. Research for this paper was funded by grants from a National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship in 1980-81, a Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship in 1984-85, a Wayne State University Humanities Center Fellowship in 1996, and Wayne State University Summer fellowships. I wish to thank the liberated African descendants who allowed me to interview them in the 1980s, but especially Mrs. Mavis Morrison of Annandale and Mr. Carmichael, Mr. Scott and Mr. Pere of Seaforth for sharing their memories. I also thank the staff of the Guyana National Archives, the University of Guyana Library, and Mr. Eusi Kwayana, Sister Noel Menezes and Sister Celine Kirsch for their help. Professor Wyatt MacGaffey translated and commented on the KiKongo vocabulary and offered helpful criticism of the paper. Thanks to Kay Johnson for proofreading assistance. All errors are my responsibility, of course.
2. In the course of European wars between the 1780s and 1815, the British occupied the three Dutch colonies of Demerara, Berbice and Essequibo, uniting them as British Guiana in 1831. Johannes Menne Postma, The Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600-1815 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 284-286, 22-40; Raymond T. Smith, British Guiana (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964), pp. 11-26.
3. Postma, Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, pp. 112-125, 284-291, 298-300.
4. See Barry W. Higman, Slave Populations of the British Caribbean, 1807-1834 (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University, 1984), p. 133. Overall British slave exports from West Central Africa rose considerably just about the time Britain became responsible for the three Guyana colones, from 7.2 percent in 1780-9 to 30.8 percent in 1790-9 and 28.6 percent in 1800-7. This may not reflect the exports to Demerara and Essequibo, however. Exports from the Bight of Biafra topped Central Africa. The amounts were 60 percent in 1780-9, 40.8 percent in 1790-9, and 43.8 percent percent in 1800-7. See David Richardson, “Slave Exports from West and West-Central Africa, 1700-1810: New Estimates of Volume and Distribution,” Journal of African History, 30(1989): 13.
5. See Higman, Slave Populations, pp. 77, 122 123, 130 133.
6. See Higman, Slave Populations, p. 77, and 1841 Census, "Native Countries," enclosed in No. 255, Henry Light to Lord Stanley, 12 December 1844, CO 111/215.
7. This is 92 Africans fewer than the 13,264 in the Immigration Office records, a discrepancy attributable to differences between the Colonial Land and Emigration Board’s and the Guyana Immigration Office’s calculations of mortality. I do not have ethnic breakdowns for all Sierra Leone passengers, and my estimate of only 522 Central African recaptives from Sierra Leone is therefore conservative. I have designated all of the 1,578 Rio and 5,812 St. Helena immigrants in my count as Central African. I have not included 819 immigrants from the Cape Verde islands (1856 and 1858) and from New Providence, Nassau (1837-1846). See James Crosby, Immigration Agent-General, “Statement of the Total Number of Immigrants Introduced into the Colony of British Guiana from the 1st Jan., 1835, to the 31st Dec., 1864. 4 January 1865, CO 111/350. Crosby’s table included 91 Africans in 1838, who I have deducted from his total, but I have added 77 children rescued from a schooner wrecked off the Guyana coast in 1842; it was headed to Brazil from Cabinda. Finally, I have added the final 42 who arrived from St. Helena in 1865. See J. Graham Cruickshank, “African Immigrants after Slavery,” Timehri, 3rd Series, 6(September 1919): 77 for the Cabinda schooner. Villages along the coasts of Liberia also supplied Kru, Grebo and Vai laborers but they were not liberated Africans. See Monica Schuler, "Kru Emigration to British and French Guiana, 1841-1857,” Africans in Bondage: Studies in Slavery and the Slave Trade," ed. Paul E. Lovejoy (Madison: African Studies Program, University of Wisconsin, 1986). Immigrant statistics come from a wide range of official correspondence in the CO 267 (Sierra Leone governors’ dispatches), CO 111 (British Guiana governors’ dispatches), CO 247 (St. Helena governors’ despatches), and CO 386 (Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners) series in the Public Record Office, Kew; also from correspondence and newspapers in the Guyana National Archives, Georgetown (GNA).
