TOSSUPS – Broward Community College 1. In 1900, anyone who took a swim off the coast of this city, which produced more than half of the world's oil supply, would emerge with black skin. Recently, the pollution has caused a jump in caviar prices, due to plummeting populations of beluga sturgeon in the Caspian. This city had lost much of its political value by the time Hitler turned his forces toward it instead of Moscow, but today oil companies are investing billions despite the turmoil in the Caucasus. FTP, name this "Pearl of the Caspian," the capital of Azerbaijan.
2. By his 5th birthday he could read English, Hebrew, Latin, and Greek, and by 13 he knew various European languages, Sanskrit, Arabic, Malay, Hindi, and Bengali. Appointed Royal Astronomer of Ireland at 21, he soon did important work in optics and mechanics before producing his greatest mathematical work on matrix theory and quaternions. FTP, name this Irish mathematician, whose name is attached to a function in mathematical physics which represents the total energy of a system.
Answer: William Rowan Hamilton
3. Earthworms and most other annelids use this type of locomotion, since their hydrostatic skeletons allow them to change the shape of each individual segment of their body, using both circular and longitudinal muscles in a rhythmic pattern. The term is most often heard in connection with the human esophagus and intestines, which use rhythmic waves of smooth muscle contraction to push food along the digestive tract. FTP, provide this term which originates from Greek words meaning “to wrap around.”
Answer: peristalsis or peristaltic motion (prompt on variants)
4. This philosophical movement views reality as hierarchically ordered; at its apex is a spiritual entity or hypostasis which is unknowable and ineffable and can only be described indirectly. Other hypostases derived by emanation include intellect, then soul, then matter, but these manifestations are of decreasing levels of perfection. The movement formed in the 3rd century AD and borrowed from other schools, and it stood in opposition to Epicureanism. FTP, name this movement initiated by the work of Plotinus.
Answer: Neo-Platonism or Neo-Platonic school
5. He was a leading poet, dramatist, philosopher, and historian of his day, and his works are characterized by strong optimism and moral idealism. Fascinated by the Thirty Years' War, he wrote a history of the war in the early 1790s, and it provided the setting for his 3-part verse masterpiece completed in 1799. FTP, name this German thinker whose works include the plays Maria Stuart, The Maid of Orleans, and William Tell, the Wallenstein trilogy and the poems “The Song of the Bell” and “Ode to Joy.”
Answer: Johann Christian Friedrich von Schiller
6. Recent DNA studies by Erika Hagelberg seem to support opponents of this man's theory, but he stands by his work. At age 84, he now resides in Tenerife, but it was in the Pacific where he became famous over 50 years ago. From experience, he says that leaky boats are actually best for long travel, such as his 1977 journey in a Tigris reed boat or the Ra expeditions of 1969-70. FTP, name this Norwegian who argues that Polynesia was first settled by South Americans, and who backed up his words in 1947 by sailing for 101 days on the balsa raft Kon-Tiki.
Answer: Thor Heyerdahl
7. So little is known about him that even his name is in doubt. He was the architect of the basilica and shrine honouring Augustus at Fano, and his best-known written work is dedicated to Octavian. He related orders of columns to the bodies of men, women, and maidens; described methods of town planning, building design, and stone construction; and provided methods and advice for transporting water via aqueduct. FTP, name this Roman engineer and architect known for his Ten Books on Architecture.
8. One of the sons of King Dasa-Ratha of Ayodhya, he is the 7th avatar of Vishnu. During his 14-year exile, his wife is captured by Ravana, but after many difficult battles he kills Ravana. He then returns to Ayodhya and rules with his wife Sita for 10,000 years, then alone for another 1,000, before he and his brothers return to the heavens as Vishnu. FTP, name this hero of an Indian epic generally attributed to the poet Valmiki.
Answer: Rama (prompt on Ramayana)
9. In a coaxial cable, this quantity is determined by the diameter of the center conductor, diameter of the shield, distance from center conductor to shield, and dielectric constant of the material in between. In an alternating current, its square is equal to the square of resistance plus the square of the difference of inductive and capacitive reactance. FTP, identify this aspect of a current, equal to the resistance for an AC current in resonance, symbolized by the letter Z.
