History 101: western civilization to 1500



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HISTORY 101: WESTERN CIVILIZATION TO 1500
A WORKBOOK

Spring 2004


David MacDonald
Illinois State University

1

The simple but difficult arts of paying attention, copying accurately, following an argument, detecting an ambiguity or false inference, testing guesses by summoning up contrary instances, organizing one's time and one's thought for study  all these arts...cannot be taught in the air but only through the difficulties of a defined subject; they cannot be taught in one course or one year, but must be acquired gradually in dozens of connections. The analogy to athletics must be pressed until all recognized that in the exercise of intellect those who lack the muscles, coordination, and will power can claim no place at the training table, let alone on the playing field.


Jacques Barzun

The House of Intellect

If you knew your history, you'd know where you're coming from.
Bob Marley

Buffalo Soldier

What liberates is the knowledge of who we were, what we have become, where we were, whereinto we have been cast, whither we hasten, whence we are redeemed, what birth is and what rebirth.
Valentinian the Heresiarch

Exc. Theod. 78.2.




CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE:

A. PURPOSE OF THE COURSE

B. MUTUAL COMMITMENT AND LEARNING

C. BOOKS


D. ASSIGNED WORK AND GRADES

E. EXAMS AND BOOK QUIZZES

1. Form

2. Grades



3. Missed Exams

4. Paper Required in the Case of Poor Grades

F. PAPERS

1. Introduction

2. English Requirements and Grading

3. Content Requirements and Grading

4. Topics for First Paper

5. Topics for Second Paper

G. A SHORT PRACTICAL GUIDE TO ENGLISH

1. BASICS

2. REQUIREMENTS OF FORMAL ENGLISH

3. STYLE


H. NO EXTRA CREDIT

I. SEMESTER CALENDAR SPRING 1996

J. INCOMPLETES

K. CHANGING FINAL EXAM TIMES

L. HOW TO APPROACH A TEXTBOOK RATIONALLY

SECTION I:

UNIT I: PREHISTORY AND THE PRIMARY CIVILIZATIONS

UNIT II: EMPIRES OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

UNIT III: EARLY AND CLASSICAL GREECE

UNIT IV: HELLENISTIC DIFFUSION

SAMPLE EXAM FOR SECTION I

SECTION II:

UNIT V: THE RISE OF ROME

UNIT VI: PAX ROMANA

UNIT VII: THE MAKING OF EUROPE

UNIT VIII: THE CAROLINGIAN WORLD

SAMPLE EXAM FOR SECTION II

SECTION III:

UNIT IX: REVIVAL, RECOVERY, AND REFORM

UNIT X: LIFE IN CHRISTIAN EUROPE IN THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES

UNIT XI: GOVERNMENT, LEARNING, AND ART IN THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES

UNIT XII: THE CRISIS OF THE LATER MIDDLE AGES

UNIT XIII: RENAISSANCE

SAMPLE EXAM FOR SECTION III



INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE
A. PURPOSE OF THE COURSE

This course is designed to fulfill two purposes. First, it is one of many components of a program dedicated to turning you into an educated person. The contribution that his and other courses are supposed to make to that end is well explained in the quotation from the noted educator Jacques Barzun on the preceding page. Please read it. More specifically, the course is designed to trace western civilization from its origins in the fourth millennium B.C. until the dawn of the modern era, around A.D. 1500, or, in other words, to show you how the culture in which you participate developed in the dimension of time. Time is a dimension, as real as the three physical dimensions with which you are more accustomed to deal, and just as growing up meant learning to handle yourself in the physical world of three dimensions   first your yard, then the neighborhood, and now the world  so also achieving intellectual maturity involves finding where you and your culture fit in the dimension of time. So, welcome to a guided trip through some fifty centuries of your past.


B. MUTUAL COMMITMENT AND LEARNING

Mutual commitment is required from both teacher and student to make a course worthwhile. I commit myself to do my best to present the course material to you in an organized, comprehensible manner that will both make its significance apparent and show you how really interesting it is. In turn, I have the right to expect you to commit yourself to work to learn the material; the meaning and interest will never become apparent until you learn the basic facts, and you cannot expect to learn anything meaningful unless you follow a vigorous, rational, organized plan of study.

