1. This man’s armies were victorious at the Sieges of Boulogne and he was a signatory of the Treaty of Ardres. During this king’s reign, the Earl of Surrey stopped a Scottish invasion by defeating them at the Battle of Flodden. The Pilgrimage of Grace occurred during this king’s reign, and he had Sir Thomas More beheaded for violating the Treason Act. This king had the Common Book of Prayer written and he issued the 1st Act of Supremacy. For 10 points, name this 16th century second Tudor King of England known for his many wives, who established the Anglican Church and had two daughters, Mary I and Elizabeth I.
ANSWER: Henry VIII [prompt on Henry]
2. A red fruit can be seen on the window sill on the left this painting, and a figure in a green dress wears a golden bracelet around her neck. That figure also wears a white veil on her head, and a chandelier with a single candle appears above the convex mirror. A feather duster is hung around the bed post on the right, and a pair of red sandals appears below a red chair. A large signature states that its painter “was here”, and a brown dog stands below the two main figures. For 10 points, name this depiction of a couple holding hands, a work by Jan van Eyck.
ANSWER: The Arnolfini Wedding [accept Arnolfini Portrait or anything about Arnolfini and his bride]
3. Although not the lungs, antibodies target a structure in these organs in Goodpasture’s syndrome. They detect decreased oxygen levels and release erythropoietin, stimulating erythrocyte generation. Their failure is characterized by a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate, as well as increased createnine serum levels. This organ responds to vasopressin which increases fluid retention. It filters blood through nephrons, and dialysis performs this organ’s function. The adrenal glands are located above, For 10 Points, what structures connected to the bladder by the ureter.
4. Pothinus warns Caesar that the library of Alexandria is burning in one of this author’s works. In addition to writing Caesar and Cleopatra, this author wrote a play in which the Commander is killed by Don Juan and decides to visit Hell because he found Heaven too boring. Jack Tanner marries Ann in his Man and Superman, and Andrew Undershaft makes a donation to the Salvation Army in another of his plays. This author of Major Barbara wrote a work centering on the main character’s wager with Colonel Pickering. For 10 points, name this Irish playwright who wrote about Henry Higgins tutoring Eliza Doolittle in Pygmalion.
ANSWER: George Bernard Shaw [accept Caesar and Cleopatra before “this author’s”]
5. In one of his works, this thinker argues that God is indistinguishable from man, his absolute paradox. He called money an abstraction in one of his early works, which was titled Two Ages. In one work, he contrasted the knight of infinite resignation with the knight of faith. That work sought to disprove Hegel’s claim that Christianity can be explained by philosophy and discussed Abraham’s sacrifice of Isaac. In another work he contrasted the aesthetic and ethical stages of life. For 10 points, name this Danish father of existentialism, the author of Fear and Trembling and Either/Or.
ANSWER: Soren Kierkegaard
6. This nation’s southern border is defined by the Coco River. The Swan Islands of this country are approximately 95 miles north of its coast, and 500 miles from New Orleans. The Caratasca Lagoon is located in the northeastern part of this country, and the La Mosquitia region of this country contains the Rio Platano Biosphere Reserve. This country that borders the Pacific Ocean through the Gulf of Fonseca is also home to the Islas de la Bahia. For 10 points, name this Central American country borderd by Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala with capital at Tegucigalpa.
7. When bonded to Iodine, this element can react with alkenes to form cyclopropanes in the Simmons-Smith reaction. In the Clemmensen reduction, an amalgamate of this element is reacted with hydrochloric acid to form alkanes. Ions of this element are bonded to residues of cysteine and histidine in “treble clefs” and “gag knuckles”, which can recognize DNA and package RNA, functions of this element’s namesake fingers. This metal is utilized in the galvanization of steel, and pennies made after 1982 are mostly comprised of this metal. For 10 points, name this element with atomic number 30, which can combine with copper to form brass.
ANSWER: Zinc [accept Zn]
8. Syphax switched sides during this war, and was defeated at the Battle of the Great Plains. The Siege of Saguntum helped provoke this war, but the Spanish theater of this war was closed after Mago lost the Battle of Ilipa. This war provoked the First Macedonian War, and Fabius Maximus pursued a delaying strategy as one side’s dictator after early defeats like Lake Trasimene and Trebia. Scipio Africanus’ invasion of Africa led to the end of this war at the Battle of Zama. The Romans were catastrophically defeated at Cannae after Hannibal invaded Italy across the Alps as part of, for ten points, what early third century BCE war between Rome and Carthage?