10. Its rarely-heard fourth verse begins with part of a line from Twelfth Night, and the third verse is full of sea references. It remains popular over 30 years after its composition and has appeared in many movies, most notably The Commitments and the Scorsese section of New York Stories. The organ part, contrary to rumor, is not taken from Bach, but listeners still struggle to figure out what Keith Reid's lyrics are about -- a mermaid, a relationship ending, drunkenness, and betrayal are a few popular guesses. And no one seems sure about the apparent Chaucer reference, what a light fandango may be, or why sixteen Vestal virgins would be leaving for the coast. FTP, name this 1967 song, the best-known work of Procol Harum.
Answer: “A Whiter Shade of Pale”
11. Past winners include Enrico Bombieri, Lars Ahlfors, Gerd Faltings, and Edward Witten, all of whom were under 40 at the time. Its face features the initials RTM and a portrait of Archimedes, with his name in Greek characters; the winner's name is engraved on the rim. Established by a Canadian professor in 1924, it was first awarded in 1936 and has been awarded every four years since 1950. FTP, name this medal which is awarded at every meeting of the International Congress of Mathematicians.
Answer: Fields Medal
12. His raft floated away from Sarasota, past the mouth of the Mississippi, and crashed on Galveston Island in November 1528. After two years as a prisoner of the Karankawa Indians, he began to gain a reputation as a great healer, and by 1535 he was wandering Mexico with a vast group of reverent Pimas and Opatas following him everywhere. FTP, name this Spaniard, whose odd surname is derived from an ancestor who used a bovine skull to mark a route through a mountain pass.
Answer: Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca
13. He might have been one of the greats of Victorian literature, were it not for his death in 1833. In 1831, he published the essay “On Some of the Characteristics of Modern Poetry,” which helped define a distinction between Romantic and Classical schools of Victorian poetry. At Cambridge, he was the brightest light of a group of young intellectuals called the Apostles, another member of which would become his closest friend -- Alfred, Lord Tennyson. FTP, name this man whose death sent Tennyson into a long depression, and who inspired Tennyson's 1850 poem, “In Memoriam.”
Answer: Arthur Henry Hallam (prompt on A.H.H.)
14. These compounds are most frequently used in the synthesis of alcohols. They are obtained by the reaction of chips or granules of magnesium with an alkyl or aryl halide. The reaction is carried out in an ether solvent, most commonly diethyl ether, which is needed to solvate and stabilize the product as it forms. FTP, identify the term for these organomagnesium halides, which are named for the French chemist who shared the 1912 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Answer: Grignard reagants (prompt on organometallic compounds, or organomagnesium halides before last sentence)
15. It was visited by Livingstone in 1851-53, and later by Dr. John Kirk in 1858-60. It rises in Northwestern Zambia and flows south through eastern Angola and western Zambia to the Botswana border. Then it turns east and forms the Zambia-Zimbabwe border, and eventually it crosses Mozambique and enters the Mozambique Channel near Chinde. FTP name this river which along its 1700-mile course has three main navigable stretches, separated by rapids and by Victoria Falls.
Answer: The Zambezi (or Zambesi or Zambeze) River
16. Frank Drummer, who tried to memorize the Encyclopedia Brittanica; Sam Hookey, who was attacked by Brutus the Lion; Benjamin and Mrs. Benjamin Pantier, who hated each other, Reuben Pantier, who was loved by Emily Sparks; Knowlt Hoheimer, who stole Curl Trenary's pigs, avoided jail by running off to the war, and died at Missionary Ridge; and Lydia Puckett, whose rejection of Knowlt was the real reason he ran away to the war. All of these characters are buried on a hill, FTP, in what fictional county created by Edgar Lee Masters?
Answer: Spoon River (accept Spoon River Anthology) (prompt on Masters)
17. In 1800, he won a lottery and with $600 of his winnings bought his freedom and became a carpenter. Years later, he wanted to free others and planned to set what was then the 5th largest city in America on fire and then flee to sanctuary in recently established Haiti. FTP, name this man whose prematurely discovered plan for the largest slave rebellion in US history would have burned Charleston, South Carolina on July 14, 1822.
18. When he was 8, his family moved to Nebraska, where his father founded the town of Cozad, the last name that he was born with. After several violent confrontations with other homesteaders and cattlemen, his family was forced to flee the state and assume false identities. We know him as the artist of such works as La Neige, Young Woman in Black, and Jesseca Penn in Black. FTP name this writer of The Art Spirit and leader of The Eight.
