History 2232-30, Offline Taft College, Spring 2009 Political and Social History of the United States, 1877-Present

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History 2232-30, Offline Taft College, Spring 2009

Political and Social History of the United States, 1877-Present
Dr. Jennifer L. Altenhofel


Course Goals

To understand the context of the American past and the roots and nature of change in American society. To gain a deeper understanding of American philosophies, doctrines and society through discussion, reading and review of historical sources, both primary and secondary.

Required Reading

George Brown Tindall and David E. Shi, America, Vol. 2, 6th Edition, 2004. ISBN: 0-393-92427-0.

David E. Shi and Holly A. Mayer, For the Record, A Documentary History of America, Vol. 2, 2nd Edition, 2004. ISBN: 0-393-92445-9.

You will need the above books for this course. Both can be rented from the Taft College bookstore.

Course Requirements

Reading Response (20@ 20 points each) 400

Mid-term 1 40

Mid-term 2 40

Final Exam 100

Total 580

Policy on Academic Fraud

Taft College will not accept or tolerate instances of academic fraud or plagiarism among its students or faculty. Falsifying data, sources or experimental results, submitting others' work as if it was yours, presenting the words or ideas of others without full and appropriate citation, and cheating on exams are all instances of academic fraud. Students who knowingly commit any of these offenses may ((1) receive a failing grade in the course and (2) documentation of the event will be provided to the Vice-President of Student Services, Vice-President of Instructional Services and Director of Distance Learning.

Plagiarism, copying or initiating the language, ideas and/or thoughts of another author and passing them off as one's original work.--This means do not copy words, phrases or ideas from a website, book or other print media without quoting and citing the work. There is no need to research for exams or essays outside of the course materials.
Fraud, deceit, trickery, sharp practice or breach of confidence by which it is sought to gain some unfair or dishonest advantage. (American College Dictionary, Random House, 1964)
Students who may be unsure as to whether or not their writing or other work may constitute academic fraud should seek the advice of their professor prior to formal submission or presentation. Plagiarism and academic fraud are the most serious of offenses, but they are easily avoided with a modicum of care and forethought.
Reading Responses from For the Record

At the end of each reading in For the Record, there are a series of Review Questions. Choose five readings from each chapter and answer all of the Review Questions for each of the five readings. This could be up to as many as 25 questions per chapter. Remember to answer every aspect of each question. Reading responses should be turned in to the LRC, TCI Instructional Staff or via e-mail to me.

Reading Responses for Chapters 18-22 are due by February 20, 2009.

Reading Responses for Chapters 23-30 are due by April 3, 2009

Reading Responses for Chapters 31-37 are due by May 13, 2009.
You may use material from both books to respond to the questions. Do not use information from the web or other books to answer these questions. This is plagiarism and constitutes cheating. This means do not copy words, phrases or ideas from a website, book or other print media without quoting and citing the work. There is no need to research for exams or essays outside of the course materials. Please review the above material regarding plagiarism.

The midterms and final exam are multiple-choice format. You can find study guides for all the exams attached to this syllabus. The final exam is comprehensive; this means the exam covers the material from the entire course. Do not use information from the web or other books to answer essay questions on the exams.

The first mid-term covers chapters 18-22 and must be taken by February 20, 2009.

The second mid-term covers chapters 23-30 and must be taken by April 3, 2009.

The Final exam covers chapters 31-37, has one comprehensive essay question and must be taken by May 13, 2009.
Note: I am available to help you. If you have questions, please e-mail them to me or send them to me via the LRC or TCI Instructional Staff.