Do not just drift through this or any other course. Realize at the beginning that you are supposed to work in your courses, draw up a work schedule, and stick to it. Unless you make some such definite commitment to yourself, to this course, and to your other courses, you will get little out of your stay at Illinois State University.

If a student does poorly on a test in this course, I have the student do a short paper to let me know what went wrong. I have been impressed by the honesty of students. A few papers have criticized aspects of my presentation of the course, and I have sought to improve those aspects. The great majority of papers attribute problems in this course to two basic causes:


1. Insufficient effort. This includes poor class attendance,

failure to read and study regularly and the belief that the

material can be mastered just by cramming shortly before the test.
Do not fool yourself into believing that you can do nothing for weeks and then learn the material by starting to study just a week or two before a test.

The material in this course requires constant study over the entire semester of sixteen weeks. If it could be learned adequately in less time, I would teach the class in less time!

2. Self delusion. This manifests itself in the belief that a

student need not work seriously because the student has always

been good in history or that it is no use to work seriously because

the student has always been poor in history.


It is a simple fact that this is not a particularly difficult course. No one needs to have special talents to do well in this course. The material is not hard to understand and the work load is not very heavy. We do survey a lot of material, and you will encounter a lot of names that will be unfamiliar to you at first. You have to go over the material repeatedly during the full time available so that the material will become familiar to you and the concepts will make sense.


C. BOOKS

McKay, Hill, Buckler, A History of Western Society, Vol. A (Not I) 4th ed.

N.K. Sandars, trans., The Epic of Gilgamesh.

M. & F. Gies, Life in a Medieval Village.


For specific reading assignments in these books, see below Semester Calendar.
D. ASSIGNED WORK AND GRADES

I will assign your course grade on the basis of your performance on three examinations and two papers. Each exam and paper will weigh the same in calculating the final grade.



E. EXAMS

1. Format

The first examination will cover just Workbook Units I-IV. This material will probably be largely new to you. I urge you start reading and studying it immediately. The second examination will cover Workbook Units V-VIII; the third will cover Workbook Units IX-XIII.

All exams will have the same format. First, there will be a map, worth 20% of the exam grade, that everyone must do. The places you will be asked to locate are all included on the maps in this study guide. Next, there will be in four sections: two sections of multiple choice questions, one section of short answer essays, and one section of long answer essays. You will be asked to do any two of these four sections. Each section that you do will count 40% of the exam. You will have the entire examination in front of you, so you may look over all

sections before making your decision. Thus, you may chose to do both multiple choice sections, one multiple choice section and one essay section, or two essay sections. If you should do more than two sections, indicate which two you wish to count; if you do not so indicate, I shall count the first two you did. I shall not correct more than two sections and give you the best two; that makes no more sense than correcting more than two and giving you the worst two. The questions in all four sections will be derived from this workbook.



2. Grades

Exam grades will be handed out as soon as they have been recorded. If you miss class the day tests are handed back, get your test at my office as soon as possible--you may have to write a paper if you have done poorly (see below Papers Required In the Case of Poor Grades), and that is due one week after I return exams, whether you have been in class to get the exam or not.

I encourage you to come to my office to go over an exam, check your answers, ask questions, express disagreements. Do this soon after the exam. It serves no purpose to wait until the semester is virtually over before coming to discuss a problem.

3. Missed Exams

If you miss an exam but can make up the exam before I return the corrected papers, you may take the regular exam. If you cannot, the make up exam will be scheduled at my convenience and may be all essay.



4. Paper Required In the Case of Poor Grades

A student who has done poorly in part of the course is unlikely to do well later in the rest of the course unless the student is able to understand why the student did poorly and plan how to do better. The paper requirement described below is designed to help the student who has done poorly on an exam.

Any student receiving a grade of D or F on an exam is required to write a paper. The paper will be typed, double-spaced with one-inch margins, and written in correct English. The paper will cover the following material:

1. Why did the student receive the low grade? This analysis must be at least one page in length.

2. What course of action will the student take to remedy the problem? This analysis must be at least one page in length.


This paper is due at the beginning of class one week after the exams are returned. This date is firm whether the student is in class the day the exams are returned or not. NO extra credit will be added to the student's grade for this assignment. This paper is not a punishment, but rather is designed to encourage the student who is having trouble to analyze the situation and make a positive adjustment. If this paper is poorly prepared, the student will be required to rewrite it. None of the student's subsequent work will be graded

until this paper is turned in. If the student does not turn in this required paper, the student will receive an F for the course regardless of other grades in the course.


