limited war (and announces it Nov. 28, 1950)
i. US would seek specific objectives rather than total victory
ii. Nuclear weapons would not be used
iii. Original objective again to restore border between N. & S. Korea
iv. Invasion of China might mean Soviet retaliation in Europe or Asia.
v. Decision may have averted a world war.
b. MacArthur against limited war -- "No substitute for victory"
i. Asked for nuclear weapons to be used on China and demanded strong military action against Chinese cities.
ii. Believed political decisions in Washington hampered conduct of war.
c. MacArthur circumvents Truman and demands total N. Korean surrender. -- Undercuts Truman’s attempt at negotiations; threat to president’s power.
d. Truman removes MacArthur from command and orders him back to US.
i. MacArthur returns home a hero
ii. Congressional committee investigates Truman decision
iii. Truman successfully defends his decision
e. Significance: Civilian control of US military is reaffirmed 10. Cease-Fire
a. Negotiations begin in July 1951 and continue for 2 years while war continues.
i. Presidential candidate in 1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower pledges to personally go to Korea and get stalled negotiations moving again. -- Eisenhower wins in 1952 and within weeks visits Korea.
ii. Eisenhower threatens to use nuclear weapons unless the deadlocked peace negotiations are successful.
b. Cease-fire signed on July 27, 1953 (armistice still in effect today) i. 38th parallel as boundary is restored.
ii. DMZ along boundary
c. Americans disappointed at unclear conclusion (WWII had been a clear victory)
11. Results of Korean War
a. 54,000 US soldiers & 3,000 UN soldiers dead; 103,000 UN soldiers wounded (including Americans); 2 million civilians dead (mostly in South Korea); over 1.5 million dead Chinese and N. Korean soldiers. -- Total casualties as high as 4 million.
b. UN successfully repelled N. Korean attack on S. Korea c. US gov’t demonstrated its determination to enforce "containment"