ANSWER: Second Punic War [prompt on Punic War]
9. This song’s music video begins with a black and white cartoon sketch of a motorcycle race, and after the transition to live-action, the winner of that race invites a woman at a table in a restaurant into his two-dimensional world. This song opens, “Talking away, I don’t know what, what to say,” and the singer declares, “I’ll be coming for your love, okay,” prior to the chorus. This song’s chorus ends with the line “I’ll be gone in a day or two,” hitting an extreme high note on the word “two.” For 10 points, name this song by the Norwegian pop band A-ha, whose chorus instructs the listener to “take me on.”
ANSWER: “Take on Me”
10. In this novel, Tomlinson and Dubula campaign for equal rights for all citizens. Bus boycotts make travel difficult for its protagonist, and one of the characters is arrested along with Matthew. The protagonist stays at the house of Mrs. Lithebe, and is originally called to the city by a letter from Theophilius Msimangu. That letter states that the main character’s sister Gertrude is ill, and that the son of the protagonist will be hanged for the murder of Arthur Jarvis. Absalom is found in prison by his father Stephen Kumalo in, For 10 points, what novel by Alan Paton?
ANSWER: Cry, the Beloved Country
11. According to this religion, the hero Yima was killed by the serpent Azi Dahaka. Adherents of this faith believe that the demon Vizaresh drags the evil souls into the House of Lies at the Chinvat Bridge. An important concept in this religion is the contrast between asha and druj, or truth and lies. Gayomart is the first human-being according to this religion, whose dead followers are left exposed in Towers of Silence. This religion follows the Zend-Avesta and centers on the struggle between Ahriman and Ahura Mazda. For 10 points, name this dualistic Persian religion.
12. The idea for this work was suggested by Clifford Bax. Originally scored as a piano duet, the last movement of this work was instead scored for an organ. A chorus is located in a separate room in one movement of this work, whose music was given to the musicians two hours before its premiere performance in the Queen’s Hall. Its last movement has the chorus fade out at the end, and is called “The Mystic”. This suite contains “The Magician” and “The Bringer of Peace,” as well as the “Bringer of Jollity”. The “Bringer of War” is a well-known movement in, For 10 points, what eight-movement suite by Gustav Holst based on celestial objects such as Mercury?
13. This author wrote a novel in which Knulp wanders into the forest and questions God about the purpose of his existence. In another novel by this man, Hans Giebenrath befriends Hermann Heilner and is found drowned in a river. This author of Beneath the Wheel created a character who is introduced to the god Abraxas by the organist Pistorius. In addition to Demian, he wrote a novel in which the ferryman Vasudeva leads the title figure to enlightenment, while in another, the saxophonist Pablo shows The Magic Theatre to Harry Haller. For 10 points, name this German author of Siddhartha and Steppenwolf.
14. This man led the opposition to the Rowlatt Acts, and he attended the Second Round Table Conference. He negotiated a compromise with Jan Christian Smuts, and he was arrested after delivering a speech urging colonizers to “quit” his country. As a lawyer, he led a campaign to protest voting restrictions in Natal, South Africa, and he urged the wearing of the namesake cloth in the khadi movement. This leader was assassinated by Nathuram Godse, and he led a march to the sea protesting the British salt monopoly. For 10 points, name this champion of satyagraha, an advocate of Indian independence who was given the title Mahatma.
ANSWER: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi [accept Mahatma Gandhi]
15. This quantity increases by a factor of one plus the amplitude gain in the Miller effect, and the reciprocal of this quantity is elastance. It can be calculated for an isolated sphere as 4 pi times epsilon naught times the sphere radius, and the energy in devices associated with this quantity is one half this quantity times voltage squared. Dielectrics can increase it, and for two parallel plates this quantity increases with area and decreases with distance. This quantity is also equal to charge over voltage. For 10 points, name this quantity typically measured in farads that is associated with devices capable of storing charge.
16. This man abandoned the notion of collective conscience in favor of collective representations. He differentiated material from non-material social fact, and posited that totemism is the most elementary level of religion. He divided the main characteristic of religion between sacred and profane, and contrasted organic and mechanical solidarity in The Division of Labor in Society. For 10 points, name this author of The Elementary Forms of Religious Life who described altruistic, egoistic, anomic, and fatalistic types of the title action in Suicide.