8. Over 9,000 West Indian immigrants boosted the Creole element. See “Census of the Population of the Colony of British Guiana As Taken on the 31st Day of March 1851,” enclosed in No. 170, H. Barkly to Earl Grey, 28 November 1851, CO 111/284. According to the census, the population statistics of black people (including immigrants) in Guyana was as follows (the categories are those of the Official Census):
Natives* of B. Guiana: 86,455
Natives of Barbados 4,925
Natives of Other W. I. Islands 4,353
African Immigrants 7,168 *Afro-Guyanese, not aborigines.
Old Africans 7,083 **Mostly Africans.
Second West India Regiment** 369
Third West India Regiment** 298
9. See James Rose, “The Strikes of 1842 and 1848,” in Themes in African-Guyanese History, ed. Winson F. McGowan, James G. Rose, and David Granger (Georgetown: Guyana: Free Press, 1998); Monica Schuler, "Plantation Labourers, The London Missionary Society and Emancipation in West Demerara, Guyana," Journal of Caribbean History, 22 (1988): 104 107; Alan H. Adamson, Sugar Without Slaves: The Political Economy of British Guiana (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972), pp. 38-43; Brian L. Moore, Race, Power and Social Segmentation in Colonial Society: Guyana after Slavery, 1838 1891 (New York: Gordon and Breach, 1987), pp. 33-34, 40-47. Planters believed that a larger labor force would enable them to dominate the labor market.
10. Nevertheless, an immigration law required one third of immigrants to be female. The first voyages from Sierra Leone to Jamaica and Guyana were exceptions to the rule that families did not immigrate. In 1841, for instance, families accompanied African soldiers as well as Jamaican Maroons who had been sent to Sierra Leone in 1800. See Monica Schuler, “Alas, Alas, Kongo”: A Social History of Indentured African Immigration into Jamaica, 1841-1865 (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980), pp. 17, 18, 22; Monica Schuler, “Recruitment of African Indentured Labourers for European Colonies in the Nineteenth Century,” in Colonialism and Migration: Indentured Labour Before and After Slavery, p. 130, ed. P. C. Emmer (Dordrecht and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1986); Earl Grey to W. Walker, No. 26, 22 July 1848, enclosing W. R. Hamilton Report, CO 114/17. In May 1841, the Superior took a number of relatively large families from the liberated African villages to Guyana. See “Nominal List of Africans by the Superior from Sierra Leone, and Estates Upon Which They Have Been Located,” enclosure in No. 59, Henry Light to Lord John Russell, 21 August 1841, CO 111/182. The gender of the small number of infants was not included. I have not attempted to calibrate gender and age because age information is incomplete and inconsistent. See pp. 3-4 and note 12. Wherever possible, I have relied on passenger statistics generated by the St. Helena Collector of Customs and the Guyana immigration department but I have correlated them with statistics published by the Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners in London. The variety of statistical sources means contradictory gender classifications and numbers. The term “recaptive” refers to African newcomers taken into Sierra Leone and St. Helena. “Sierra Leonians” refers to liberated Africans who had been settled for a number of years in Sierra Leone.
11. According to David Eltis and David Richardson, “West Africa and the Transatlantic Slave Trade: New Evidence of Long-Run Trends,” in Routes to Slavery: Direction, Ethnicity and Mortality in the Transatlantic Slave Trade, p. 33, ed. David Eltis and David Richardson (London: Frank Cass, 1997), the age composition of enslaved Africans evolved from a comparative absence of children in the 1600s to a predominance of children in the 1800s. Between 1811-1867, 41 percent of slaves from all African regions, 59 percent from Angola and 61 percent from southeastern Africa, were children. See David Eltis, “Fluctuations in the Age and Sex Ratios of Slaves in the Nineteenth Century Transatlantic Slave Traffic,” Slavery and Abolition, 7, 3 (1986): 259, 262; David Eltis, Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic Slave Trade (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), pp. 256-9; Joseph C. Miller, Way of Death: Merchant Capitalism and the Angolan Slave Trade, 1730-1830 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988), pp. 387-389; Paul Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), pp. 137-139; Paul Lovejoy, “The Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on Africa: A Review of the Literature,” Journal of African History, 30 (1989): 384-386; Patrick Manning, Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990), p. 99.
