F1 Political and Intellectual Transformations of America to 1877
Foundational Expectations will not be assessed on the MME or the USHG SCAS. They are included here to stress their importance. These expectations have been taught in Grade 5 & 8 and assessed on the Grade 6 & 9 MEAP.
F1.1 Identify the core ideals of American society as reflected in the documents below and analyze the ways that American society moved toward and/or away from its core ideals:
• Declaration of Independence
• the U.S. Constitution (including the Preamble)
• Bill of Rights
• the Gettysburg Address
• 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments
F1.2 Using the American Revolution, the creation and adoption of the Constitution, and the Civil War as touchstones, develop an argument/narrative about the changing character of American political society and the roles of key individuals across cultures in prompting/supporting the change by discussing:
• the birth of republican government, including the rule of law,
inalienable rights, equality, and limited government
• the development of governmental roles in American life
• and competing views of the responsibilities of governments
(federal, state, and local)
• changes in suffrage qualifications
• the development of political parties
• America’s political and economic role in the world
(National Geography Standard 13, p. 210)
F2 Geographic, Economic, Social, and Demographic Trends in America to 1877. Note to teacher: This foundational expectation might be taught in stand-alone lessons or integrated with Standard 6.1.
F2.1 Describe the major trends and transformations in American life prior to 1877 including:
• changing political boundaries of the United States (National Geography Standard 13, p. 210)
• regional economic differences and similarities, including goods produced and the nature of the labor force (National Geography Standard 11, p. 206)
• changes in the size, location, and composition of the population (National Geography Standard 9, p. 201)
• patterns of immigration and migration (National Geography Standard 9, p. 201)
• development of cities (National Geography Standard 12, p. 208)
• changes in commerce, transportation, and communication (National Geography Standard 11, p. 206)
• major changes in Foreign Affairs marked by such events as the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, and
foreign relations during the Civil War
6.1 Growth of an Industrial and Urban America
Explain the causes and consequences – both positive and negative – of the Industrial Revolution and America’s growth from a predominantly agricultural, commercial, and rural nation to a more industrial and urban nation between 1870 and 1930.
6.1.1 Factors in the American Industrial Revolution – Analyze the factors that enabled the United States to become a major industrial power, including:
• gains from trade (National Geography Standard 11, p. 206)
• organizational “revolution” (e.g., development of corporations
and labor organizations)
• advantages of physical geography
(National Geography Standards 4, 7, and 15; pp. 190, 197, and 214) • increase in labor through immigration and migration
(National Geography Standard 9, p. 201)
• economic polices of government and industrial leaders
(including Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller)
• technological advances
How did the United States become a major industrial power?
A combination of key factors contributed to industrial growth after the Civil War.
To expand their industries, entrepreneurs took advantage of
new technological advances
new management techniques
available investment capital
the abundance of natural resources and immigrant labor
Two leaders of the American Industrial Revolution were Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller.
After the Civil War, Andrew Carnegie used improved technology in the production of steel. He used the new organizational principle of vertical integration to become the most cost effective producer of steel in the world. Carnegie also benefited from the geographic advantages of the American iron ore ranges and their proximity to water transportation or railroads. He profited from the multitude of immigrants who worked for low wages and in poor working conditions. Little government regulation and no income or corporate taxes also aided people like Carnegie.
6.1.2 Labor’s Response to Industrial Growth – Evaluate the different responses of labor to industrial change including:
• development of organized labor, including the Knights of
Labor, American Federation of Labor, and the United Mine
• southern and western farmers’ reactions, including the growth
of populism and the populist movement (e.g., Farmers Alliance,
Grange, Platform of the Populist Party, Bryan’s “Cross of Gold”
(National Geography Standard 6, p. 195)
In what ways did labor respond to industrial growth?
Workers responded to industrial growth by organizing labor unions and joining political movements to improve their work lives. They organized unions to push for better hours, wages, and working conditions. The Knights of Labor, an early national union, opened its membership to all workers and advocated political reforms to improve the lives of workers. The American Federation of Labor organized skilled workers to achieve practical objectives. Unions often used strikes to accomplish their goals. Strikes such as the 1913 Western Federation of Miners’ strike against the Calumet and Hecla copper mines in Michigan, and the Homestead and Pullman strikes were often marked by violence and often ended with government intervention.
