His Montana boomtown, photographed in 1865, was called Last Chance

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his Montana boomtown, photographed in 1865, was called Last Chance

ulch. Many boomtowns ,urned to ghost towns when the gold ran out, but this town became the capital of Montana and changed its name.

Geography: What is the name of this town today?

In the mid 1800s, the nation was growing by leaps and bounds. In 1821 there had been 24 stars on the United States flag, represent­ing its 24 states. All but two of these states lay east of the Mississippi River. By 1850, seven new stars had been added to the flag. Now the country stretched from sea to sea. Drawn by land and gold, thousands of settlers had followed trails to the West. New ports in California welcomed settlers from abroad. And land that had been gained through war and negotiations added Mexican ter­ritory to the United States.

: s s :.'

1849 11850 H1859

California Gold Rush California becomes a state Comstock Lode

OKey Vocabulary: Describe the Gold Rush using forty-niner and boomtown.

© Focus: What impact did the discovery of gold in California have on that territory?

© Focus • What role did mining play in the settlement of the West?

O Critical Thinking: Generalize What skills and knowledge would a person need to be a gold miner?

0 Theme: Crossing Frontiers Write a para­graph explaining the following statement: "By 1850, the United States stretched from sea to sea."

Q Geography: Art Activity You have just dis­covered gold in Colorado. Soon, thou­sands of gold miners will be joining you. Draw the layout of a new mining town, labeling the stores and other buildings you'll need.


Moving West

Chapter Review

Chapter Review Timeline


Oregon Trail

migration 1846-1848

begins I Mexican War

1845 1850

1835 1840


Texas wins independence


Texas joins the United States


California Gold Rush

Summarizina the Main Idea

0 Copy and complete the chart below, indicating the territories that became part of the United States and why the U.S. gained control over them.

Territory Reason U.S. gained control




California Nevada

pass (p. 406)

Continental Divide (p. 408) forty-niner (p. 415)

Q Why did so many Anglo-Americans move

to Texas?

0 Who was Sam Houston?

0 What was the impact of the defeat at Alamo?

0 What did the United States gain from the Mexican War?


Q Use each of the follow terms in a sentence about westward expansion. annexation (p. 402)

Manifest Destiny (p. 403) dispute (p. 403)

boomtown (p. 416)

Q What were some of the reasons that pio­neers traveled to the West? What hardships did they face?

Q How did the Gold Rush change the popu 

lation of people who lived in California? Q Why did many boomtowns grow quickly

and then become ghost towns?

Chapter 15

Skill Review:

Reading a Contour Map

Explain the difference between an eleva- ® Imagine if the pioneers traveling west had

tion map and a contour map. been able to use elevation and contour maps. How might their journeys been dif­ferent had they had these tools?

® Which of the rivers involved in the border dispute between the United States and Mexico is located further to the south: the Neuces River or the Rio Grande?

O Interpret Why do you think the govern­ment of Mexico invited Anglo-Americans to live in Texas? How could Mexico have protected its land while still allowing peo­ple to settle there?

Citizenship and History

O Citizenship Many Americans in the 1840s believed in Manifest Destiny. Write an edi­torial in support of or against Manifest Destiny.


Look at a modern-day map of the United States. If you were to drive, what route might you take to get from your home­town to Oregon? Why did you choose it?

Conclude Thousands of people flocked to California to search for gold even though chances were slim that they would find it. Why were people willing to uproot them­selves and leave their homes, friends, and families in search of gold?

History Write a book promotion for a book about the Gold Rush. What histori­cal information would you highlight as being included in your book?

History/Art Activity

Create a boomtown. Illustrate a large map of the town showing the different kinds of buildings, the roads, and so on. Include a population chart. Add symbols and a legend.

Use the information in this chapter to complete your project. As you work, think about these questions:

• How did you decide on the route you chose for your journey?

• What difficulties did you encounter on your journey that you might not have expected before starting?

• What made you and others during this period undertake such dangerous journeys?

Geography/Writing Activity

Pick one of the areas settled in the West (California, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, or Oregon). Create a travel guide for some­one visiting that area today. What inter­esting things are there to see and do?

Internet Option

Check the

Internet Social

Studies Center for ideas on how to extend your theme project beyond your classroom.

The West

LT1 Cii

" house dividea*againstA

itselfannot stand."


Abraham Lincoln


Conflict and


"It would have been devastating to live through the Civil War because of all that shooting. It was important for the North and South to unite.