F. PAPERS

1. Introduction

Pay very close attention to this section.

Writing is important; it is thought made visible and permanent. Good writing is linked to clear thinking. Writing is an active pursuit. You must impose form on sentences and paragraphs and shape individual ideas into a comprehensible whole. Through good writing you improve your understanding of the particular topic and you learn to order, test, re examine, and improve your thinking in general. Good writing communicates thoughts efficiently and clearly; poor writing fails to communicate well. There is no such thing as a paper which has good content but is poorly written!

In our society the single ability that most clearly marks a person as well-educated is the ability to write correct English. It does not matter what other skills you acquire at a university; if you cannot express yourself clearly and in correct English, you will be judged as uneducated. People see poor writing as indicating the writer is either ignorant or careless. No one bothers with an ignorant writer, and a careless writer shows disrespect for the reader, for the subject, and ultimately even a lack of self-respect of the writer.

This class is not designed primarily to develop your skills in writing. You should already have basic writing skills, and you should be developing more advanced skills in all your classes, including this one. Included in this study guide is "A Short Practical Guide to English." Pay close attention to it. Any student ought to be able to produce a paper written in acceptable English if the student will edit the paper carefully with regard to this study guide. You should also have and use regularly a writer's guide to English; many are available in the bookstores and the library.

Your papers must be written in correct, formal English and completely checked for correct grammar and spelling. Anything less is not acceptable for university work. The key to good writing is editing and re writing. A first draft is not a finished paper. A decent paper should be edited and re written at least three times.

When your paper is returned, read the corrections and remarks carefully. They are designed to help you avoid making the same errors over again. That is the whole point of the papers.


2.Turning In Papers

Papers should be turned in when due. Organize your time and effort now to avoid late papers. Do not wait until the last minute. If you do, you will inevitably not enough time to edit your writing properly and you put yourself at the mercy of the inevitably problems which crop up at the last minute. Computer failure is not a good excuse for a late paper. Make back-ups on separate disks stored separately at all stages of your writing.

Papers submitted late will be accepted, but will receive grades a full letter grade lower for each week late. The course is an integrated whole; if work is not done at the appropriate time it cannot contribute fully to the learning experience. Failure to turn in a paper will result in an F in the class, without exception.

When papers are turned in, I checked them off against the class list, place them in a secured box, only remove them when I graded them, and I record the immediately after reading the papers. Consequently, if there is any dispute about whether a paper has been turned in or not, the burden of proof is upon the student. You are required to keep copies of all papers, so that if a paper is somehow lost you can readily supply another copy. Turn in papers only directly to me in class. Do not put them under my door or turn them in to the history department office.


3. Requirements and Grading: Content and English

Your paper will be graded on the bases of content and English according to the following standards:

A: The content of the paper examines the topic fully, summarizes and draws generalizations from the material from the book and exhibits independent thought and analysis. The paper is clearly written and well


expressed in formal English as outlined in "A Short Practical Guide to English." There are no substantial errors in grammar or spelling.

B: The paper examines the topic fully but exhibits less clear ability to draw generalizations from the material and less independent analysis than an A paper. The paper is well written in formal English as outlined in "A Short Practical Guide to English." There may be minor awkward phrasing or minor grammar problems.

C: The paper summarizes the material in the book rather than analyzes it independently. The paper is generally well written but there are significant awkward or unclear phrases or problems with grammar or spelling.

D: The paper contains substantial errors, fails to examine the whole topic, or examines the topic vaguely or superficially. The paper exhibits major problems with grammar or awkward and unclear writing to the extent that it interfers with clear communication.

F: The paper that makes little or no sense, grossly fails to communicate, or does not fulfill the assignment. The paper exhibits grossly defective grammar and fails to communicate clearly.

4. Topics for First Paper

For the due-date for the first paper, see the semester schedule. Write your paper on one of the following topics, all relevant to The Epic of Gilgamesh. At the beginning of the paper, be sure to tell me which question you are answering.