ANSWER: Emile Durkheim 17. According to one myth, this figure’s first wife became pregnant after consuming one of this figure’s lice. He wrestled with the Lizard over whether humans should have hands, and attempted to stay awake all night in order to receive a new name. He eavesdropped on everyone while replacing the moon, and he created the star Arcturus while juggling his eyeballs. Sometimes known as the “Old Man,” he is also credited with the creation of men by kicking a ball of mud. For 10 points, name this canine trickster god in Native American mythology.
18. This man used Operation Quicksilver to conceal an invasion, and this man was criticized by the GI General for having a poor grasp of tactics. This man oversaw the Battle of Falaise pocket, and he ordered the seventh army under George S. Patton to take Messina in accordance with General Montgomery’s invasion plan. He authorized the execution of Eddie Slovik for desertion, and organized Operation Overlord. For 10 points, name this man, who served as the Supreme Commander of Allied forces in WWII and oversaw the Normandy landing on D-Day.
ANSWER: Dwight David Eisenhower
19. In this novel, Mr. Emerson’s son informs the protagonist that his “recommendation letter” is fake. The protagonist of this novel steals a coin bank from Mary, and was previously expelled from college by Dr. Bledsoe. The protagonist is mistaken as Rinehart in several occasions near the end of this novel, and he is injured when a boiler explodes during a fight with Lucius Brockway at Liberty Paints. Tod Clifton quits the Brotherhood and starts selling dolls instead, and Ras the Exhorter begins a riot at the end of this novel. For 10 points, name this novel featuring a “Battle Royal” scene, a work by Ralph Ellison.
ANSWER: Invisible Man[do not accept “The Invisible Man”]
20. For a prime number n, evaluating this function at the quantity n minus one will equal -1, modulo n, according to Wilson’s theorem. One approximation of this function for large n values is named for Stirling, and Euler devised an extension for this function to the complex numbers and negative non-integers called the gamma function. This function, which appears in the denominator of a Taylor series, is an empty product when evaluated at zero, and is therefore equal to 1 there. For 10 points, name this function, useful in performing permutations and combinations, which for some natural number n is defined as the product of all natural numbers less than or equal to n.
TB. In one story by this author, Monsieur Morissot and his companion are captured and executed by Prussian soldiers while fishing. This author of “Two Friends” also wrote about a German captain, who is stabbed by the prostitute Rachael after boasting about German supremacy. This author of “Mademoiselle Fifi” created the character Elizabeth Rousset, who is pressured into sleeping with a Prussian officer in this man’s “Ball of Fat”. In his most famous work, Madame Forestier lends Mathilde the title piece of jewelry, which is lost. For 10 points, name this French author of “The Necklace”.
ANSWER: Guy de Maupassant Bonuses
1. Its author was an advisor to the British Treasury while writing this treatise. For 10 points each:
 Identify this work in which its author criticized the Treaty of Versailles, claiming that it would hinder the reconstruction of Europe after World War I.
ANSWER: The Economic Consequences of the Peace
 This economist championed the influence of aggregate demand upon a nation’s economy and employment, and wrote The Economic Consequences of the Peace.
ANSWER: John Maynard Keynes
 This other treatise on macroeconomics written by Keynes introduces concepts such as the consumption function and liquidity preference and their impact on economies.
ANSWER: The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money 2. The secondary layer of this is produced by vascular cambium. For 10 points each:
 Name this plant structure which moves materials from the roots to the rest of the plant.
 Xylem contains vessel elements as well as this single elongated cell, which moves water.
 Xylem utilizes this phenomenon along with root pressure to function. The stomata acts as a pump, and it is named after a process in which water evaporates off leaves.
ANSWER: Transpirational pull 3. He received his first Ph.D. at age sixteen in twistor theory, possesses an IQ of 187, and is unable to comprehend sarcasm. For 10 points each:
 Name this Caltech theoretical physicist, a socially awkward, conceited genius who is the roommate of Leonard Hofstadter.
ANSWER: Dr. SheldonCooper [accept either]
 Sheldon is a character on this CBS television show that also features Penny, a waitress at the Cheesecake Factory; and an astrophysicist incapable of speaking to women, Raj.
ANSWER: The Big Bang Theory
 Sheldon begins to fall apart when he meets this North Korean child prodigy who is smarter than him in every way. The guys distract him from his research by finding him a girlfriend.
ANSWER: DennisKim [accept either]
4. Answer the following about events during the Nixon administration, for 10 points each:
 Nixon eventually resigned due to this incident in which five men were arrested for breaking into the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee.
