Harvard University



Download 57.24 Kb.
Date20.05.2016
Size57.24 Kb.


Harvard University

John F. Kennedy School of Government


KSG ISP-409 Civil Wars: Theory and Policy
Monica Duffy Toft

This course introduces students to the analytical and comparative study of civil wars. Historical and contemporary civil wars will be analyzed from a variety of perspectives, and prominent cases (e.g. Chechnya, Sudan, Yugoslavia, and Zimbabwe) will be discussed in depth. The course will address the role of nationalism, interstate dimensions - including refugee flows and repatriation - external intervention, and conflict management and resolution. The course aims to provide students with solid theoretical and historical foundations, and to highlight the difficult policy dilemmas associated with civil wars, such as the tension between states’ rights and human rights and whether to intervene. By the end of the course, students will be well prepared to think through policy options in the prevention and resolution of civil wars. Additionally, each student will choose one civil war at the beginning of the course and be the class expert on that war.


Office hours:

A sign-up sheet will be posted outside of Professor Toft’s door. Her office is L376, telephone 495-5154, e-mail mtoft@wcfia.harvard.edu.


Course requirements:

This is a graduate-level course. Grades will be based on class attendance, preparation, participation, and written assignments. There are six written assignments: five short memoranda and a longer research and policy paper on a civil war. There is also a group presentation. Details of these assignments will be explained in class.


Attendance and participation: 10% of grade

Group Presentation: 15% of grade

Memoranda—a total of five: 25% of grade

Research and policy essay: 50% of grade


Course materials:

Course packets will be available for purchase at the Course Materials Office. Required books will be available for purchase at the Harvard Coop. Copies of the readings will be on reserve at the KSG library. There are six texts:


Misha Glenny, The Fall of Yugoslavia. Penguin Press, 1996. revised edition.

Robert D. Kaplan. Balkan Ghosts. Vintage Press, 1996. 2nd edition.

David Keen. The Economic Functions of Violence in Civil Wars. Adelphi Paper 320, IISS/Oxford University Press, 1998.

Roy Licklider, ed. Stopping the Killing: How Civil Wars End. New York University Press, 1993.

Michael O’Hanlon. Saving Lives with Force: Military Criteria for Humanitarian Intervention. Brookings Institution Press, 1997.

I. William Zartman, ed. Elusive Peace: Negotiating an End to Civil Wars. Brookings Institution Press, 1995.


Enrollment:

Enrollment is open and there are no prerequisites. Auditors may be permitted at the discretion of the instructor.


Overview of course


Session

Date

Subject

Assignment







I. What are civil wars?




1

Sep 19 tues

Overview of civil wars and violence




2

Sep 21 thur

Continued











II. Origins of civil wars: frameworks for analysis




3

Sep 26 tues

Security dilemma explanations

1st memo

4

Sep 28 thur

Case for discussion: Yugoslavia




5

Oct 3 tues

Modernization and relative deprivation

2nd memo

6

Oct 5 thur

Cases for discussion: Sierra Leone and Tajikistan




7

Oct 10 tues

Nationalism and identity

3rd memo

8

Oct 12 thur

Cases for discussion: Sudan and Yugoslavia




9

Oct 17 tues

Elite-driven explanations

4th memo

10

Oct 19 thur

Case for discussion: Yugoslavia









III. Processes of civil wars




11

Oct 24 tues

Economics of civil wars: profiteers and victims

5th memo

12

Oct 26 thur

Politics during civil wars

6th memo

13

Oct 31 tues

Obstacles to resolution

7th memo


















IV. Resolution & management of civil wars




14

Nov 2 thur

How civil wars end

8th memo

15

Nov 7 tues

Negotiating an end

9th memo

16

Nov 9 thur

Cases for discussion: Sudan and Zimbabwe




17

Nov 14 tues

Intervention: normative, legal, and pragmatic issues

10th memo

18

Nov 16 thur

Diplomacy and peacekeeping




19

Nov 21 tues

Sanctions and aid




20

Nov 28 tues

Military intervention




21

Nov 30 thur

Political reconsolidation after war




22

Dec 5 tues

Continued




23

Dec 7 thur
Cases for discussion: Lebanon, Rwanda, Yugoslavia




24

Dec 12 tues

Partition




25

Dec 14 thur

Group presentations




26

Dec 19 tues

Group presentations








Dec 20 Wed



Research and policy paper due at noon






Course Readings





Session

Date

Subject and assigned readings







I. What are civil wars?

1

Sep 19 tues

Overview of civil wars and violence

Harry Eckstein, “Introduction: Toward the Theoretical Study of Internal War,” in Internal War, Harry Eckstein, ed. (New York: Free Press, 1964), pp. 1-32.