Many farmers joined the Populist Party to promote political reform, bimetalism/free silver, and opposition to railroad monopolies. William Jennings Bryan was a famous Populist leader. In reaction to industrial growth, Western farmers organized economic cooperatives such as the Grange.
6.1.3 Urbanization – Analyze the changing urban and rural landscape by examining:
• the location and expansion of major urban centers
(National Geography Standard 12, p. 208) • the growth of cities linked by industry and trade
(National Geography Standard 11, p. 206) • the development of cities divided by race, ethnicity, and class (National Geography Standard 10, p. 203)
• resulting tensions among and within groups
(National Geography Standards 9 and 12, pp. 201 and 208)
In what ways did cities change as they grew in size and population?
Industrialization spurred the rapid growth of cites between 1870 and 1930.
At the national level, major manufacturing centers developed in Pittsburgh, Detroit, and Cleveland near coal and iron ore supplies. The industrial centers were tied together by a growing network of railroads and water routes to transport raw materials and finished goods.
Industrial forces also changed urban landscapes at the local level. For example, Detroit was transformed from a small commercial city to a major industrial center. European immigrants and rural migrants flocked to Detroit to work in the expanding automobile industry and, as a result, the city’s population grew to nearly 1.6 million by 1930.
Ethnic and racial groups settled in cultural enclaves. The immigrant experience was largely determined by the geographic origin of the immigrant. Racial discrimination restricted African-Americans to segregated neighborhoods. Tensions among and within groups often flared as they competed for jobs and housing.
A major component of urbanization is the movement of people from rural to urban areas. Improvements and mechanical changes in farming required fewer laborers, prompting migration to growing urban areas.
6.1.4 Population Changes – Use census data from 1790-1940 to describe changes in the composition, distribution, and density of the American population and analyze their causes, including immigration, the Great Migration, and urbanization.
(National Geography Standard 12, p. 208)
What does census data tell us about changing demographics in America from 1790 to 1940?
We can analyze census data from 1790 to 1940 to make statements about changes in the composition, distribution, and density of the population of the United States.
The composition of the population in 1790 included Europeans, American Indians, and people of African origin. Composition changed in the early 1800s to include Asian immigrants initially brought to work on the railroads.
European immigrants in the 1800s were mainly from Northern and Central Europe. By 1940, immigrant populations reflected increases in numbers of people from Southern and Eastern Europe, Mexico, and the Caribbean.
The distribution of the population in 1790 was predominantly east of the Appalachian Mountains. By the mid-1800s, the population distribution shifted westward to the Mississippi River, and included Texas and California.
% URBAN / RURAL
5 / 95
NE West Virginia
11 / 89
SE corner of OH near the intersection of the borders of IN, OH, KY
Teachers’ Note: The geographic mean center of population for the United States indicates the point at which the distribution of population north/south and east/west is equal.
Analyzing the effects of immigration, migration, and urbanization on the population would reveal generalizations like: “The density of the population in cities increased over time with increases in immigration, urbanization, industrialization, and the ending of slavery.”
6.1.5 A Case Study of American Industrialism – Using the automobile industry as a case study, analyze the causes and consequences of this major industrial transformation by explaining:
• the impact of resource availability
(National Geography Standard 16, p. 216) • entrepreneurial decision making by Henry Ford and others
• domestic and international migrations
(National Geography Standard 9, p. 201) • the development of an industrial work force
• the impact on Michigan
• the impact on American society
Using the automobile industry as a case study, what are the causes and consequences of major industrial transformation in the United States?
The growth of the automobile industry had a major impact on Michigan and on American society. Henry Ford’s innovative assembly line concept of mass production increased worker productivity and drove the cost of production down. By 1927, Ford dominated the automobile market selling about 15 million Model T’s at the lowest possible price. Workers flocked to Detroit to work in Ford factories for 5 dollars a day, twice as much as paid in many industries at that time. Immigration and rural migration to Detroit for jobs transformed the city into the 4th largest in the nation by 1930. The industrial work force organized into unions, such as the UAW in the 1930s, to improve wages and working conditions.