ANSWER: Watergate Scandal
 Nixon used this phrase to refer to a group of people who supported the Vietnam War but did not visibly show it.
ANSWER: Silent Majority
 National Guard troops shot four students at an antiwar protest held at this Ohio university after troops were ordered in by governor James Rhodes.
ANSWER: Kent State University
5. Yoko takes care of the ailing Yukio in this novel. For 10 points each:
 Name this novel in which Shimamura meets the geisha Komako while on a trip to a hot-springs spa.
ANSWER: Snow Country [accept Yukiguni]
 Snow Country was written by this Japanese author, who wrote about Otaké challenging Shūsai to a match of the title game in The Master of Go.
ANSWER: Yasunari Kawabata
 This Japanese author was influenced by the disability of his son when writing A Personal Matter and also wrote about Mitsu and Takashi in The Silent Cry.
ANSWER: Kenzaburō Ōe
6. One of this man’s works posited that metaphysics must limit itself to matters that are both a priori and synthetic. For 10 points each:
 Name this German philosopher who authored the Critique of Pure Reason.
ANSWER: Immanuel Kant
 In his Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant introduced this concept which states that one should base their actions on whether they are necessary under universal law.
ANSWER: Categorical Imperative
 Kant also posited this idea, which describes the way a non-empirical concept is associated with a mental image.
ANSWER: Schema 7. For 10 points each, answer the following about an ancient Mesopotamian empire:
 This empire underwent reforms under Tiglath-Pileser III. It is known for the deportation of the Jews, also known as the Babylonian Captivity.
ANSWER: Neo-Assyrian Empire
 This city, the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, is famous for its library, which contained several thousand cuneiform tablets.
 This man was the Neo-Assyrian Empire’s last great king, the son of Esarhaddon. He created that famous library at Nineveh, and after his death, the empire fell into a series of civil wars.
ANSWER: Ashurbanipal 8. P and S waves occur as a result of these events. For 10 points each:
 Name these events whose strengths are measured by the Richter scale. When they take place offshore, they may cause a tsunami.
 This kind of fault is vertical, and shifts horizontally. They frequently cause earthquakes, and many are located in California. They can be either sinistral or dextral.
ANSWER: Strike-Slip Fault
 This well-known strike-slip fault in California forms the border between the Pacific and North American tectonic plates and runs for roughly 810 miles.
ANSWER: San Andreas Fault
9. The protagonist of this novel is poisoned in a gas attack, and his friend Kropp undergoes an amputation. For 10 points each:
 Name this novel about the experiences of Paul Baumer and his friends in World War I, including meeting a soldier named Kat.
ANSWER: All Quiet on the Western Front [accept Im Westen nichts Neues]
 This German author wrote All Quiet on the Western Front.
ANSWER: Erich Maria Remarque [accept Erich Paul Remark]
 This character from All Quiet on the Western Front receives Kemmerich’s boots, and gives them to Paul before dying.
ANSWER: FredrichMuller [accept either]
10. It depicts a train on the Maidenhead Railway Bridge and the River Thames. For 10 points each:
 Name this work which also depicts a mountainous background and a boat with two sitting figures.
ANSWER: Rain, Steam, and Speed
 This British artist of Rain, Steam, and Speed also painted TheFighting Temeraire, which depicts a ship from the Battle of Trafalgar.
ANSWER: Joseph Mallord William Turner
 Five birds and a strange creature appear in the bottom right corner of this Turner work, which depicts the title people who have been thrown overboard.
ANSWER: The Slave Ship 11. The Persian Gulf is connected to this body by the Strait of Hormuz. For 10 points each:
 Name this body of water, bounded to the east by India and to the west by the Gulf of Aden.
ANSWER: Arabian Sea
 This geographic feature in central India is bounded to the east and west by the Ghats, and is very dry.
ANSWER: Deccan Plateau
 This river begins in Tibet and joins the Padma River in the Ganges delta. Its lower portion is sacred to Hindus.
ANSWER: Brahmaputra River
12. One character in this play named Rocky resents being called a pimp, although he receives money from two prostitutes named Pearl and Margie. For 10 points each:
 Name this play in which Moran and Lieb arrest Hickey after he confesses to the murder of his wife.
ANSWER: The Iceman Cometh  This American playwright of The Iceman Cometh and The Mourning Becomes Electra also wrote a comedy about the Miller family in his Ah, Wilderness! ANSWER: Eugene O’Neill  This O’Neill play features a former Pullman porter named Brutus who escapes from prison and becomes the ruler of a Caribbean island.
