Guide to writing history essays

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D. Bibliographies
1. Basic rules
1.1 History essays require a bibliography. A bibliography is simply a separate page at the end of your essay at the end of your essay—titled ‘Bibliography’, not ‘Works Cited’, ‘References’ or anything else!—that lists all of the sources you consulted which informed the content of your essay. All sources that appear in your footnotes should also be listed in the bibliography, but the bibliography may also contain additional works which do not appear in the footnotes if they were significant in your research. However, you should never ‘pad’ your bibliography by including additional works that you have not consulted directly or which had no real influence on your essay.
1.2 For most undergraduate history essays, it will be usual to give all your sources in a single list. However, if you have a very large number of sources, or wish to highlight the different types of sources that you have consulted, you can subdivide your bibliography into different sections. The first and most import division is between primary and secondary sources: if you have made use of original documents in your research these should always be listed in a separate section. Secondary sources may be subdivided into categories such as ‘Books’, ‘Journal Articles and Book Chapters’, ‘Internet Sites’, and so on.
1.3 Within each section of your bibliography, items must be listed in alphabetical order by each author’s last name. When listing more than one item by the same author, order them by their date of publication, from oldest to most recent. For second and subsequent consecutive entries by the same author, you can replace the author’s name with eight underlined spaces followed by a period—like this: ________.
1.4 Each entry in your bibliography should be single-spaced. The first line should begin at the left margin, with all subsequent lines being indented. You should leave a blank line to separate each entry in your bibliography. In bibliographies, in contrast to footnotes/endnotes, there is no need for brackets around the publication information.

Do not number the items or list them with bullet points!

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