them understand and remember what they have learned. As a result, they are earning higher test scores.
In Processing assignments, you’ll show that you understand the new ideas of the lesson.
Multiple Intelligence Assessments
Do you dread taking chapter and unit tests? If so, maybe you feel that most tests don’t let you show what you’ve learned. The tests for History Alive! The United States Through Industrialism are different. They let you show how well you understand each lesson’s key ideas.
These tests also allow you to use your multiple intelligences. Each test has some of the usual multiple-choice questions. These will help prepare you for taking more formal tests. But other parts of the assessments will challenge you to use more than just your “word smart” intelligence. They’ll give you a chance to shine if you are good in other areas, such as reading maps, using charts and graphs, drawing, understanding music, or analyzing historical paintings. You may also be asked to show how well you read. You’ll be invited to express your ideas and your understanding of historical events in writing, too.
The secret to doing well on tests is preparation. You have the perfect tool for this purpose: your Interactive Student Notebook. Right there on those pages are your notes about all the key ideas in each chapter. Students who study their Reading Notes and Processing assignments before a test usually earn good test scores.
Success on tests is important, but the most important thing of all is learning. We’ve designed our tests not just
to assess your understanding but to help you remember key ideas. That’s because the lessons you learn from U.S. history can help you make sense of your world and guide your future decisions. We hope that what you learn in History Alive! The United States Through Industrialism will remain with you for years to come.
Your teacher may give you test pages to complete at the end of a lesson. These tests include questions with multiple-choice answers as well as questions that let you draw or write your answers.
The Native Americans 1
Meet the Native Americans who lived in different regions of North America. Discover how the different environments affected these original settlers.
European Exploration and Settlement 17
Read about the European countries that competed for control of the New World and its riches. Learn what devastating effects their arrival had on the native population.
The English Colonies in America 35
Travel with the first English settlers who came to start a new life in America. Consider the advantages and disadvantages of life in the New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies.
Life in the Colonies 49
Experience the joys and hardships of daily life for the American colonists, their servants, and slaves. Learn about their work, their pleasures, their food, their religion, and their schooling.
Toward Independence 63
Discover what happened as tensions grew between the colonists and their government in far-off England. Meet the people who would rather risk their lives than give up their rights.
The Declaration of Independence 79
Examine the events that led the colonists to declare independence. Witness the brave men who created a document that changed the world.
The American Revolution 87
Relive the challenges faced by poorly trained and ill-equipped solders, locked in a war against the most powerful nation in the world. Learn how the colonies won the revolution and their independence from Great Britain.
Creating the Constitution 103
Share the frustrations of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention as they struggled to organize a new government. Recognize the compromises they made for the sake of presenting a united plan.
The Constitution: A More Perfect Union 119
Why has the Constitution endured for more than 200 years of extreme social change? Examine this remarkable document that describes the organization and powers of the national government and its unique system of checks and balances.
The Bill of Rights 133
Explore the power of the first ten amendments to the Constitution. Learn how they are used by the Supreme Court to protect the basic freedoms we enjoy in our daily lives.
Political Developments in the Early Republic 145
Compare the two rivals in the election of 1800—Hamilton and Jefferson. Note how their opposing views gave rise to the country’s first political parties and led to a new way of electing the president.
Foreign Affairs in the Young Nation 161
Follow the foreign policy debates as the young America faces threats from powerful European nations. Learn which presidents were willing to risk war and which preferred to keep their country at peace.
A Growing Sense of Nationhood 175
Learn how the United States developed a national identity in the first half of the 19th century. Take a look at the politics, art, music, and literature that helped define what it meant to be an American.
Andrew Jackson and the Growth of American Democracy 185
Evaluate Andrew Jackson, one of the nation’s most colorful presidents, through the eyes of his contemporaries. Understand why some thought he was a villain and others considered him a hero.
Manifest Destiny and the Growing Nation 197
Trace the expansion of America across the continent. Discover why many Americans believed it was both their right and their duty to spread their way of life into the West.
Life in the West 211
Join the explorers, the trappers, the missionaries, and other pioneers on their difficult journey to settle the rugged West. Discover the unique contributions each group made to American culture.
Mexicano Contributions to the Southwest 229
Recognize the many Mexicano innovations adopted by Anglos. Appreciate their contributions that enabled settlers to prosper in the hot, dry climate of the Southwest.
An Era of Reform 241
Find out about the efforts of American reformers in such causes as ending slavery, promoting women’s rights, and improving education. Judge the progress women have made toward full equality.
The Worlds of North and South 253
Step back in time to experience life in a northern city and on a southern plantation. Explore the differences that would ultimately shatter the unity of the country.
African Americans at Mid-Century 269
Share the misery and admire the courage of black Americans living as slaves. Learn about their struggle to escape racism and discrimination.