1. Examine the following four women in the epic: woman who introduces Enkidu to civilization, the goddess Ishtar, the tavern keeper Siduri, and the wife of Utnapishtim. What generalizations about Mesopotamian attitudes towards women can you make from these examples?

2. Why does Utnapishtim tell Gilgamesh the long, complicated story about the Flood. What does Utnapishtim's story have to do with Gilgamesh's quest for immortality?

3. Gilgamesh certainly did not achieve immortality, but most readers see that Gilgamesh did achieve some resolution of his problem and some satisfaction by the end of the epic. What accounts for this?

4. Gilgamesh goes through several stages of character development in the course of the epic. Trace and describe these stages and show what causes him to move to the new stages.



5. Topics for Second Paper

For the due-date for the scond paper, see the semester schedule. Write your paper on one of the following topics, all relevant to Life in a Medieval City. Be sure to tell me which question you are answering.

1. Consider the Jews of Troyes. What roles do they fulfill? What is their status in medieval society?

2. Consider the women in Troyes. What roles do they fulfill? What is their status in medieval society? Do the descriptions of women's roles and status as given in the book seem consistent? If not, what accounts for the inconsistencies?

3. Describe medieval education for both young men and women. Include both academic and vocational education.

4. What roles did guilds fulfill in medieval Troyes? Why were they important to the community?

5. What was the economic importance of fairs to Troyes and other similar medieval cities?
G. A Short Practical Guide to English
1. Basics

1. Papers must be typewritten, double-spaced, and between three and five pages in length, not counting the title page. Provide a title page with your name, the name of the course, the date, and the topic of the paper. Pages should be numbered, beginning with the first page of the text, and should be stapled in the upper left corner. Papers should not be bound in notebook or folder. I do not accept loose pages.

2. Check both spelling and the meaning of all unfamiliar words in a dictionary.

3. Use complete sentences.

4. Subjects and verbs must agree in number.

5. Avoid choppy, simplistic sentences. Good writing must be clearly expressed, but over-simplified language does not communicate effectively.

6. A paragraph should have consciously designed structure. The first sentence should announce the topic of the paragraph. Subsequent sentences should develop aspects of the topic. The final sentence ought to reach


some conclusion or provide some sort of summary, concluding the topic and preparing the reader to move on to the next logical topic.

7. Capitalize proper nouns.

8. The possessive of singular nouns, even those ending in "s," is formed by adding an apostrophe and s, e.g. "boy's." The only exceptions are the possessives of ancient proper names ending in "es" and "is," e.g. "Euripides'", and the possessive "Jesus'." Plurals ending in s form the possessive by adding an apostrophe, e.g. "boys'."

9. Pronouns must agree in number and person in their antecedents.

10. Quotations are normally introduced by a comma or colon, and quotation marks are placed to contain other marks of punctuation.

11. "Who" and "whom" refer to people; "that" and "which" to inanimate objects.

12. "Who" is used for subjects and predicate nominatives of sentences; "whom" is used for indirect objects, direct objects, and objects of prepositions.

13. "Its" is the possessive of "it;" "it's" is a contraction of "it is" and has no place in formal English.

14. "Their" is a possessive; "there" is an adverb; "they're" is a contraction of "they are" and has no place in formal English.

15. The names of books and plays are underlined.

16. "However" can never be used to link two otherwise independent sentences. It is poor style to begin a sentence with "however." Write, "Bill stayed. Frank, however, left immediately," but not "Bill stayed, however, Frank left immediately" or "Bill stayed. However, Frank left immediately."

17. Use a comma with a conjunction to join two separate clauses, e.g. "He did it, but he did not admit it." A comma alone cannot join two separate clauses; it is wrong to write, "He did it, he did not admit it."

18. A semi colon without a conjunction joins two separate clauses, e.g. "He did it; he did not admit it."

19. "Then" refers to time: "I went to the bank first, then I went to the store." "Than" introduces a comparison: "Your car is bigger than mine." Observe the difference.



2. Requirements of Formal English

20. Do not split infinitives in formal English. It is correct to write "to walk slowly," but "to slowly walk" is wrong.

21. Do not use contractions ("don't, can't," etc.) in formal English.

22. An introductory subordinate clause is followed by a comma, e.g. "When she was young, she had red hair." A concluding subordinate clause is not followed by a comma, e.g. "She had red hair because she had dyed it."