ANSWER: TheEmperor Jones
13. Answer the following about Hindu deities, for 10 points each.
 This elephant-headed god is the remover of obstacles and is the son of Parvati and Shiva.
 This creator god of the Hindu trimurti was cursed to never be worshipped on Earth.
 This warrior goddess and aspect of Parvati killed the buffalo demon Mahisha.
14. Answer the following about light, for 10 points each.
 Name this phenomenon commonly exhibited by mirrors, which is the rebounding of light at the boundary of a medium.
 Total internal reflection occurs at this angle. It can be calculated using Snell’s Law by setting the refraction angle to ninety degrees.
ANSWER: Critical Angle
 At this angle, light is linearly polarized, because the reflected and refracted light rays are perpendicular to each other.
ANSWER: Brewster’s Angle
15. For 10 points each, answer the following about an African kingdom.
 This kingdom was centered around Niani, and it had rulers who had the title “mansa”. One of the cities in this empire was Timbuktu.
 This ruler is famous for his hajj where he gave out so many gifts and spent so much money that he had to borrow some in order to return to Mali.
ANSWER: Mansa Musa I
 This founder of the kingdom of Mali defeated Soumaoro at the Battle of Kirina after being exiled by his father.
ANSWER: Sundiata Keita [accept Mari Djata I; prompt on Princely Lion]
16. Richard the Lion-Hearted is disguised as the Black Knight in this novel. For 10 points each:
 Name this novel in which the title Wilfred knight rejects Rebecca and marries Lady Rowena.
ANSWER: Ivanhoe  Ivanhoe was written by this author of Waverley and The Heart of Midlothian.
ANSWER: Sir Walter Scott  In this six-canto narrative poem by Scott, James Fitz-James falls in love with Ellen, the daughter of his exiled enemy James Douglas.
ANSWER: The Lady of the Lake
17. Shapes predicted by this theory include bent, octahedral and trigonal planar. For 10 points each:
 Name this theory that predicts molecular shapes based on the number of electron pairs a molecule possesses.
ANSWER: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory (pronounced “VESPER”)
 When atoms bond together, the mixing of atomic orbitals, known by this term, can occur. Carbon’s three 2p orbitals can combine with a 2s orbital to form four sp3 orbitals by it.
 Triple bonds between atoms contain one sigma bond and two of these types of bonds. These bonds are weaker than their sigma counterparts and will form when orbitals hybridize.
ANSWER: Pi bond
18. The title of this work was taken from a poem by Hart Crane, and it was dedicated to Martha Graham. For 10 points each:
 Name this ballet which details a celebration of the American pioneers upon building a farm house in Pennsylvania.
ANSWER: Appalachian Spring
 This American composer of Appalachian Spring also composed Fanfare for the CommonMan and Rodeo.
ANSWER: Aaron Copland
 Appalachian Spring includes this Shaker hymn, which was originally written by Elder Joseph.
ANSWER: Simple Gifts 19. Baptized members of this religion are inducted into the Khalsa. For 10 points each:
 Name this religion primarily practiced in the Punjab region of India.
 Compiled in 1604 by Guru Arjan, this is the holy scripture of Sikhism. Its name translates to “half-scripture”.
ANSWER: Adi Granth
 This first of the 10 gurus was the founder of Sikhism and author of the Adi Granth.
ANSWER: Guru Nanak Dev
20. For 10 points each, answer the following about the beginnings of the Soviet Union:
 This revolutionary leader founded the USSR and led the October Revolution. After his death, he was succeeded by Joseph Stalin.
ANSWER: Vladimir Ilyich Lenin [accept Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov]
 This man was the second Prime Minister of the Russian Provisional Government until Lenin was elected after the October Revolution.
ANSWER: Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky
 This Soviet party was formed counter to Lenin’s Bolsheviks in 1904 by Julius Martov. Whereas “Bolshevik” means “majority”, this party’s name translates as “minority”.
TB. A merchant ship passes along the horizon in this painting, and a green cord lies next to the central figure. For 10 points each:
 Name this painting which features a shirtless black man on a boat surrounded by sharks.
ANSWER: The Gulf Stream
 This American painter of The Gulf Stream also depicted two crows pursing the title animal in The Fox Hunt.
ANSWER: Winslow Homer
 This other painting by Homer features three boys and a bearded man on the sailboat Gloucester.