Michael Brown, “Introduction,” in The International Dimensions of Internal Conflict, Michael Brown, ed. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996), pp. 1-29.


2

Sep 21 thur

Overview continued

Ted Robert Gurr, “Peoples Against States: Ethnopolitical Conflict and the Changing World System,” International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 38, 1994, pp. 347-377.

I. William Zartman, “Dynamics and Constraints in Negotiations in Internal Conflicts,” in Elusive Peace, pp. 3-29.

Jim Fearon and David Laitin, “Explaining Interethnic Cooperation,” American Political Science Review, Vol 90, No. 4, December 1996, pp. 715-735.

Shashi Tharoor, “The Future of Civil Conflict,” World Policy Journal, Vol. 16, No. 1, Spring 1999, pp. 1-11.








II. Origins of civil wars: frameworks for analysis

3

Sep 26 tues
Security dilemma explanations
Robert Jervis “Cooperation under the Security Dilemma,” World Politics, January 1978, pp. 167-214.
Barry Posen, “The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict,” Survival, Vol. 35, No. 1, Spring 1993, pp. 27-47.

James Fearon, “Commitment Problems and the Spread of Ethnic Conflict,” in The International Spread of Ethnic Conflict, David Lake and Donald Rothschild, eds. (Princteon, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998), pp. 107-126.

4

Sep 28 thur

Case for discussion: Yugoslavia
Misha Glenny, The Fall of Yugoslavia, chapters 1 and 3.

Warren Zimmerman, “The Last Ambassador,” Foreign Affairs, March/April 1995.

5

Oct 3 tues

Material explanations: modernization and relative deprivation

James Davies, “The J-Curve of Rising and Declining Satisfaction as a Cause of some Great Revolutions and a Contained Rebellion,” in Violence in America: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, Ted Robert Gurr and Hugh Davis Graham, eds. (Washington, DC: GPO, 1969) Vol. 2, pp. 547-576.

Donald Horowitz, “Conflict Theory and Conflict Motives,” in Ethnic Groups in Conflict (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1985), pp. 95-140.

Charles Tilly, “Does Modernization Breed Revolution?” Comparative Politics, Vol. 5, No. 3, April 1973, pp. 425-447.



6

Oct 5 thur

Cases for discussion: Sierra Leone and Tajikistan
Alfred B Zack-Williams, “Sierra Leone: The Political Economy of Civil War, 1991-98,” Third World Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 143-162.

Muriel Atkin, “Thwarted Democracy in Tajikistan,” in Conflict, Cleavage, and Change in Central Asia and the Caucasus, Karen Dawisha and Bruce Parrott, eds. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp. 277-311.



7

Oct 10 tues
Non-material explanations: nationalism and identity

Clifford Geertz, “The Integrative Revolution: Primordial Sentiments and Civil Politics in New States,” in Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Basic Books, 1973), pp. 255-310.

Pierre L. van den Berghe, “Race and Ethnicity: A Sociobiological Perspective,” Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1978, pp. 401-411.

Walker Connor, “Eco- or Ethno- Nationalism?” Ethnic and Racial Studies, 7, October 1984, pp. 342-359.

Chris Hedges, “In Bosnia’s Schools, 3 Ways Never to Learn from History,” The New York Times, Nov 25, 1997, p. A1.

Walker Connor, “Beyond Reason: The Nature of the Ethnonational Bond,” Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 16, No. 3, July 1993, pp. 373-389.

Stephen Van Evera, “Hypotheses on Nationalism and War,” International Security, Vol. 18, No. 4, Spring 1994, pp. 5-39.



8

Oct 12 thur

Cases for discussion: Sudan, Rwanda, Burundi, and Yugoslavia

Francis Mading Deng, “Negotiating a Hidden Agenda: Sudan’s Conflict of Identities,” in Elusive Peace, pp. 77-102.


Robert D. Kaplan, Balkan Ghosts (New York: Vintage Press, 1994), Part I.

Peter Uvin, “Ethnicity and Power in Burundi and Rwanda: Different Paths to Mass Violence,” Comparative Politics, Vol. 31, No. 3, April 1999, pp. 253-271.