Course Outline, Readings and Exam Schedule

January 20-February 20, 2009

Chapters 18-22 both books Reading Responses and Mid-term 1 due by February 20, 2009

February 21-April 3, 2009

Chapters 23-30 both books Reading Responses and Mid-term 2 due by April 3, 2009

April 4-May 13, 2009

Chapters 31-37 both books Reading Responses and Final Exam due by May 13, 2009

History 2232-30: Fall 2008


Taft College
Mid-term 1 Practice Test

At the end of the Civil War, the newly freed slaves were given

A. five dollars for every year they had served in bondage.

B. small plots of land confiscated from southern planters.

C. forty acres and a mule.

D. medical and legal assistance from the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands.

Andrew Johnson's plan for Reconstruction

A. required the southern states to ratify the 13th Amendment.

B. excluded from pardon all Southerners who did not own land.

C. required Negro suffrage in the South.

D. was closer to the Wade-Davis Bill than to Lincoln's plan.
Under Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction

A. loyal governments appeared in five states, but Congress refused to recognize them.

B. 10 percent of elected officials in a state had to be black.

C. loyal governments were recognized by Congress in three southern states.

D. 10 percent of the 1860 voters had to take an oath of allegiance to the Union.
Booker T Washington

A. was born of a slave mother and a white father.

B. criticized WEB DuBois's Atlanta Compromise.

C. had a PhD in history from Harvard and wrote several distinguished historical works.

D. is correctly represented by all the statements.
One theme of Gilded Age politics was the

A. rise of the common man.

B. triumph of urban-industrial interests.

C. triumph of rural-agricultural interests.

D. extension of government into the private sphere.
Andrew Johnson was from the state of

A. Florida.

B. Tennessee.

C. Massachusetts.

D. New York.
Radical Republicans

A. included Alexander H. Stephens and James G. Blaine.

B. would have supported Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction had Lincoln lived.

C. were, for the most part, motivated by hopes of personal economic gain.

D. gained strength in 1866.
The first great cowtown was

A. Butte, MT

B. Dallas, TX

C. St. Louis, MO

D. Abilene, KS
Radical Reconstruction in the South

A. was over by 1877.

B. ended in two states as early as 1869, but continued in some Deep South states until 1890.

C. ended in some Deep South states as early as 1867, and in all states by 1871.

D. was ended by presidential proclamation in 1872.
Joseph Glidden

A. invented barbed wire.

B. was a railroad man who reaped great profits from the early cattle drives.

C. led the sheep ranchers against the cattlemen for control of western grazing lands.

D. made his fame as a buffalo hunter, slaughtering thousands of the animals.
Following the 1867 Report on the Condition of the Indian Tribes, Congress decided that the best way to end the Indian Wars was

A. to send in the army, under men such as George Custer, to break the morale of the Indians.

B. to persuade the Indians to live on out-of-the-way reservations.

C. to "Americanize" the Indians by offering them an education at the white man's schools.

D. systematically to kill most of the buffalo.
The Industrial Workers of the World

A. ended in 1903 when the organization's officers were convicted of embezzling most of its funds.

B. had its origin in the mining and lumber camps of the West.

C. was less radical than the American Federation of Labor.

D. ended suddenly when its 1912 textile strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts failed to win any concessions for the workers.
Which of the following best accounts for the success of Standard Oil?

A. It bought out the Eire Railroad in order to keep transportation charges low.

B. Its scientists found new technical processes for refining oil more efficiently.

C. It was one of the first companies to invest heavily in advertising.

D. Its corporate structure--known as "vertical integration"-- allowed the company to grow tremendously.
In 1869, the women's movement split on the issue of

A. whether to grant suffrage to black as well as white women.

B. the role of women in the religious professions.

C. the political involvement of settlement houses in women's rights.

D. whether or not the movement should concentrate on female suffrage to the exclusion of other feminist causes.
The Electoral Commission, set up by Congress in January 1877:

