Rejection of transubstantiation (and, except by Lutherans, of consubstantiation).
Rejection of Purgatory, the Treasury of Merits, and indulgences.
Protestants differed on forms of church government:
Some argued for the autonomy of individual congregations; these were Congregationalists or Independents (1604-); more radical still were Brownists/ Separatists (1580-)
Protestantism: conformity and dissent 03
Some wanted church government locally to be run by presbyters (pastors or ministers; elected for life), and elders (elected for short terms); pastors and elders were in turn to elect members of a regionalcouncil or synod; and the regional synod was to elect members of a national synod;
This system was Presbyterianism;
It would have taken power over the church away from the state.
A rare example of an international Synod: the Synod of Dort, 1618-19; it condemned Arminianism
Protestantism: conformity and dissent 04
Elizabeth and later monarchs ruled the church through bishops, as in Catholic times (though pope and monarch had then shared power).
Elizabeth approved vestments and ceremonies reminiscent of Catholic times, including kneeling to receive holy communion, bowing at the name of Jesus, and the sign of the cross in baptism.
Puritans objected to the vestments and ceremonies; some puritans were Presbyterians/ Independents.
The best known of the vestments to which puritans objected was the Surplice
Protestantism: conformity and dissent 05
Under Elizabeth, Presbyterians tried to replace episcopacy (rule by bishops) with a Prebsyterian system; the Queen defeated them.
Presbyterianism revived after 1642; many Presbyterians joined parliament in the Civil War of 1642-6.
In the 1640s the established episcopal (Anglican) church collapsed.
Protestantism: conformity and dissent 06
In the 1640s/ 50s the Independents defeated attempts by Presbyterians to introduce an intolerant Presbyterian system.
Presbyterians joined with Anglicans to bring about the Restoration 1660;
But in 1662 Anglican secured a monopoly of power over the church; Dissenters/ Non-conformists (Presbyterians; Independents; Baptists; Quakers) were subjected to legal penalties/ disabilities.
Elizabeth defeated the Presbyterian wing of Puritanism; it did not revive at the Hampton Court conference 1604; perhaps mutated into Sabbatarianism; Nicholas Bownde 1595.
But moderate Puritanism survived; Puritans criticized ceremonies and vestments, and called for moral reforms, attacking swearing, profanity; the drinking of healths, lovelocks, cosmetics, dancing, card-playing, Sunday sports, and the theater.
The Church and Puritanism 02
Under James I, Puritanism mostly did not pose a very serious threat to the established church; George Abbot (Archbishop of Canterbury 1611-33);
But under Charles I, divisions within the church became more bitter through controversy between Calvinists and Arminians;
Great Migration 1630s; Laudianism.
Calvinism and Arminianism: TULIP
Perseverance of the Saints.
(Robert Burns; Holy Willie’s Prayer)
The Church and Puritanism 03
The “Puritan Triumvirate”; John Bastwick; Henry Burton; William Prynne; Star Chamber 1637;
Prynne: Histrio-mastix 1633;
SL : Seditious Libeller / the Stigma of Laud;
Execution of Laud 1645; Prynne, Canterburies Doom 1646.
Prynne, Histrio-Mastix, 1633
Prynne in the Pillory 1637
Religion, heresy, and treason 01
Mary burned nearly 300 people as heretics 1555-58.
Elizabeth executed around 150 Catholics as traitors, mostly when England was at war with Spain after 1585.
In 1570 Pope Pius V excommunicated and deposed Elizabeth.
Catholics were subjected to fines, but after Peace with Spain in 1604 they were rarely executed (except during the Popish Plot scare of 1678-81).
The burning of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, March 1556.
Religion, heresy, and treason 02
Executions for heresy were rare after the death of Mary, but they did sometimes happen under Elizabeth and there were two final executions under James I (Legatt and Wightman; 1612).
Anti-Trinitarians were especially likely to suffer as heretics; in 1655 Cromwell sent the Socinian John Biddle into exile to save him from execution by parliament.
Religion, heresy, and treason 03
In 1666, the philosopher and political thinker Thomas Hobbes was threatened by parliament with punishment for heresy (Great Fire of London 1666; the number of the Beast – in Revelation – is 666); he held unorthodox views on the Trinity and was thought to be an atheist (/Deist).
John Locke (philosopher) and Sir Isaac Newton (scientist) also held unorthodox views on the Trinity.