12. See J. D. Willan to Sir Charles Elliot, 12 March 1864, enclosed in No. 25, Elliot to Duke of Newcastle, 28 March 1864, CO 247/100, for the calculation of age by an examination of teeth, with the presence of canines associated with the age of twelve, and Copy, John Young to R. C. Pennell, 2 November 1849, enclosed in No. 11, Sir Patrick Ross to Earl Grey, 22 November 1849, “Papers Relative to Emigration from Africa to the West Indies,” PP 1850 (643), XL: 364. British authorities defined "child" in various ways according to the circumstances and labor needs. Between 1841 and 1844, orphaned liberated African children between the ages of nine and thirteen could be apprenticed in Sierra Leone. They were also entitled to from one to four years in a liberated African school. West Indian recruiters entertained high hopes for the schools as "nurser[ies] of laborers." Children recruited from liberated African schools were a minority of the emigrant orphans. In 1844, newcomer recaptive children over age twelve were given the choice of military enlistment, emigration to the West Indies, or self-support in Sierra Leone. See Willan to Pennell, No. 264, 11 January 1864, enclosed in Elliot to Newcastle, No. 10, 26 January 1864, CO 247/100 for St. Helena practices. Compare these ages with Miller, Way of Death, p. 388, who notes Brazilian preferences for “older [slave] children from eight to fifteen years of age.” See Schuler, Alas, pp. 114 for totals of liberated African schoolchildren who emigrated to Guyana and the West Indies. See also Copy, Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners to Earl Grey, 19 July 1848, CO 114/17 for comments on the Helena’s passengers. Even in Guyana there could be disagreement. When the British Guiana government archivist, J. Graham Cruickshank, published data on the David Malcolm immigrants from St. Helena, he revised substantially the number of men and boys reported in 1862 by the immigration agent general, James Crosby. Crosby had reported 156 men and 40 boys, which Cruickshank amended to 124 men and 70 boys. See Cruickshank, “African Immigrants, p. 77. Compare with numbers of children transported to the Indian Ocean island of Réunion from 1850 to 1860 in Hubert Gerbeau, “Engagées and Coolies on Réunion Island: Slavery’s Masks and Freedom’s Constraints,” in Colonialism and Migration: Indentured Labour Before and After Slavery, p. 130, ed. P. C. Emmer (Dordrecht and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1986), p. 236.
13 . This man, a London Missionary Society deacon in Guyana residing in a Kongo community at Overwinning, was described in L. Crookall, British Guiana; or, Work and Wandering among the Creoles and Coolies, the Africans and Indians of the Wild Country (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1898), pp. 108 109. Recruiters’ extravagant promotion of Guyana and the West Indian islands, Sierra Leonians’ initial enthusiasm for emigration and their subsequent repugnance are well documented. See Schuler, “Recruitment of African Indentured Labourers,” pp. 131-133.
14. See Schuler, Alas, p. 28, for conditions at Rupert’s Valley. See Extract of a Report of Dr. Rawlins, 25 May 1849, enclosed in No. 7, Sir Patrick Ross to Earl Grey, 12 June 1849, “Papers Relative to Emigration from Africa and the West Indies,” PP 1850 (643.) XL, p. 387.
15. The Broughton Hall sailed with 590 on January 28, 1860, six of whom died on the voyage. See James Crosby to Governor’s Secretary, 4 February 1860, enclosed in No. 17, Sir Henry Wodehouse to Duke of Newcastle, 6 February 1860, CO 111/326.