Edward Klueg, Fifth Grade Evansville, IN

Differences do not have to lead to conflict. In the United States, during the mid-1 800s, they did. The North and South differed greatly — in their economies, and in their views on government and slavery. Attempts to settle these differences peace­fully failed, and a civil war broke out. It tore families and friends apart and killed many people. It also ended slavery. The nation reunited following the war, but the wounds did not heal for many years.

Making History

The Civil War has ended. You have survived it. A historian isks you to tell how the war changed your life. • Make a chart with the headings "before" and "after."

Use it to describe your life before and after the war.
• Write an account of what you saw and did during this

period. How has your region changed?

• Tape-record your thoughts about the war.

RESEARCH: Find out about a real person who lived through the Civil War. How did it affect him or her?

Cemetery Hill, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania



When tension between the North

and South began to build in the

first half of the 1800s, the two regions compromised, and resolved their

77 differences. For a time, these compromises worked. As the debate over slavery and states' rights grew more bitter, conflict threatened to break out again. As the map illustrates, this conflict led to a civil war that threatened to divide the nation forever.

In this unit, you will read how western expansion raised the issue of slavery several times in the early 1800s and led to growing tension between North

and South. You will also learn about the major

events of the Civil War.

Finally, you will read how efforts to reunite and

rebuild the nation resulted in some successes and

some failures.

Unit 7 Chapters

Chapter 16 A House Divided Chapter 17 The Nation


Civil War Cannon

Civil War weapons caused high casu­alties. Why was that so?

~hanh-r 1 F, I Pccnn 7

Abraham Lincoln 1860

How did President Lincoln lead the country during the Civil War?

Chapter 16, Lesson 1


General Lee said he would rather die a thousand deaths than do this.

Chapter 17, Lesson 1

Learn about the many ways that women worked during the war.

Chapter 16, Lesson 4Why was education important to people who were now free?

"hapter 17, Lesson 2

___ 131'I

This man worked to keep peace between the North and South. Lesson 1, Page 426

IiT1i 1852



The Queen of England wept when she read this book. Find out why. Lesson 1, Page 428

Soldier's 1T1!fl1F1e

This sho ""e'.How did new weapons change the fighting Lesson 2, Page 434



and C

-17flh1I The growing conflict between North and South over the issues of slavery eventually led the nation to war.

As a young woman, Harriet Beecher Stowe

could not forget what she had once seen as a

child. One day, standing on the banks of the

Ohio River, she watched a boat go by. It was

filled with African Americans, locked in chains,

on their way to the South to be sold into slavery.

Growing up in the North, Stowe had only heard about slavery. What she saw that day made her sad and angry.

Many years later, those feelings led her to write Uncle Tom's Cabin, a novel that described the cruelties of slavery. Northerners who read Stowe's book were shocked. In the South, the book was banned. By 1852, when the book was published, there had already been years of conflict over the issue of slavery. Both the North and the South were running out of compromises.

A Union soldiers standing by a cannon.



These soldiers had waited a long time for the right to fight.

Lesson 3, Page 444


With all the men away at war, who worked in the fields and factories?

Lesson 4, Page 448

free state

slave state Union



1820 Missouri Compromise

1850 Compromise of 1850

1860 Lincoln elect­: ed President

1860 First southern states secede


What were some of the hardships that these children faced?

Lesson 4, Page 450

When the North and South argued over the spread of slavery, Con­gress made compro­mises to settle the dis­pute. Which of these compromises would you have voted for if you had been in Congress?

Throughout the first half of the

1 800s, the spread of slavery into new territories caused conflict between the North and South. Congress fought to keep peace between the two sides by propos­ing compromises in 1820, 1850, and again in 1854. Map Skill: How do these maps show that the Kansas-Nebraska Act broke the Missouri Compromise?

Debate over Slavery

Focus How did new territory cause conflicts over slavery?

Conflicts between the North and South over slavery began years before Uncle Tom's Cabin. In 1819, the United States was made up of 11 free states and 11 slave states. Free states did not allow slav­ery. Slave states permitted slavery. After the Mexican War, the United States gained territory that would become new states. North and South debated whether to permit slavery in these new states.

A word people used to describe the nation during this period was the Union — the states united under the Constitution. Each new state admitted to the Union would tip the political balance in Congress. Plantation owners in the South wanted more slave states, because representation in the Senate was by state. More slave states gave more voting power in the Senate to the South. The North, with its larger population, had more congressmen in the House of Representatives. More free states increased voting power for the North. Abolitionists fought to end slavery completely. Most north­erners wanted at least to stop its spread into new states.