The growth of Detroit and the region was supported by its location on the Great Lakes, allowing inexpensive shipping of resources needed for manufacturing. The impact of the growing automobile industry on Michigan was substantial as the need for steel, glass, rubber, and wood grew exponentially as the demand for the automobile increased.
As automobile ownership increased, the nation experienced growth in industries that supported its use
6.2 Becoming a World Power
Describe and analyze the major changes – both positive and negative – in the role the United States played in world affairs after the Civil War, and explain the causes and consequences of this changing role.
6.2.1 Growth of U.S. Global Power – Locate on a map Cuba and the territories (Puerto Rico, Philippines, Hawaii, Panama Canal Zone) acquired by the United States during its emergence as an imperial power between 1890 and 1914, and analyze the role the Spanish American War, the Philippine Revolution, the Panama Canal, the Open Door Policy, and the Roosevelt Corollary played in expanding America’s global influence and redefining its foreign policy. (National Geography Standards 1 and 3; p.184 and 188). (Corrected text - Cuba not a territory)
Where and how did the United States expand its influence between 1890 and 1914?
We can use maps to analyze the role events played in expanding the global influence of the United States and redefining its foreign policy.
The United States emerged as an imperial power between 1890 and 1914. In seeking overseas markets for its manufactured goods, additional raw materials, and strategic naval bases, the U.S. promoted the Open Door policy in China and annexed Hawaii. A revolution in Cuba led the U.S. into a war with Spain in 1898. As a result of the Spanish American War, the U.S. gained influence over Cuba and a colonial empire that included Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam. In seeking to unify naval power and to facilitate trade, the U.S. built the Panama Canal. Theodore Roosevelt used his corollary to the Monroe Doctrine to intervene and protect U.S. business interests in Latin America.
Interest in the Pacific region and acquisition of raw materials in the Americas, defined the imperialistic ambitions of the United States. Additionally, the belief in Manifest Destiny supported those who wanted to expand U.S. power beyond the borders of the continental United States.
6.2.2 WWI – Explain the causes of World War I, the reasons for American neutrality and eventual entry into the war, and America’s role in shaping the course of the war.
What were the causes of World War I? Why did the U.S. delay its entry and what was its role in shaping the course of the war?
A combination of European militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism led to the outbreak of World War I in 1914. President Woodrow Wilson, with the support of Congress, declared the United States to be neutral.
Reasons for Neutrality
the U.S. is a nation of immigrants, including immigrants from the warring nations of Europe
the U.S. did not want to enter the war unless the nation’s interests were threatened
the U.S. wanted to sell to both sides
the American-held belief in isolation from European conflicts
Reasons for Entering the War
to make the world safe for democracy
attacks on American ships
Germany’s proposed alliance with Mexico
U.S. business loans to the Allies
stronger cultural ties to Britain
The U.S. involvement in WWI increased the amount of war material and number of soldiers available to the Allies, helping to turn the tide of the war in their favor.
6.2.3 Domestic Impact of WWI –Analyze the domestic impact of WWI on the growth of the government (e.g., War Industries Board), the expansion of the economy, the restrictions on civil liberties (e.g., Sedition Act, Red Scare, Palmer Raids), and the expansion of women’s suffrage.
How did WWI impact the domestic front?
World War I impacted nearly every aspect of American society. The demand for war material and the demise of Great Britain as the world’s banker, led to the expansion of the U.S. economy. The government developed a degree of centralized planning and established organizations such as the War Industries Board to oversee and ensure efficient war production. In response to a labor shortage, more women and African-Americans entered the workforce, and unions made important gains. To encourage loyalty to the war effort, the U.S. government took steps to mold public opinion and restrict dissent. Congress enacted laws that restricted civil liberties and helped to fuel the Red Scare. Women’s contribution to the war effort engendered support for the women’s suffrage movement by many in Congress.
6.2.4 Wilson and His Opponents –Explain how Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” differed from proposals by others, including French and British leaders and domestic opponents, in the debate over the Versailles Treaty, United States participation in the League of Nations, the redrawing of European political boundaries, and the resulting geopolitical tensions that continued to affect Europe.
(National Geography Standards 3 and 13; p. 188 and 210)
How and in what ways did Wilson's Fourteen Points shape the peace process?