A. found some instances of fraud int he 1876 election but decided that the election should stand.

B. gave the electoral votes of Florida, Louisiana and South Carolina to the Democrats.

C. was designed to assure "a free ballot and a fair count" in future presidential elections.

D. consisted of 15 members, 5 each from the House, the Senate and the Supreme Court.
The exclusion of Chinese immigrants

A. was opposed by white workers in the Far West.

B. came only after the exclusion of immigrants from northern and western Europe.

C. came only after the exclusion of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe.

D. was first authorized with a ten-year suspension.
Benjamin Singleton

A. invented the refrigerated railroad car.

B. was elected "Readjuster" governor of Virginia in 1879.

C. was an early promoter of black migration to the West.

D. won a Congressional Medal of Honor for his capture of Sitting Bull.
The growth of the railroads

A. resulted in an increase in total mileage from about 30,000 miles in 1860 to almost 200,000 in 1900.

B. is correctly represented by all the statements.

C. was the greatest in the decade of the 1880s.

D. was a major cause of the economic expansion at the end of the 19th century.
The American Tobacco Company was

A. second only to the Bull Durham Company in cigarette production at the turn of the century.

B. broken up by the Supreme Court in 1911.

C. the first such government-owned company in the US.

D. based in Dallas, Texas.
Slavery was abolished throughout the Union

A. by the 14th Amendment.

B. in 1874.

C. in 1863.

D. by the 13th Amendment.
Which of the following would most likely have been a Gilded-Age Democrat?

A. a New England Protestant.

B. an African American.

C. a German immigrant.

D. a nativist.
The Comstock Lode was

A. just outside of Deadwood, SD.

B. on land given to the Cherokee Indians in the 1830s.

C. in NV.

D. the site of the first uranium mine in the US.
Which area had the greatest proportion of people living in cities.

A. the Northeast.

B. the Pacific Coast.

C. the Midwest.

D. the South.
The first billion dollar corporation was

A. National Bell Telephone

B. Northern Pacific Railroad

C. Standard Oil

D. United States Steel
The House of Representatives found grounds to begin impeachment proceedings against President Johnson when he

A. kept vetoing the legislation of congressional Reconstruction.

B. violated the Tenure of Office Act.

C. refused to appoint military commanders to head the five districts set up by Congress in the Military Reconstruction Act.

D. pardoned thousands of former Confederates.
"Sockless Jerry" Simpson

A. was secretary of agriculture under Harrison.

B. was a Kansas Alliance leader.

C. was the economist whose books influenced the passage of the Bland-Allison Act and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.

D. was a leading union veteran and, for a time, pension commissioner.
In 1866

A. Republicans won a majority of seats in each house of Congress, thus assuring that the congressional plan of Reconstruction would pass over Johnson's vetoes.

B. Democrats still held a slight majority in Congress, but many Democrats were hesitant to support Johnson further.

C. President Johnson was reelected by an extremely small margin.

D. President Johnson was reelected president by a large margin.
Thomas Alva Edison invented

A. the (heavier-than-air) airplane.

B. all of the items.

C. the air brake for trains.

D. the first successful incandescent light bulb.
The major prophet of the New South Creed was

A. Edmund Rufflin

B. John Rufflin Green

C. Henry W Grady

D. JLM Curry
The California "Big Four"

A. owned the largest mining companies in the West.

B. controlled the National Bell Telephone Company.

C. were railroad investors.

D. included Jay Gould and Cornelius Vanderbilt.
The western frontier of the last half of the 19th century

A. generally had little racial or ethnic diversity.

B. had more women than men.

C. is correctly represented by all the statements.

D. was often violent.
Urban political bosses

A. tended to scorn immigrants in the cities.

B. are correctly represented by all the statements.

C. often were the biggest source of assistance for city dwellers.

D. brought efficient, scandal-free government to America's growing cities.
The Civil Rights Act of 1866

A. gave to adult black males the right to vote in local and state--but not national--elections.

B. was passed over Johnson's veto.

C. was unconstitutional, according to most Radical Republicans.

D. had the support of President Johnson, who had urged Congress to pass such a measure.
The Haymarket Affair

A. was blamed on seven anarchist leaders.

B. was started by the Knights of Labor.

C. marked the beginning of the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions.

D. led to the passage of the Foran Act of 1885.
In the presidential election of 1892, the Populist candidate

A. won 22 electoral votes.

B. won.

C. did best in the Northeast.

D. came in second.
The so-called Mulligan letters

A. cost Horace Greeley the 1872 Republican presidential nomination.

B. linked Republican James G Blain to shady railroad deals.

C. revealed the extent of corruption of the "Whiskey Ring" in St. Louis.

D. revealed cases of vote fraud in three states in the election of 1876.
In the case of Plessy v Ferguson the Supreme Court