9

Oct 17 tues
Elite-driven explanations

Paul Brass, “Elite Groups, Symbol Manipulation and Ethnic Identity among the Muslims of South Asia,” in Political Identity in South Asia, David Taylor and Malcom Yapp, eds. (Curzon Press, London, 1979), pp. 35-77.

Peter Gourevitch, “The Reemergence of Peripheral Nationalisms: Some Comparative Speculations on the Spatial Distribution of Political Leadership and Economic Growth,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 21, No. 3, July 1979, pp. 302-322.

Russell Hardin, “Violent Conflicts,” in One for All: The Logic of Group Conflict (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995), pp. 142-182.


10

Oct 19 thur

Case for discussion: Yugoslavia

V.P. Gagnon, Jr., “Ethnic Nationalism and International Conflict: The Case of Serbia,” International Security, Vol. 19, No. 3, Winter 1994/95, pp. 130-166.

Misha Glenny, The Fall of Yugoslavia, chapters 2 and 4.


11

Oct 24 tues
III. Internal and external factors of civil wars
Economics of civil wars: profiteers and victims

David Keen, “The Economic Functions of Violence in Civil Wars,” Adelphi Paper.

Mark Bradbury, “Sudan: International Responses to War in the Nuba Mountains,” Review of African Political Economy, Vol. 25, No. 77, Sep 1998, pp. 463-474.



12

Oct 26 thur
Politics during civil wars

Myron Weiner, “The Macedonian Syndrome,” World Politics, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 665-683.

Myron Wiener, “Bad Neighbors, Bad Neighborhoods: An Inquiry into the Causes of Refugee Flows,” International Security, Vol. 21, No. 1, Summer 1996, pp. 5-42.

Stuart Horsman, “Uzbekistan's Involvement in the Tajik Civil War 1992-97: Domestic Considerations,” Central Asian Survey, Vol. 18, No. 1, March 1999, pp. 37-48.


13

Oct 31 tues

Obstacles to Resolution

Daniel Druckman and Justin Green, “Playing Two Games: Internal Negotiations in the Philippines,” in Elusive Peace, pp. 299-331.

Mary Jane Deeb and Marius Deeb “Internal Negotiations in a Centralist Conflict: Lebanon,” in Elusive Peace, pp. 125-146.

Pierre Atlas and Roy Licklider, “Conflict among Former Allies after Civil War Settlement: Sudan, Zimbabwe, Chad, and Lebanon,” Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1999, pp. 35-54.



14

Nov 2 thur

IV. Resolution & management of civil wars
How civil wars end

Roy Licklider, “The Consequences of Negotiated Settlements in Civil Wars, 1945-1993, American Political Science Review, Vol. 89, No. 3, September 1995, pp. 681-690.

Roy Licklider, “How Civil Wars End: Questions and Methods,” in Stopping the Killing, pp. 3-19.

R.H. Wagner, “The Causes of Peace,” in Stopping the Killing, pp. 235-268.


15

Nov 7 tues

Negotiating an end

Jane E. Holl, “When War Doesn’t Work: Understanding the Relationship between the Battlefield and the Negotiating Table,” in Stopping the Killing, pp. 269-291.

I. William Zartman,“The Unfinished Agenda: Negotiating Internal Conflicts,” in Stopping the Killing, pp. 20-36.


16

Nov 9 thur

Cases for discussion: Sudan and Zimbabwe

Donald Rothschild and Caroline Hartzell, “The Peace Process in the Sudan, 1971-1972,” in Stopping the Killing, pp. 63-93.

Stephen John Stedman, “The End of the Zimbabwean Civil War, in Stopping the Killing, pp. 125-163.


17

Nov 14 tues

Intervention: normative, legal, and pragmatic issues

Amitai Etzioni, “The Evils of Self-Determination,” Foreign Policy, Winter 1992, No. 89, pp. 21-34.

Stephen D. Goose and Frank Smyth, “Arming Genocide in Rwanda,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 73, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1994, pp. 86-96.

Richard Betts, “The Delusion of Impartial Intervention,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 73, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994, pp. 20-33.

Graham E. Fuller, “Redrawing the World’s Borders,” World Policy Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1, Spring 1997, pp. 11-21.

Edward N. Luttwak, “Give War a Chance,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 78, No. 4, Jul/Aug 1999, pp. 36-44.