16. Bishop Piers Claughton to Rev. W.T. Bullock, 29 Dec. 1859 and 17 January 1860. D8 USPG Letters Received from Natal, St. Helena, Sierra Leone, Mauritius, 1850-1859.
17. See Schuler, Alas, pp. 27-28, and St. Helena Guardian, 45(6 March 1862): 3, on p. 157 of USPG Volume, D25, USPG Letters Received, St. Helena, 1860-67, for an African petition to be repatriated to Loanda owing to the high cost of living and scant earning opportunities in the island. See the description of the station in Claughton to Bullock, 29 Dec. 1859. D8 USPG Letters Received from Natal, St. Helena, Sierra Leone, Mauritius, 1850-1859. For mortality, see C. H. Rawlins, M. D., 25 May 1849, “Return of Africans Received on the Station at Rupert’s Valley, with the Number Admitted into Hospital; Number Discharged Cured, and the Number Deceased,” from Extract of a Report of Dr. Rawlins, 25 May 1849, enclosed in No. 7, Sir Patrick Ross to Earl Grey, 12 June 1849, “Papers Relative to Emigration from Africa and the West Indies,” PP 1850 (643.) XL, p. 387; “Report of the Liberated African Establishment, St. Helena: Dr. Vowell’s Report,” enclosure in No. 7, Sir Patrick Ross to Earl Grey, 12 June 1849, PP 1850 (643) XL, pp. 364.
18. Report of Thomas Goodwin, Missy Catechist, St. Helena to USPG for Quarter Ending 30 June 1870. E24 USPG Missionary Reports, 1868-69; Welby to Duke, 27 February 1863, D25 USPG Letters Received. St. Helena. 1860-1870; Schuler, Alas, pp. 25-26; John Peterson, Province of Freedom: A History of Sierra Leone, 1787-1870 (London: Faber and Faber, 1969), pp. 52, 93-96, 161-174; Schuler, Alas, 25-26.
19. See Bishop Piers Claughton to Rev. W. T. Bullock, 29 Dec. 1859 and 17 Jan. 1860, D8, USPG Letters Received from Natal, St. Helena, Sierra Leone and Mauritius, 1850-59; Claughton to Bullock, 23 Feb. 1860, and 30 March 1860, and Bishop Thomas E. Welby to Rev. E. Hawkins, 27 Nov. 1862 and 27 Feb. 1863, 28 Jan. 1864, in D25 Letters Received, St. Helena, 1860-1867; Rev. Edward Bennett to W. T. Bullock, 28 Feb. 1860 and 29 June 1861, E5 USPG Missionary Reports, 1859 and E7 USPG Missionary Reports, 1860 and 1861A, Africa, Asia, Australia; Rev. H. J. Bodily to Secretary of the USPG, 30 Oct. 1861,26 June 1862, Quarterly Report, Christmas 1862, 28 September 1863, E8 USPG Missionary Reports, 1861 and 1861A, E9 USPG Missionary Reports, 1862, and E13 USPG Missionary Reports 1862-63, Africa, Asia, Australia.
