Drezner, 13 – Professor of International Politics at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University (Daniel, “Military Primacy Doesn’t Pay (Nearly As Much As You Think),” International Security, Volume 38, Number 1, Summer 2013, pp. 52-79, MIT Press)//eek
The second caveat is whether military power alone is the primary driver for the public goods benefits of unipolarity. Most scholars who attempt to determine the presence of unipolarity do not rely solely on military mea- sures to make that assertion. The literature on measuring state power relies on multiple metrics. Joseph Nye has repeatedly referred to power in world politics as a “three-dimensional chessboard” that comprises military, eco- nomic, and “soft power” dimensions. Scholars who debate the persistence of American unipolarity include, at a minimum, both economic and military measures of power.99 Hegemony relies on multiple channels of power. This matters because the primary causal mechanism that leads to peace and prosperity through uni- polarity is the elimination of uncertainty.100 When hegemony is uncontested and acknowledged by all major actors, then secondary states have less need to attempt to balance or to engage in status-seeking behavior. Indeed, even schol- ars who argue for the persistence of unipolarity acknowledge the importance of preeminence across a variety of power metrics. Wohlforth notes: The theory suggests that it is not just the aggregate distribution of capabilities that matters for status competition but also the evenness with which key dimensions—such as naval, military, economic, and technological—are distrib uted. Uneven capability portfolios—when states excel in different relevant ma- terial dimensions—make status inconsistency more likely. When an actor possesses some attributes of high status but not others, uncertainty and status inconsistency are likely. The more a lower-ranked actor matches the higher- ranked group in some but not all key material dimensions of status, the more likely it is to conceive an interest in contesting its rank and the more likely the higher-ranked state is to resist.101 If Wohlforth’s logic is accurate, then military power alone does not explain the reduction of conoict or security rivalries in the post–Cold War era. It is the combination of military and economic supremacy that leads to peace and prosperity. For unipolarity to yield positive economic benefits through systemic stability, it must be full-spectrum unipolarity.