18

Nov 16 thur

Diplomacy and peacekeeping

Howard Wriggins, “Sri Lanka: Negotiations in a Secessionist Conflict,” in Elusive Peace, pp. 35-58.

Chantal de Jonge Oudraat, “The United Nations and Internal Conflict,” in The International Dimensions of Internal Conflict, Michael Brown, ed. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996), pp. 489-535.

Mark Danner, “Clinton, the UN, and the Bosnian Disaster,” New York Review of Books, December 18, 1997, pp. 65-81.



19

Nov 21 tues

Economic Sanctions and humanitarian aid

Lori Fisler Damrosch “The Civilian Impact of Economic Sanctions,”, in Enforcing Restraint: Collective Intervention in Internal Conflicts (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1993), pp. 274-315.

David Hendrickson, “The Democratic Crusade: Intervention, Economic Sanctions and Engagement,” World Policy Journal, Vol. 11, No. 4, Winter 1994/95, pp. 18-30.

Jonathan Goodhand, “Sri Lanka: NGOS and Peace-building in Complex Political Emergencies,” Third World Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 1, Feb 1999, pp. 69-87.

20

Nov 28 tues

Military intervention

Michael O’Hanlon, Saving Lives with Force.

Catherine Guicherd, “International Law and the War in Kosovo, Survival, Vol. 41, No. 2, Summer 1999, pp. 19-33.

Bogdan Denitch, “A Botched Just War,” Dissent, Vol. 46, No. 3, Sum 1999, pp. 7-10.



21

Nov 30 thur
Political reconsolidation after war

Donald L. Horowitz, “Ethnic Conflict Management for Policymakers,” in Conflict and Peacemaking in Multiethnic Societies, Joseph Montville, ed. (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1990), pp. 115-132.

Sammy Smooha and Theodor Hanf, “The Diverse Modes of Conflict-Regulation in Deeply Divided Societies,” International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol. 33, 1992, pp. 26-47.

Chester A. Crocker and Fen Osler Hampson, “Making Peace Settlements Work,” Foreign Policy, Fall 1996, pp. 54-71.

Barbara Walter, “Designing Transitions from Civil War,” International Security, Fall 1999, pp. 127-155.



22

Dec 5 tues

Political reconsolidation after war continued

Jeffrey Herbst, “Responding to State Failure in Africa,” International Security, Vol. 21, No. 3, Winter 1996/97, pp. 120-144.

Roland Paris, “Peacebuilding and the Limits of Liberal Internationalism,” International Security, Vol. 22, No. 2, Fall 1997, pp. 54-89.

David Wippman, “Practical and Legal Constraints on Internal Power Sharing,” in International Law and Ethnic Conflicts, David Wippman, ed. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998), pp. 211-241.

Caroline Hartzell, Matthew Hodie, and Donald Rothchild, “Stabilizing the Peace after Civil War,” International Organization, Vol. 55, No. 1.


23

Dec 7 thur

Cases for discussion: Lebanon and Rwanda

Aziz Abu-Hamad, “Communal strife in Lebanon: Ancient Animosities or State Intervention?” Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 49, No. 1, Summer 1995, pp. 231-254.

Philip Gourevitch, Letter from Rwanda: After the Genocide, The New Yorker, New York, Dec 18, 1995.

Philip Gourevitch, “Letter from Rwanda: The Return,” The New Yorker, January 20, 1997, pp. 44-54.

Michael C Hudson, “Lebanon after Ta'if: Another Reform Opportunity Lost?,” Arab Studies Quarterly, Vol. 21, No. 1, Winter 1999, pp. 27-40.


24

Dec 12 tues
Partition

John Mearsheimer, Stephen Van Evera, and Michael Lind, “When Peace Means War,” The New Republic, Dec 18, 1995, p. 16.

Chaim Kaufmann, “Possible and Impossible Solutions to Ethnic Civil Wars, International Security, Vol. 20, No. 4, Spring 1996, pp. 136-175.

Radha Kumar, “The Troubled History of Partition,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 76, No. 1, Jan/Feb1997, pp. 22-34.

Nicholas Sambanis, “Partition as a Solution to War,” World Politics, Vol. 52. No. 4, July 2000, pp. 437-483.



25

Dec 14
Group presentations

26

Dec 19
Group presentations




- –

Directory: mtoft


Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2020
send message

    Main page