20. See Schuler, Alas, pp. 115-117.
21. Ships with more than a 3 percent death rate per voyage. Not included is an anonymous schooner bound from Cabinda to Brazil which was wrecked off the Guyana coast with 77 children on board. Three of the slaves, or 3.89 percent, died. See Cruickshank, “African Immigrants,” p. 77. See W. B. Wolseley, Circuit Magistrate’s Journal, 22 June to 1 July inclusive, 1841, Gazette and General Advertiser, 36, 5530(16 November 1841): 3-4, and John Taggart to H. E. F. Young, 19 May 1841, enclosed in No. 57, Henry Light to Lord John Russell, 19 May 1841, CO 111/178, for the Dois de Fevreiro. See Light to Lord Stanley, No. 195, 2 December 1842 and enclosures, CO 111/194, for Brazilian slaver Name Unknown, and Light to Stanley, No. 72, 2 April 1844, XO 111/210, for Brazilian slaver Zulmira. Arabian- IV deaths are documented in Light to Earl Grey, No. 57, 2 April 1844, and enclosures, CO 111/253. The most reliable source for the Growler is Appendix No. 5, “Africans Brought by Her Majesty’s Steam Ship Growler, and George R. Bonyun, M.D., “Remarks to Accompany Table A, enclosed in No. 10, Henry Light to Earl Grey, 11 January 1848, CO 111/250. Johnson U. J. Asiegbu, Slavery and the Politics of Liberation (London: Longman, 1969), p. 131, seems to have misread the mortality data, attributing all Growler passenger deaths 67 by Bonyun’s count, 66 by Asiegbu’s, to the voyage when in fact 10 died in hospital and 47 after allotment to plantations. For the Arabian-IX, see R. B. Perry Testimony and Edward Duke Bach, R. N. Testimony, Minutes of Enquiry Relative to the Causes of Mortality on Board the Transport Barque Arabian on her Passage to Demerara from Sierra Leone, 20 March 1848, enclosed in A. Lyons and J. McLeod to William Walker, 30 March 1848 GNA; Daniel Blair to Light, 24 April 1848, GNA; William Humphtys to Willliam Walker, 28 April 1848, GNA. See also John Johnston to Walker, 19 April 1848, “Report on the Arrival of the Brig Helena, with enclosures, GNA; Light to Earl Grey, No. 69, 28 April 1844 and enclosures, CO 111/252; John J. Johnstone, M.D., “Health Officers Report of Immigrants by the Ship Una,” enclosed in No. 9, Light to Grey, 17 May 1848, CO 111/253; J. Wigley, Commander of Una, to William Humphrys, 6 May 1848, GNA; and Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners, 10th General Report, PP 1850 [1204.] XXIII, p. 140. See William Walker to Grey, No. 166, 29 December 1848, and enclosures, CO 111/260 and 10th General Report of CLEC, PP 1850 [1204.], XXIII, p. 141, for the Reliance.
22. See Appendix No. 5, “Africans Brought by Her Majesty’s Steam Ship Growler, and George R. Bonyun, M.D., “Remarks to Accompany Table A, enclosed in No. 10, Henry Light to Earl Grey, 11 January 1848, CO 111/250. See also “Report of the Liberated African Establishment, St. Helena: Dr. Vowell’s Report,” enclosure in No. 7, Sir Patrick Ross to Earl Grey, 12 June 1849, PP 1850 (643) XL, pp. 364. See the discussion of cachexia in Mary C. Karasch, Slave Life in Rio de Janeiro, 1808-1850 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987), p. 181.
23. Particularly noticeable was what all observers referred to as Yoruba “compatriotism.” See Peterson, Province, pp. 212, William Hamilton, “Sierra Leone and the Liberated Africans,” Fisher’s Colonial Magazine and Commercial-Maritime Journal 7 (1841): 27, 34; J. Graham Cruickshank, "Among the Aku, (Yoruba) in Canal No. 1, West Bank, Demerara River," Timehri, 3rd Series 4(1917): 74-75. For the Kongo, see “Peculiar Native Wedding Ceremony,” Daily Chronicle (Wed. 19 June 1901), and Cruickshank, “African Immigrants after Freedom,” Timehri, 3rd Series 6(1919): 77-78.
24. See Wyatt MacGaffey, "Kongo Identity," in Nations, Identies, Cultures, V. Y. Mudimbe, ed., (Durham: Duke University Press, 1995), a volume of South Atlantic Quarterly, 94, 4(Fall 1995): 1027, 1028-1029; Robert W. Harms, River of Wealth, River of Sorrow: The Central Zaire Basin in the Era of the Slave and Ivory Trade, 1500-1891 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981), pp. 30-32; Jan Vansina, The Tio Kingdom of the Middle Congo, 1880-1892 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973), p. 277.
