Guide to writing history essays

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4. Journal Articles
Basic format
4.1 Journal articles are another common source used by history students in their essays. The first reference to an article in a journal should include the following information, in this form and order:

author’s first and last name, ‘title of article’, title of journal, volume number, issue number (date of publication), precise page or pages consulted.

The second and all subsequent references to the article should be a shortened version of the above:
author’s last name, ‘short form of title of article’, precise page or pages consulted.
Journal articles by a single author
4.2 Here are some examples of first and second references for journal articles by a single author:
25 David G. Herrmann, ‘The paralysis of Italian strategy in the Italian-Turkish War, 1911-1912’, English Historical Review, vol. CIV, no. 411 (April 1989), p. 332.

26 Herrmann, ‘Italian strategy’, p. 340.
27 Monique Clague, ‘Vision and myopia in the new politics of André Tardieu’, French Historical Studies, vol. 8, no. 1 (Spring 1973), p. 107.

28 Clague, ‘Vision and myopia’, p. 109.
Journal articles by more than one author
4.3 For journal articles with more than one author, follow the same basic rules as with books that have multiple authors. List all the authors in the order that their names appear on the article. As with books, if there are more than two authors you may use a shortened format which gives only the name of the lead author followed by the Latin abbreviation et al. (meaning ‘and others’).
29 G.G. Jones and R.C.B. Trebilcock, ‘Russian industry and British business, 1910-1930: Oil and armaments’, Journal of European Economic History, vol. 11 (1982), p. 61.

30 Jones and Trebilcock, ‘Russian industry and British business’, p. 62.
Article in a newspaper
4.4 For most references to basic news reports in newspapers, you need only to give the headline, the name of the paper, the date, the section name (if appropriate) and the page number. However, where it is specifically listed and especially if it is significant to the content of your reference, such as with editorial or opinion pieces, you should give the author’s name and the title of the article.
35 ‘Interest rates to remain on hold’, The Age, 5 May 2005, p. 1

36 ‘Interest rates to remain on hold’.
37 Kevin Rudd, ‘Labour’s industrial relations formula’, The Australian, 18 April 2007, p. 17.

38 Rudd, ‘Labour’s industrial relations formula’.
Book reviews
4.5 Books reviews generally appear as articles in scholarly journals and newspapers. The reference should refer primarily to the author of the review, not to the author of the book being reviewed.
1 Heather Coleman, review of Sheila Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism. Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), in Canadian Journal of History, vol. 36 (2001), pp. 151-152.

2 Coleman, review of Everyday Stalinism, p. 151.

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