A. decided that segregation on railroad cars was illegal under the 14th Amendment.

B. upheld a Louisiana segregation law.

C. ruled that a federal Civil Rights Act could not extend to individual action.

D. ruled that the 14th Amendment's guarantee of equal protection of the laws applied to private businesses.
The first transcontinental railroad

A. was completed in 1885.

B. followed a southern route through Texas and the Arizona and New Mexico Territory.

C. was built by the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific Railroads.

D. led to the bankruptcy of "Commodore" Vanderbilt.
The Military Reconstruction Act

A. required southern states to accept black suffrage.

B. required southern states to ratify the 14th Amendment.

C. is correctly represented by all the above statements.

D. said that "no legal state government or adequate protection for life and property now exists in the rebel States."
Seaman A Knapp

A. owned the Corsicana oil field of Texas.

B. was the most famous of the Buffalo Soldiers.

C. invented the demonstration method of agricultural education.

D. was the progressive president of the University of Georgia.
In the case of Munn v Illinois the Supreme Court

A. upheld a law involving warehouse regulation.

B. upheld the constitutionality of the Bland-Allison Act.

C. allowed the Farmers' Alliance to have separate organizations for Negro members.

D. overturned Granger Laws in that state.
By preventng blacks from voting and by enacting Jim Crow laws, the South

A. empraced apartheid.

B. promoted economic harmony between whites and blacks.

C. set in motion another Civil War.

D. helped mend the tension between the races.
Henry Wirz was executed after the Civil War because he had

A. led a company of soldiers on a raid of Washington, DC.

B. helped John Wilkes Booth plan Lincoln's assassination.

C. helped John Wilkes Booth escape from Ford's Theater.

D. commanded the Confederate prison at Andersonville, GA, where many Union prisoners had died.
Andrew Carnegie

A. made money in many areas, including oil, railroads, iron and steel, and bridge building.

B. used much of the fortune he inherited from his father to drill his first oil well.

C. is correctly described by all the statements.

D. paid almost $500 million for J. Pierpont Morgan's railroad interests.
The Workingmen's Party of California

A. ended when the 1877 railroad strike ushered in better working conditions.

B. was based on anti-Chinese sentiment.

C. was the political wing of the National Labor Union.

D. campaigned for restrictions on Mexican immigrants.
Chief Joseph

A. was the peaceful and dignified leader of the Nez Perce Indians.

B. originated the Ghost Dance to bring on the day of the Indians' deliverance.

C. was killed at the Battle of Wounded Knee.

D. signed the treaty allowing the federal government to remove the Indians to lands west of the Mississippi River.
The Resumption Act, passed by Congress in 1875: A. finally reversed the postwar inflation that had stifled economic growth for almost a decade.