25. Peterson, Province, pp. 191, 194, 196, 202 203; Miller, Way of Death, pp. 23-39; S. A. Akintoye, Revolution and Power Politics in Yorubaland 1840 1893 (New York: Humanities Press, 1971), pp. xviii xix. Scholars emphasize the flexibility of ethnic identification and its tendency to be manipulated by and for economic and political interests, including those of Europeans; see Wyatt MacGaffey, "Kongo Identity," South Atlantic Quarterly 94, 4 (Fall 1995): 1025-1037; H. Leroy Vail, ed. The Creation of Tribalism in Southern Africa (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989); David D. Laitin, Hegemony and Culture: Politics and Religious Change among the Yoruba (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), pp. 97, 120, 145 146; Jan Vansina, Paths in the Rainforests (Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1990), pp. 19-21, 148, 151, 219, 226, 230; Harms, River of Wealth, pp. 30-32, 126-142, 148-153, 181-186. Vansina, Tio Kingdom, p. 311, illustrates how, in the course of long-distance (including slave) trade, a mixed culture developed at the Pool on the Congo River, with Tio and Bobangi sharing villages and borrowing so extensively from one another and from Kongo that outsiders had trouble distinguishing between them. For the Yoruba, see Robin Law, The Oyo Empire, c. 1600- c. 1836 (1977; reprint ed., Aldershot: Gregg Revivals, 1991), pp. 110-113, 115-118; 205-207, 231-233; J. S. Eades, Strangers and Traders: Yoruba Migrants, Markets and the State in Northern Ghana (Trenton: Africa World Press, 1994), pp. 8-9, 140-175; Paul E. Lovejoy, "The African Diaspora: Revisionist Interpretations of Ethnicity, Culture and Religion under Slavery," Studies in the World History of Slavery, Abolition and Emancipation, 2, 1 (1997), 22 pp.,
http://www.h-net.msu.edu/~slavery/essays/ esy9701love.html; Robin Law, "Ethnicity and the Slave Trade: 'Lucumi' and 'Nago' As Ethonyms in West Africa," History in Africa 24 (1997): 205. The conflict between proponents of homogeneous vs. heterogeneous slave identities remains strong. See Sidney W. Mintz and Richard Price, An Anthropological Approach to the Afro-American Past: A Caribbean Perspective (Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues, 1976), pp. 8-11; David Eltis and David Richardson, “The ‘Numbers Game’ and Routes to Slavery,” pp. 10-13, Douglas B. Chambers, “‘My Own Nation’: Igbo Exiles in the Diaspora,” pp. 84, 90-91, Peter Caron, “‘Of a Nation which the Others Do Not Understand’: Bambara Slaves and African Ethnicity in Colonial Louisiana, 1718-60,” pp. 100-101, and Philip D. Morgan, “The Cultural Implications of the Atlantic Slave Trade: African Regional Origins, American Destinations and New World Developments,” pp.122-145, in Routes to Slavery: Direction, Ethnicity and Mortality in the Transatlantic Slave Trade, ed. David Eltis and David Richardson (London: Frank Cass, 1997); also John Thornton, Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1680 (1992; new ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 192 204, 321-323. My own Caribbean research conducted over a thirty-year period leads me to the same view as Thornton. For a European comparison, see Eugeen E. Roosens, Creating Ethnicity: The Process of Ethnogenesis (Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1989), pp. 11 20, and Roosen's analysis of guest workers in Belgium, pp. 132 137.
26. For the Nsundi and Zombo (formerly Mbata, in the Nkisi River valley of West Central Africa), who dominated important east-west caravan routes, see Brodhead, "Beyond Decline," pp. 638, 642-643.
