Guidelines for Phase I, II, and III archaeological Investigations and Technical Report Preparation Prepared by the West Virginia State Historic Preservation Office Written by Patrick Trader Edited by Joanna Wilson Preface

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Controlled Surface Collection
A systematic, controlled surface collection may be conducted in areas with surface visibility greater than 75% (100% visibility is preferred). Areas which have been previously cultivated may be disked and/or plowed to create greater surface exposure.
The controlled surface collection should be conducted within a metric, grid-coordinate system superimposed upon the area to be evaluated. Collection units may be 1x1 m, 2x2 m or 5x5 m on a side, but one unit size must be used consistently. All collection units and artifact concentrations must be placed on a map accompanying the technical report. Alternatively, the investigator may map the x, y and z coordinates for diagnostic and other artifact classes, and map artifact concentrations using a total station theodolite or other surveying instrument.
Surface collection should be conducted to define the horizontal limits of a site, to increase the sample size of artifacts (particularly temporally diagnostic artifacts) and to facilitate the identification of moderate and high artifact densities across the site. The identification of these areas should guide the placement of hand-excavated units.

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