Answer: Robert Henri
19. It was first observed by American psychologist G. C. Homuns. In studying the effects of increased or decreased lighting on the productivity of workers, Homuns observed that productivity increased regardless of which change was made. This effect refers to the generalization that anything new will bring about a short-term improvement. FTP, identify this effect which was named for the industrial plant where the study was done and not for the author of Mosses from an Old Manse and The Scarlet Letter.
Answer: The Hawthorne Effect
20. It ended when Toghon Temur Khan fled with his Empress and concubines to Xanadu, then to Karakorum. Other members of the dynasty included Asikipa Khan and Temur Khan, but the first ruler is easily the most famous. It was during this dynastic period that Marco Polo visited China and met Kublai Khan. FTP, name this Chinese dynasty suceeded by the Ming dynasty, lasting from 1279-1368.
Answer: Yuan dynasty (prompt on Mongol dynasty)
21. Her life, as recounted as Millicent Dillon's biography A Little Original Sin, was filled with adventures and love affairs. Many of her central characters were odd, eccentric women living in exotic places, not unlike the writer herself. Born in New York, she spent much of her married life in Tangier, which often made her feel “cut off,” which is one reason she produced only one novel, one play, and seven short stories. Her husband, the author of The Sheltering Sky, found Morocco stimulating, however. FTP, name this writer whose lone novel was Two Serious Ladies.
Answer: Jane Bowles
22. Born in Kiev in 1890, he became a member of the Ballet Russes under the direction of Sergei Diaghilev. He was its leading male dancer in the premieres of The Spectre of the Rose, Petrushka, and Scheherezade and in 1912 he choreographed the avant garde Afternoon of a Faun, which shocked the audience. FTP who caused a near riot in the following year as choreographer and with his frenetic twists and jerks as lead dancer in The Rite of Spring.
Answer: Vaslav Nijinsky
23. One of these can be built to add any two binary numbers, but one can not be built to multiply any two binary numbers. It is a machine which starts in a certain internal state Q, receives a stimulus S, reacts by changing to an internal state Q-prime and spitting out a response R, and repeats this cycle with a new stimulus or input. FTP, identify this machine, which Richard Feynman describes as a Turing machine without a tape.
Answer: Finite State Machine or FSM (prompt on early buzz with “Turing machine” prior to “multiply”)
24. Born in 1937, she was a textile worker and an amateur parachutist in her youth, until she was recruited by her country in 1961. She drew unusual attention in 1964 when she gave birth to her first child, who was the first human to ever have both parents exposed to the space environment. FTP, name this woman who orbited the earth 48 times in June 1963, the first female cosmonaut.
Answer: Valentina Tereshkova
25. Sometimes called the Battle of Senlac Hill, Harold II rushed south to meet defeat by the Bastard Duke of Normandy. FTP identify this 1066 battle won by the forces of William the Conqueror.
Answer: Battle of _Hastings_
26. Some of her poems include "To Maecenas," "Thoughts on the Works of Providence," "To the University of Cambridge, in New England," and "To His Excellency, George Washington." She was only 19 or 20 when these poems were published in London and her youth and circumstances attracted considerable attention. Only 12 years earlier, she came to Boston and learned to read English. FTP name this woman who came from Western Africa at age 8 and became the first black woman writer in the US.
Answer: Phillis Wheatley
27. Henry II of Saxony; Lothair II of Franconia; Wenceslas and Sigismund of Luxemburg; and Albert II, Charles V, and Leopold I of Habsburg all held this position. It was fairly powerful for its first three centuries, but after 1250 it had little power, then less still after 1648, and virtually none when the post was abolished in 1806 by its last holder, Francis II. FTP, name this post held by Frederick Barbarossa from 1152-1190, the first holder of which was Otto the Great in 962 AD.
Answer: Holy Roman Emperor (prompt on variants)
28. The son of a clockmaker, he was looking for a clockmaking book, but the bookseller sent him to the magic books instead. He soon became the great master of 19th-century drawing-room magic, combining sleight-of-hand with extraordinary automata which he himself constructed. Some of his most famous illusions were The Mysterious Orange Tree, The Pastry Cook, and The Writing Automaton -- the last of these was asked questions by the audience and somehow gave handwritten answers. FTP, name this French magician, whose name was adopted in altered form by a young magician named Erich Weiss.
Answer: Jean Eugene Robert-Houdin or Houdin (Do not accept "Houdini")