Heg sustainable indict


Turn—Heg Solves Multilateralism



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Turn—Heg Solves Multilateralism

Hegemony supplements multilateral approaches—NATO, the World Bank, and EU thrive under US leadership


Kromah 9

(Lamii Moivi Kromah, MA student, Department of International Relations @ University of the Witwatersrand, February 2009, “The Institutional Nature of U.S. Hegemony: Post 9/11,” p. 62-63, http://wiredspace.wits.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10539/7301/MARR%2009.pdf?sequence=1, Accessed 7/30/14, JC)



The well-documented invasion of Iraq, and the Bush Doctrine marked a significant change in U.S. foreign policy; U.S. foreign policy seemed bent on going against the will of its allies, France and Germany, and unilaterally invading countries. A unilateral America is a transitory phenomenon; the acts of September 11, 2001 were so heinous that a majority of the foreign policy decision makers were willing to condone unilateralism. But after seven years of unilateralism the Bush regime has realized its error and reverted back to multilateralism. Allies have been consulted on a regular basis; international organizations have been approached in order so solve conflicts ranging from Somalia, Iraq, and Georgia; such as the United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), World Bank, and European Union. NATO enlargement represents the best case of continual U.S. multilateralism. After 9/11 Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania have entered NATO. Croatia and Albania are scheduled to join in 2009. Although essentially a military alliance; NATO membership offers humanitarian aid, conflict resolution mechanisms, and economic aid. Since NATO is viewed as the catalyst that rebuilt Western Europe. The new members feel that it will do the same for the Eastern European countries that are now entering by providing security guarantees against a revisionist Russia and much needed development aid and access to Western European and American markets and grants. President Clinton was the first to voice this opinion: that NATO and not European institutions like the European Union and EEC had turned Western Europe into “a source of stability instead of hostility,” and that NATO expansion could do for Europe’s East what it did for Europe’s West: Prevent a return to local rivalries. In other words, stability requires a hegemon, which is why “America remains the indispensable nation” and why U.S. policy is driven to extend the frontiers of stability, so that “a gray zone of insecurity [does] not reemerge in Europe”71 Perhaps the most recent example of the failure of Unilateralism and the return to multilateralism by the United States is the handling of the Somali security crisis. Alarmed at the Islamic Court’s growing strength and popularity, in early 2006 the CIA began supplying significant quantities of arms and money to a coalition of secular Mogadishu warlords under the name Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter Terrorism (ARPCT). The CIA program had been a poorly conceived attempt to hunt down the small number of al-Qaeda affiliated individuals involved in the 1998 bombings of the US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, then thought to be hiding in Somalia. But the operation failed disastrously and, according to reports, ‘the payoffs added to an anarchic situation that led many Somalis to turn to the Islamic Courts for protection’.72

Defense



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