2727. See Miller, Way of Death, pp. 28-30, 238, 254-263, 387-401; Vansina, Paths in the Rainforests, pp. 222-230. Recaptives from three Brazilian slavers transshipped to Guyana in 1841 had probably embarked at Benguela. Liberated Africans on the Mary Hartley, the first St. Helena immigrant vessel to go to Guyana (Jan-Feb. 1842), were from Benguela, and those on this ship’s second voyage in June and July who were noted as being “released” from the “Congo barracoons,” (i.e. raided by the British Naval squadron), were most likely from Benguela as well. See Royal Gazette of British Guiana, 36, 5456 (27 May 1841): 3., Light to Stanley, No. 168, 3 October 1842, CO 111/193; Gazette and General Advertiser of British Guiana, 36, 5523(30 October 1841): 2; Light to Stanley, No. 27, 31 January 1842, enclosing Whinfield and Lowenfeld to Young, 19 and 22 January 1842; Light to Stanley, No. 146, 1 August 1842, and enclosures, CO 111/192.
2828. The Guyanese missionary, George R. Murrain, worked in Angola in 1913. His conversation was with John T. Tucker who worked for many years among the Ovimbundu. I am grateful to Linda Heywood of Howard University for sharing this anecdote with me. The source is John T. Tucker -- A Tucker Treasury, ed. Catherine Tucker Ward (Windfield, British Colombia: Wood Lake Books, 1984), p. 111.
29. Bunseki detected a Zombo accent in the KiKongo speech of Jamaican Central Africans. See Kenneth M. Bilby and Fu-Kiau kia Bunseki, “Kumina: A Kongo-Based Tradition in the New World,” Les cahiers du CEDAF 8, 4 (1983): 107, n. 33. For a description of the Zombo see Joachim John Monteiro, Angola and the River Congo, 2 vols. (London: Macmillan and Co., 1875), 1:271.
30. Europeans and their Euro-African offspring lived in the hinterland of the port of Luanda and in the Central Highlands’ Ovimbundu states (founded by seventeenth-century warlords) of Bihe, Wambu (Huambo) and Mbailundu. See Miller, Way of Death, pp. 28-30, 238, 254-263. Mulattos did their best to assimilate to whites in status, culture and dress (breeches and stockings). They were usually assigned to the servant caste but could also be found as as priests and soldiers. See Wyatt MacGaffey, Religion and Society in Central Africa (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), pp. 201-20. See Bilby and Bunseki, “Kumina,” pp. 77, 84-85.
31. I cannot judge whether Mrs. Morrison’s “Mazumba” meant Zombo or Mazumbo. Clearly it was a familiar group to her.
32. See, for instance, the discussion of identity theories, hegemony, counter hegemony and persistence of ethnic identities in Laitin, Hegemony and Culture, pp. 97 108 and p. 101. Harms, River of Wealth, pp. 141-142; Patrick Harries, Work, Culture, and Identity: Migrant Laborers in Mozambique and South Africa (Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, 1994), especially p. 39. See Eades, Strangers and Traders, pp. 140-141, 148-150.
33. See Cruickshank, "Among the ‘Aku’,” pp. 76-77, for Guyana, and Hamilton, “Sierra Leone and the Liberated Africans,” Fisher’s Colonial Magazine and Commercial-Maritime Journal 8 (1842): 41, for Sierra Leone. Hamilton is the source of the Sierra Leonian expression “walked in the same boat.” Compare the administrative structure of Sierra Leonian welfare societies with the eighteenth century British Leeward Islands; see Peterson, Province of Freedom, pp. 259 263 and Elsa V. Goveia, Slave Society in the British Leeward Islands at the End of the Eighteenth Century (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965), p. 95. See Howard Johnson, “Friendly Societies in the Bahamas, 1834-1910,” Slavery and Abolition, 12, 3(December 1991): 183-187, 190, for Bahamas liberated African Kongo, Yoruba and other ethnic welfare societies. The Yoruba and Egba Friendly Societies were founded by 1,043 Africans liberated in 1838 from two Portuguese slavers. In 1884, their children or grandchildren still belonged to the Societies. Bahamas friendly societies had political as well as welfare functions. Central Africans were familiar with other forms of fictive kinship, such as blood brotherhood. For other descriptions of ethnicity and fictive (e.g. ship