Chapter Questions: Sophie’s World
2. How did Hegel describe philosophy as the, “mirror” of, “world spirit?”
3. According to Hegel, what is the only fixed point on to which philosophy can hold?
4. What did Hegel mean when he said that reason is, “dynamic?”
5. Summarize Hegel’s, “dialectic process.” What are the three stages? Summarize them.
6. According to Hegel, why is the state more important than the individual?
7. What did Hegel mean by, “absolute spirit?”
1. How did Kierkegaard explain his position that a focus on world spirit took away from the importance of the individual?
2. According to Kierkegaard, why is faith more important than reason?
3. What did Kierkegaard mean when he said that truth is subjective?
4. Identify and summarize the three stages of existence according to Kierkegaard.
2. What did Marx believe shaped a society’s culture?
3. According to Marx, what element of society dictates that society?
4. What economic system did Marx find irrational and self-destructive? Explain what he meant.
5. Marx said that philosophers only interpret the world around them. What did he think philosophers should do instead?
6. What was the name of Marx’s famous work where he unveiled his plan for communism? When was it written?
1. Charles Darwin’s theories challenged the ideas of which two ancient Greek philosophers?
2. Which founding father of the United States had an influence on the work of Darwin?
3. Where did Darwin conduct the bulk of his research that led to his ideas?
4. According to Darwin, approximately how old is life on Earth?
5. Darwin held two primary ideas about science. What were they (and summarize them)?
1. Sigmund Freud was from what major European city?
2. According to Freud, which of the three elements of the human mind provides the morality of our own thought? Make sure we identify and summarize all three.
3. According to Freud, what can occur if we repress negative experiences too much?