A Dividing Nation 285
Discover the deep divisions over slavery that would threaten to tear the country apart. Join the search for compromises on the issues that divided the nation.
The Civil War 303
Visit battlegrounds to relive the Civil War. Face the terrors and hardships of those who suffered through America’s bloodiest war.
The Reconstruction Era 323
Track the progress of African Americans toward full citizenship following the Civil War. Feel the disappointment and bitterness of former slaves who lost their newly gained rights.
Tensions in the West 337
Follow the groups that swept across the West after the Civil War. Observe their clashes with the Native Americans and consider their impact on the West’s native peoples.
The Rise of Industry 353
Learn how the rise of big business changed American life. Explore the innovations that transformed society, and witness the benefits and the abuses of industrialization.
The Great Wave of Immigration 371
Step off a steamship or cross the border with some of the many immigrants from Europe, Asia, and Mexico. Learn about their hopes, their struggles, and their disappointments.
The Progressive Era 385
Investigate the problems in America and discover how social leaders proposed to deal with them. Understand that while the “Progressives” fought for many different causes, all sought a better American society.
America Becomes a World Power 399
Revisit America as the 20th century begins, and learn how expansionists moved to extend the nation’s power across the Western Hemisphere and around the world.
Linking Past to Present 417
Consider the tremendous changes in social and economic conditions in the United States since 1914. Recognize the role that dedicated individuals have played and will always play in shaping the world around them.
The Native Americans
What materials were used to make these people’s clothes?
What are these people trading?
What materials were used to make these houses?
As a cold winter wind howls outside, the children huddle under thick fur blankets. They listen to their grandmother’s soothing voice. “In the beginning there was the Great Spirit,” Grandmother begins, “who ruled over a world of sky and water.” Then the Great Spirit, says Grandmother, created land, plants, and animals. Finally, from living wood, the Great Spirit carved people for the new world.
These Abenaki children of New England are learning how their people began. Most groups have beliefs about where they came from. You may have heard stories about how your own relatives first arrived in America. But do you know where your ancestors were living 10,000 years ago?
Only if you are Native American did you have relatives in America that long ago. Europeans and other groups did not start arriving until a little more than 500 years ago. For thousands of years, these First People had the American continents to themselves. In this chapter, you will learn about these resourceful people and the creative ways they developed to live in tune with the natural world.
Even today, scientists are trying to find out more about the first Americans. These early people left few written records to tell us what their lives were like, so researchers study other items they left behind. What has survived? Not much. A few animal and human bones, some stone and metal tools, bits of pottery. Like detectives, scientists sift through these clues, trying to imagine how these people lived and how their lives changed over time. When scientists find a new object, they try to figure out whether it supports their current ideas or suggests new ones.
In your lifetime, scientists will probably learn much more about the first Americans and may revise many of their conclusions. This chapter tells these people’s stories as we know them today.
Graphic Organizer: Map of Cultural Regions
You will use this map to learn about the adaptations made by Native Americans living in eight cultural regions.
1.2 Migration Routes of the First Americans
The first Americans probably migrated on foot from Siberia, in Asia, to present-day Alaska. Today, Alaska and Asia are separated by a strip of ocean called the Bering Strait. But there was a time when a land bridge connected them.
Across a Land Bridge About 30,000 years ago, the most recent Ice Age began. As temperatures fell, much of the earth was covered by glaciers, sheets of ice up to a mile thick. With water locked up in the glaciers, the level of the oceans dropped 200 feet. This exposed a wide bridge of land between Asia and North America that scientists call Beringia.
In the summer, Beringia’s grasslands attracted large Asian mammals, such as mammoths, long-haired cousins of the elephant. Over thousands of years, the animals slowly spread eastward. Generations of Siberian hunter families followed. Armed with only stone-tipped spears, they killed these huge, powerful animals for food. Eventually, perhaps between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago, some of them reached America. Other migrants may have traveled along the coast of Beringia by boat to catch fish, seals, and other marine mammals.
Migrating East and South Once in America, hunters followed the animals south, where spring brought fresh grasses. Then, about 10,000 years ago, the earth warmed up again. As the glaciers melted and the oceans rose, the land bridge disappeared. Mammoths and other traditional prey began to die off, perhaps from disease, over hunting, or the change in the climate.
Native Americans now had to find new sources of food and new materials for clothing and shelter. So they became hunter-gatherers, catching smaller animals, fishing more, and collecting edible plants and seeds. Over thousands of years, they spread across the two American continents, from the Pacific to the Atlantic, and from Alaska all the way to the tip of South America.
Scientists believe that the first Americans migrated from Siberia to Alaska across a land bridge called Beringia. These people were following mammoths and other prey that moved east in search of grazing land.