Historical Context: Athens and Sparta were two ancient Greek city states. These city states developed in the same part of the world, this caused them to have similarities and differences in their society and government.
Open Response Prompt - Explain which city-state was better for at least two of the following categories: government, education, military, and treatment of women.
Claim – State which city-state was better in at least two categories
Evidence –text evidence that supports your claim (use quotation, document #, and document name)
Interpretation– Explain in your own words (as if you were having a conversation with me) how/why the evidence you chose proves your claim. (Do not tell me what the author means, tell me what you think.)
Short Answers and directions:
1. Base your answer ONLY on what is in the document
2. Answer in NO MORE than three sentences. Must be in complete sentences. DOCUMENT 1-Education Spartan EducationAthenian Education
The military school in Sparta was designed not to teach academics, but teach fitness, obedience, and courage; however, very basic reading/writing were taught. From the age of 7 boys were taught survival skills, how to fight, how to steal what they needed without getting caught, and, under certain circumstances, to murder helots (slaves). The entire education these boys had was to make them strong soldiers that were prepared for war. Girls were also sent to school in Sparta, and were taught wrestling, gymnastics, and were taught how to fight in battle.
(pg. 63)The Constitutional Antiquities of Sparta and AthensGilbert ,Gustav Swan Sonnenschein & Co New York: Macmillan & Co 1893
The ability to read and to write was important to all Athenian people. Reading and writing was needed in order to be a citizen, and to carry out their duty. The Athenian citizen needed a basic knowledge of reading and writing in order to be a member of the government. Education was made available by the government. Only boys of citizens were sent to school where they would learn about poetry, literature, math, and science. Education was also about preparing citizens to be in the government. They went to private schools starting at the age of 6 to 17.
Mass and elite in democratic Athens : rhetoric, ideology, and the power of the people Ober, Josiah. Princeton University Press, 1990.
1a. Compare the Athenian education system to the Spartan education system.
________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1b. Which education system was better? Why?
________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1c. State one similarity between both schools.
DOCUMENT 2- Ancient Athenian and Spartan Military A: shows an Ancient Greek military fighting style called the phalanx , both Athens and Sparta used this fighting style. B: shows a hoplite, which is the name for Greek soldiers, both Athens and Sparta had this type of soldier. C: describes the military training of Sparta and Athens.
Athens military training: in Athens, boys were sent to school to learn reading, writing, math, and other things from the age of 6 to 17. When boys turned 18 in Athens they were required to go to military school and learn how to fight in battle. In Athens military training was only 2 years long. Once boys turned 20 they graduated military school. Spartan military training: Spartan boys were taken from their families at the age of 6 or 7, and were sent to live in a military school until they were 30 years old. When Spartan men got married they could not live with their wives until they reached 30. Even if they were married they had to live in military schools until they were 30. Their whole lives were about military training, even after 30 the Spartan boys were required to serve the military until they were 60.
2a: What are two similarities between Athenian and Spartan soldiers?
________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2b: Describe the major difference between Spartan military training and Athenian military obligations (responsibilities):
________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2D: Which military training was better and why?
3 Kings: (archons) leaders during war, but did not declare it ,elected by assembly and any citizen could become a king, only had power for one year.
Council of Five Hundred: citizens over 30 years of age; chosen by lottery, proposed laws to the Assembly, served for only 1year
Assembly: all male citizens over 20 years of age; enjoyed full and final power. (declared war, made laws, determined who citizens were, made up of all males over 20, about 30,000, vote based on majority)
Five Leaders: (called Ephors)unlimited power meaning they had the power over the other three parts of government shown below , declared war, only had power for one year, elected by the assembly and any citizen could become one of the five leaders only once.
Council of Old People: 28 people over 60 years of age; came up with ideas for laws but the Assembly voted to decide if the laws should be allowed, served for life.
Ancient philosopher and teacher, Aspasia, was known for her freedom, as well as her relationship with Pericles a king of Athens. Because of her strong ideas and her relationship to the king she was able to become important to Athenian government. Aspasia's story is different than all other women of Athens. Women of Athens could own things such as clothes, jewelry, but they could not buy it on their own. Also Athenian women could not own a home, or land. The men of the family controlled her life. Athenian women had no voting rights, and were not allowed to leave their homes (unless they were with their husband, or father.) -Aspasia 'First Lady of Athens'
4a.Describe Aspasia’s role in Ancient Athenian society.
________________________________________________ 4b. Describe the role of a normal woman in Ancient Athenian society.
To the right is a picture of Helen of Sparta, who was a Queen of Ancient Sparta. The lives that Spartan women had were differed from those of the women in Athens. This is because the men were always out either training for war, or fighting a war. Spartan women had greater freedom than Athenian women had. Different from Athens, Spartan women could own land just like the men could. In fact, they owned more than 1/3 of land in Sparta. Spartan women were expected to protect the city from attacks when the men were not home, for this reason they were also trained to fight in battle. The one bad thing for Spartan women was that at 18 they needed to pass a military strength test, if they did they would be set up to get married. If the women failed the test then they would not allowed to get married and would lose their rights as a citizen.
Document #5 Spartan Women
5. Describe the role of a woman in Ancient Spartan society.
________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Describe the reason that Spartan women had more freedom than Athenian women.
________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Describe a negative thing about being a woman in Sparta.