Wilson’s Fourteen Points spelled out his goals for a lasting peace and called for national self-determination, a reduction in armaments and trade barriers, and the establishment of a League of Nations to promote peace. The plan faced some opposition from European Allies at the peace conference and on the domestic front.
French and British leaders wanted
to redraw political boundaries
acknowledgement of Germany as the aggressor
to demilitarize Germany
Wilson's ideal of self-determination proved difficult to realize. The post-war boundaries drawn in Southwest Asia and Europe created ethnic minorities and tensions in those new countries. Geopolitical tensions were exacerbated by the new boundaries because of loss of land and ports. The League of Nations was established; however, fearing obligations that League membership might place on the nation, the U.S. Senate did not ratify the Versailles Treaty which resulted in U.S. not becoming a member of the League of Nations.
6.3 Progressivism and Reform
Select and evaluate major public and social issues emerging from the changes in industrial, urban, and global America during this period; analyze the solutions or resolutions developed by Americans, and their consequences (positive/negative – anticipated/unanticipated) including, but not limited to, the following: Social Issues, Causes and Consequences of Progressive Reform, Women's Suffrage.
6.3.1 Social Issues – Describe at least three significant problems or issues created by America’s industrial and urban transformation between 1895 and 1930 (e.g., urban and rural poverty and blight, child labor, immigration, political corruption, public health, poor working conditions, and monopolies).
What problems were created by U.S. industrial growth between 1895 and 1930?
Several problems were created by America's industrial and urban transformation between 1895 and 1930. The population of cities swelled due to massive immigration which led to crowded slums and unhealthy living conditions. Workers labored long hours for little pay in often unsafe conditions and child labor became endemic. Corrupt city bosses used machine-politics to secure immigrant votes to maintain power.
6.3.2 Causes and Consequences of Progressive Reform – Analyze the causes, consequences, and limitations of Progressive reform in the following areas:
• major changes in the Constitution, including 16th, 17th, 18th,
and 19th Amendments
• new regulatory legislation (e.g., Pure Food and Drug Act,
Sherman and Clayton Anti-Trust Acts)
• the Supreme Court’s role in supporting or slowing reform
• role of reform organizations, movements and individuals in
promoting change (e.g., Women’s Christian Temperance
Union, settlement house movement, conservation movement,
and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored
(National Geography Standard 14, p. 212) • efforts to expand and restrict the practices of democracy as
reflected in post-Civil War struggles of African Americans and
(National Geography Standards 9 and 10; pp. 201 and 203)
What were the consequences and limitations of Progressive reform?
Amendments to the Constitution addressed many issues of Progressive reformers:
collection of graduated income tax
popular election of senators
prohibition of manufacture, sale, transportation, or exportation of alcoholic beverages
women’s right to vote
Progressive reformers sought to use government to check the abuses of capitalism, industrialization, and rapid urbanization. Progressives worked for political reform at the city, state, and national level. Muckrakers exposed wrongdoing and suffering in politics and business. Municipal reformers attempted to curb political corruption and introduced modern methods of city government.
At the state level, reformers attacked the power of party bosses and machines, and supported the levy of taxes on corporations and the regulation of utilities and railroads.
At the federal level, President Theodore Roosevelt expanded the government’s regulatory role in the economy and in the use of natural resources. Roosevelt worked to break up large monopolies and supported legislation to clean up the food and drug industry and to protect the environment through conservation efforts.
Individual reformers promoted change in society, particularly for immigrants and the poor. While the NAACP fought for civil rights for African-Americans, many municipalities imposed “Jim Crow laws,” which denied African Americans their civil liberties.
6.3.3 Women’s Suffrage – Analyze the successes and failures of efforts to expand women’s rights, including the work of important leaders (e.g., Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton) and the eventual ratification of the 19th Amendment.
What were the successes and failures of the women's rights movement?
The women’s suffrage movement was international. Setbacks and successes were experienced at the state and federal levels. A movement to secure the ballot through state legislation failed in most Eastern states. In Western territories and states, survival depended on the strength of both men and women. Recognition of the role of women led to equality at the voting booth.
The contribution of women to the WWI war effort engendered support for the women’s suffrage movement by many in Congress, resulting in the ratification of the 19th amendment shortly after the end of WWI. Even though women secured the right to vote, they still lacked social and economic equality in American society.