23. "Because" introduces a concluding subordinate clause; it cannot correctly begin a sentence.

24. Do not end a sentence or a clause with a dangling preposition, e.g. "He did not know where she went to" is wrong.



3. Style

25. In general, use the past tense to describe events which occurred in the past. Do not jump back and forth between different tenses without reason.

26. Express yourself in your own words. If you copy a passage from another writer's work, you must give proper credit.

27. Quotations less than five typed lines in length should be in quotation marks. Quotations more than five typed lines in length should be indented five spaces and single spaced, without quotation marks. Do not quote extensively in short papers; summarize in your own words.

28. "Quote" is a verb; "quotation" is a noun. Observe the difference.

29. Be neat. Clean clogged typefaces. Use "Whiteout" or complete erasing to correct errors. Do not print over errors. If a ribbon in a typewriter or printer is faint and hard to read, either replace it with a fresh ribbon or print on "bold" to make the print sufficiently dark.

30. Use proper margins: 1 1/2" at the left, 1" at the right; 1 1 1/2" at top and bottom. Also, use standard size types, 10 or 12 point.


H. SEMESTER CALENDAR Spring 2004
Week Day Remarks

1 M-Jan. 12 Introduction; Prehistory I

W- " 14 The Primary Civilization of Mesopotamia and Egypt

F  " 16 Gilgamesh Epic

Readings: McKay Chapter 1. The Epic of Gilgamesh.

2 M  " 19 MARTIN LUTHER KING HOLIDAY

W  " 21 Material culture of the ancient Near East.

F  " 23 First Age of Empires.

Readings: McKay Chapter 2. The Epic of Gilgamesh.

3 M  " 26 Second Age of Empires.

W- " 28 Greece in the Dark and Lyric Ages.

F- " 30 Early Greek Literature and Philosophy.

Readings: McKay Chapter 1-2.

4 M-Feb. 2 Early Sparta and Athens. The Epic of Gilgamesh paper due.

W- " 4 Greece c. 500-360 B.C.

F  " 6 Athenian culture.

Readings: McKay Chapter 3.

5 M  " 9 Philip and Alexander.

W- " 11 Hellenistic World.

F  " 13 Review.

Readings: McKay Chapter 3.

6 M  " 16 Exam I covering Chapters I-IV, lectures.

W  " 18 Early Rome.

F  " 20 Roman Expansion.

Readings: McKay Chapter 4.

7 M- " 23 Fall of the Roman Republic.

W- " 25 The Principate.

F- " 27 Roman Imperial Art and Architecture.

Readings: McKay Chapters 4 and 5.

8 M March 1 The Rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire.

W  " 3 Late Roman Empire.

F  " 5 Barbarians and the Fall of the Roman Empire.

Readings: McKay Chapter 5 and 6.

9 M- " 8 Spring Vacation

W- " 10 Spring vacation

F- " 12 Spring Vacation

10 M- " 15 Byzantium and Islam.

W- " 17 The Franks Through Charlemagne.

F- " 19 Vikings and Magyars.

Readings: McKay Chapter 7 and 8

11 M  " 22 Rise of Feudalism

W  " 24 Review.

F  " 26 Exam II covering Chapters V-VIII, lectures.

Readings: McKay Chapter 9.

12 M  " 29 German Feudalism and the Investiture Controversy.

W  " 31 English Feudalism.

F April 2 The Crusades and Feudalism.

Readings: McKay Chapter 10. A Medieval Life.




13 M  " 5 Medieval Society.

W  " 7 Romanesque and Gothic Styles.

F- " 9 The Medieval Church, 1100 1300.

Readings: McKay Chapters 11. A Medieval Life.

14 M  " 12 Medieval Towns and Universities.

W  14 Medieval Intellectual Life.

F- " 16 Castles and Cathedrals.

Readings: McKay Chapter 12.

15 M  " 18 The Fourteenth Century. A Medieval Life paper due.

W  " 21 Chivalry and the Late Medieval Nobility

F- " 23 The Renaissance.

Readings: McKay Chapter 13.

16 M- " 26 Renaissance Art and Architecture.

W- " 28 Review.

F- " 30 Study day.

Readings: Review.

FINAL EXAM: Exam III covering Chapters IX-XIII, lectures: Monday, 3 May, 7:50 am.



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