Handout on Plato’s “Meno” #2



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Handout on Plato’s “Meno” #2



I. Arguments:

An argument is a chain of _______________________ from a set of statements – called the _______________________ – to another statement – called the _______________________.


A. Arguments are either _______________________ or _______________________.
1. A _______________________ argument is one in which it’s _______________________ for the premises to be true but the conclusion _______________________.

Argument A is _______________________:

Premise 1: All dogs are mammals.

Premise 2: All mammals have fur.

Conclusion: All dogs have fur.

Note, however, that an argument can be valid even if its premises are _______________________. Thus argument B is also ____________________:

Premise 1: All fish are mammals.

Premise 2: All mammals have feathers.

Conclusion: All fish have feathers.
2. An _______________________ argument is one in which it’s _______________________ for the premises to be true but the conclusion false.

Argument C is ____________________________:

Premise 1: All dogs are mammals.

Premise 2: All mammals have fur.

Conclusion: All mammals are dogs.
B. Arguments are also either _______________________ or _______________________.

1. A _______________________ argument is a _______________________ argument, all of whose premises are _______________________.

Thus argument A is _______________________.
2. An _______________________ argument is an argument that’s not _______________________; thus an unsound argument either is _______________________, has at least one _______________________ premise, or _______________________.

Thus argument B is _______________________, since it contains at least one false premise (even though it’s valid).

And argument C is _______________________, since it is invalid (even though the premises are true).


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