Compromises Between North and South

In 1819, Missouri asked to join the Union as a slave state. The Senate agreed, but the House of Representatives refused. A heated debate began. In 1820, the Speaker of the House, Henry Clay, pro­posed a solution — the Missouri Compromise. (See map.) Admit Missouri as a slave state, he said, but draw a line along its southern border. Territory north of that line could be admitted only as a free state. Maine would also join the Union, making the number of free and slave states equal again. For 30 years this compromise worked.


Debate over the Compromise of 1850

John C. Calhoun, senator from South Carolina, called slavery a "positive good" and thought it should be allowed in new


Henry Clay, congressman from Kentucky and Speaker of the House, suggested strengthen­ing the Fugitive Slave Law in return for California entering the Union as a free state. Citizenship: Why are

speeches important in politics?.

.~ _..... .... r, a Massa.

senator, argued for the compromise in order to save the Union.

Then, in 1850, California asked to join the Union as a free state. Because no other territory was joining as a slave state, the South wanted something in return. In the Compromise of 1850, Clay proposed strengthening the Fugitive Slave Law to satisfy the South. This law demanded that federal agents and ordinary citizens help capture escaped enslaved people and return them to slavery. Fearing a war between the North and the South, Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts urged Congress to vote for compromise:

ccIwish to speak ... not as a Massachusetts man, •nor as a northern man, but as an American.... I • speak today for the preservation of the Union. »

A House Divided 427

300,000 Americans bought Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, the first year it was sold. Translated into many lan­guages, it later sold millions of copies all over the world.

In this painting, John Brown is shown surrounded by armed southerners and kissing a baby. Arts: Do you think a north­erner or a southerner painted this image. Why?

In 1854, peace was shattered when Congress passed a third compromise: the Kansas-Nebraska Act. This law stated that settlers in these territories could vote to determine whether they would be slave or free. Both Kansas and Nebraska were north of the Missouri Compromise line, and for this reason northerners and abolitionists believed they should have been free. Southerners disagreed. Settlers

k' for and against slavery rushed into Kansas to seize control of the territory. For years, they fought violently with each other.


Growing Conflict

Focus Why did compromises fail to stop the conflict between the North and South?

Kansas was only one of many problems between the North and South. The Fugitive Slave Law had angered many northerners. It inspired Harriet Beecher Stowe to write Uncle Tom's Cabin. Soon, the North and South grew even further apart.

From Dred Scott to John Brown

In 1857 an important Supreme Court case heated up the slavery

debate. Dred Scott, an enslaved African American, sued for his free 

dom because he had lived in free territory for four years. With the

help of abolitionists, Scott brought his case to court, arguing that

living in free territory made him a free man. The Supreme Court ruled against Scott, saying that enslaved people were not U.S. citizens. They were property, the Court said, and the right to property was protected by the Constitution. That meant that Congress could not prevent slave owners from bringing property — in this case enslaved people — into a new territory. The Dred Scott decision made northerners furious because it erased the Missouri Compromise. Now slavery could exist anywhere.

In 1859, an abolitionist named John Brown led a small band of supporters into a weapons warehouse at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. He planned to start a slave revolt that would spread throughout the South. Captured before his revolution began, he was found guilty of treason and hanged. Many northerners applauded Brown, calling him a hero who died for a good cause. Southerners were hor­rified by northern praise of such a violent man.


The Election of Lincoln

Events of the 1850s divided the country, but the presidential elec­tion of 1860 created a final split. The Democrats nominated two candidates, one for the North and one for the South. The new Republican Party nominated just one — Abraham Lincoln.

Lincoln was born in a humble log cabin on the Kentucky fron­tier. The son of poor parents, he educated himself by reading every book he could borrow. At age 21, Lincoln moved to Illinois. He worked as a rail-splitter, surveyor, country storekeeper, and lawyer. He served in the state legislature and for one term in the U.S. House of Representatives. He ran for the Senate in 1855 and 1858. He lost both times but became well known for his speeches against slavery.

Lincoln was elected President of the United States in 1860. A Virginia newspaper called his election "the greatest evil that has ever befallen this country." In protest, South Carolina immediately seceded, or broke away from the rest of the country. By the time Lincoln was inaugurated in March, six more southern states had seceded: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. They formed their own independent nation, the Confederate States of America. Confederate means part of a group united for a common purpose. The Confederacy elected Jefferson Davis as presi­dent. By June, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina also joined, making a total of 11 Confederate states.

As an enslaved child, Dred Scott dreamed of freedom. At age 30, he was bought by an army doctor who traveled often. Scott traveled with him, living in free territory for four years but returning to Missouri, a slave state. When the doctor died, Scott sued in court for freedom. He filed his "freedom suit" in 1846. It was an important case for African Americans and the entire nation.