B. called for the resumption of the policy of withdrawing greenbacks from circulation.

C. had the support of the National Greenback party.

D. allowed for the redemption of greenbacks in gold.

Abraham Lincoln was assassinated

A. by John Wilkes Booth.

B. all of the answers are true.

C. by a crazed actor who thought Lincoln would be too lenient toward the South.

D. just three months after the Civil War was over.
Ellis Island

A. is correctly represented by all the statements.

B. was opened in 1892.

C. was used mainly to process new immigrants, not to comfort or assist them.

D. averaged 5,000 immigrants a day in 1907.
The Pendleton Civil Service Act

A. was signed into law by James Garfield

B. provided for appointment to a number of government jobs on the basis of competitive exams.

C. set up the first racial quotas for government service jobs.

D. was vetoed as an unconstitutional intrusion of government into the private sphere.
The Pullman Strike ended

A. when strike leader Samuel Gompers became ill and could no longer support the strikers' morale.

B. after mail cars were attached to Pullman cars.

C. despite President Grover Cleveland's support for the union.

D. when Pullman hired Pinkerton detectives to harass the striking workers.

A. generally honored state debts incurred during Reconstruction.

B. opposed the growth of industry and business in the New South.

C. often favored convict leasing.

D. were the leaders of the Republican party in the South after Reconstruction.
The 14th Amendment

A. forbade states to deprive any person of life, liberty or property without "due process of law."

B. guaranteed the right of former slaves to vote.

C. was vetoed by President Johnson.

D. forbade states to subject any persons to "cruel and unusual punishment."
Which of the following was a Democrat?

A. James Garfield

B. James G Blaine

C. Chester A Arthur

D. Winfield Scott Hancock
The subtreasury plan

A. promoted deflation by withdrawing silver certificates from circulation.

B. is correctly represented by all the statements.

C. was passed by Congress in 1890.

D. allowed farmers to secure low-interest government loans.
The Molly Maguires

A. accomplished their goals of better wages and working conditions for miners through peaceful arbitration.

B. were named for the daughter of George Maguire, the owner of a Pennsylvania coal field.

C. aimed to right the perceived wrongs against Irish coal workers.

D. was the first major labor organization for western miners.
"You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold!" This statement was made by

A. Thomas E Watson

B. Grover Cleveland

C. William McKinley

D. William Jennings Bryan
"Black Codes" were designed by

A. southern legislatures to set blacks aside as a caste separate from whites and subject to special restraints.

B. Johnson and his cabinet to ensure the political rights of blacks.

C. Republicans in Congress to ensure the economic rights of blacks.

D. the Ku Klux Klan and similar groups as a plan of intimidation of the recently freed slaves.
Daniel DeLeon

A. was convicted of throwing a bomb at strikers outside the Pullman plant.

B. published an antisocialist paper in the 1890s.

C. was the leading figure in the Socialist Labor party.

D. was the attorney general of Illinois who obtained an injunction against the striking Pullman employees.
Ulysses S. Grant

A. was elected president in 1868 despite the heavy black Democratic vote.

B. brought confidence and honesty to a national government torn by Reconstruction.

C. brought little political experiences and judgment to the presidency.

D. pushed for civil service reform throughout his presidency.

Andrew Johnson based his plans for Reconstruction on

A. his "forfeited rights" theory.

B. his strong belief in Negro suffrage.

C. a strict adherence to the Constitution; hence, since the Union was indestructible, the former Confederate states had never left it, and Reconstruction was therefore unnecessary.

D. a strict adherence to the Constitution; hence since the former Confederate states had left the Union, Congress could insist on great changes in those states before letting them reenter the Union.

Sharecroppers and tenant farmers

A. were often so poor they had trouble making mortgage or tax payments on their land.

B. increased in number after the Civil War.

C. were more common in the Upper South than in the Deep South.

D. generally improved the land more than the owners would have done on their own.

Exodusters were

A. Chinese immigrants in California.

B. black Southerners who moved west.

C. Scandinavian immigrants in the West.

D. prostitutes who worked in the cowtowns.

The lynching of blacks in the South

A. occurred at the same rate at the turn of the century as similar lynchings in the North.

B. prompted the passage of a federal anti-lynching law in 1892.

C. decreased just before the turn of the century, possibly because whites could control blacks through Jim Crow laws.

D. increased at about the same time that Jim Crow laws spread through the South.

The Dawes Severalty Act

A. is correctly represented by all of the statements.

B. was designed to "Americanize" the Indians.

C. gave individual Indians up to 160 acres of land that, for the Indians' protection, the government held in trust for 25 years.

D. caused the Indians to lose over half of their land by 1934.

According to the superintendent of the census, the frontier line no longer existed after

A. 1875.

B. 1880.

C. 1890.

D. 1900.

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