Lesson Review

X1820 11850


Missouri Compromise Compromise of 1850 Lincoln elected President First southern states secede

0 Key Vocabulary: Describe the conflicts between the North and South using: free state, slave state, secede, Confederate.

0 Focus: How did new territory cause con­flicts over slavery?

0 Focus: Why did compromises fail to stop the conflict between North and South?

Q Critical Thinking: Cause and Effect How did Uncle Tom's Cabin influence people's opinions about slavery?

Theme: Conflict and Resolution In each of the three compromises, what did both North and South have to give up?

Q Geography/Math Activity: In 1820, there were an equal number of free and slave states. Did the North and South have the same amount of land? Use the map on page 426 to make a chart.

A House Divided 429



Places and Regions

How Did Regions Vote in

the 1860 Election?

Have you ever traveled to a different part of the country? If so, you may have noticed differences in the way people talked, in the way the landscape looked, or even in the architecture of the buildings. These are examples of regional differences.

Visitors to the United States in the 1850s could see regional differences between the North and the South. The South was a region of planta­tions and farms. Its way of life was supported by cotton and slavery. The North had many more large cities and factories and opposed slavery.

These differences played a big role in the pres­idential election of 1860. Voters turned away from their usual political parties and voted according to regional interests. The election map on the next page shows how sharply divided the nation had become by 1860.

Bell and Douglas

John Bell opposed regional divisions. He won many slave states near the North that did not want to choose between North and South. Northern Democrat Stephen Douglas wanted a compromise on slav­ery. He won only in Missouri and part of New Jersey.

The painting above shows farmland in the South. At right is a northern factory. What were some of the South's main crops?


e North

Abraham Lincoln

The Republican Party's candi­date, Abraham Lincoln, won every northern state except New Jersey. His name did not even appear on the ballot in ten southern states.

Mu onnection

Songs showed differences between the North and the South. In 1859, Daniel Emmett wrote "Dixie," a song that praised the South. It became a marching song for the South during the Civil War. In 1861, Julia Ward Howe wrote "The Battle Hymn of the Republic," which became a marching song for the North. What songs represent regions or places today?


The split between North and South was not exact. Lincoln won California even though part of it was farther south than some states that Breckinridge won. Map Skill: How many states did Lincoln win?

Research Activity

0 Find out about a city or town the same size as your own but in another region. How are they different? How are they alike?

0 Chart your results. Share it with the class.

John Breckinridge Regional differences split the Democratic Party in two. The Southern Democrats favored slavery. They nominated John Breckinridge as their candi­date. He won nearly every southern state in the election.

A House Divided


civil war mobilize volunteer blockade siege


1861 First Battle of Bull Run

1862 Battles of Shiloh and Antietam

1863 Battle of

Marching to


The North and South each had successes during the first two years of the Civil War, but the North gained the advantage in 1863.

ust months after Lincoln's election, thousands of South Carolina men surrounded a Union fort in Charleston Harbor. Trapped inside Fort Sumter, Union soldiers were cut off from help and supplies. Lincoln, still hoping to reunite the country, delayed taking action. Then the southern commander delivered a message to Fort Sumter. The Union commander must surrender or be fired upon. On April 12, 1861, the South Carolina men opened fire. The next day, the Union soldiers surrendered. The Civil War had begun.

The Fighting Begins

Focus What advantages did each side have early in the war?

A civil war is a war fought between regions of one nation. The U.S. Civil War, also called the War Between the States, forced many northern and southern friends to fight against each other, some­times even father against son. One Indiana grandmother cried when

A Union uniform

A Union soldier and his family


she heard the news, "Oh, to think that I should have lived to see the day when Brother should rise against Brother."

Blue and Gray

As the North and South mobilized, or prepared for war, they each had certain advantages. In many ways, the North seemed stronger. It had a larger population, so it could have more volunteers, or peo­ple who chose to become soldiers. The North also had more indus­try, money, and railroads, so it could more easily supply, feed, and move its army. (See chart at right.) Most importantly, the North had their determined leader, Abraham Lincoln.

The 11 states of the Confederacy had far fewer people, and about one-third of the population was enslaved. Money, industry, and railroads were also more scarce in the South. Yet underdogs had won before. Many southern soldiers were hardy farm boys used to riding and shooting. Northern troops would have to conquer the South, while southerners would be defending their homes.

In addition, the Confederate army was led by some of the best generals in the country. Robert E. Lee, a Virginian and an officer in the United States Army, was one of many Americans with divided loyalties. He was a strong supporter of the Union, yet he declined President Lincoln's offer to lead the Union army. He took command of the Army of Virginia instead, writing to a northern friend:

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