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Educator’s Guide to the

North Star Dakotan
The North Dakota Studies

Student Newspaper

Issue Five

World War Two through the 1960s


by Dakota Goodhouse, Program Officer

North Dakota Humanities Council

PO Box 2191, Bismarck, ND 58502-2191

701-255-3360 or 1-800-338-6543

This issue of the North Star Dakotan meets the following North Dakota Department of Public Instruction standards for grade four (4) social studies, 2007-present.

Standard 1: Skills and Resources

      1. Use map scales to locate physical features and estimate distance on a map

      1. Construct a North Dakota time line and compare with existing United States time lines of concurring events

Standard 2: Important Historical Events

4.2.2 Use chronological terms (i.e., decade, century, generation)

      1. Identify similarities and differences between past events and current events in North Dakota (e.g., in the lives of people from different cultures past and present)

      2. Use chronological order and sequence to describe the cause-and-effect relationships of historical events and periods in North Dakota (e.g., how the railroads led to settlements in the state)

      3. Identify the contributions of prominent individuals (e.g., Teddy Roosevelt, La Verendrye, Rough Rider Award winners) to North Dakota

      1. Explain the significance of agriculture in North Dakota history (e.g., immigration, railroads)

      2. Describe the effects of changes in industry, agriculture, and technology in North Dakota (e.g., energy production, transportation, farming methods)

Standard 3: Economic Concepts

      1. Identify ways that natural resources (e.g., soil, minerals, trees, fish, people) contribute to the economy of the local community and North Dakota

      2. Identify principal exports of North Dakota (e.g., crops, energy, livestock)

Standard 4: Government and Citizenship

      1. Identify the roles, rights, and responsibilities of a citizen in North Dakota (e.g., obedience to laws, the right to vote)

4.4.3 Identify the characteristics of a sovereign nation in terms of tribal government in North Dakota
Standard 5: Concepts of Geography

4.5.1 Identify the physical features and relative locations of the major land forms (i.e., Rocky Mountains, Appalachian Mountains, Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon) of the regions of the United States

      1. Identify the location and characteristics of significant features of North Dakota (e.g., landforms, river systems, climate, regions, major cities)

      2. Explain how the physical environment (e.g., rainfall, climate, natural hazards) affects human activity in North Dakota

      3. Describe ways geography has affected the development (e.g., the development of transportation, communication, industry, and land use) of the state over time

      4. Describe ways geography has affected the development (e.g., the development of transportation, communication, industry, and land use) of the state over time

Standard 6: Human Development and Behavior

      1. Explain how background and history influence people’s actions (e.g., farming methods, hunting methods, economic decisions)

      2. Explain the contributions of various ethnic groups (e.g., Native Americans, immigrants) to the history of North Dakota (e.g., food, traditions, languages, celebrations)

This issue of the North Star Dakotan meets the following North Dakota Department of Public Instruction standards for grade eight (8) social studies, 2007-present.
Standard 1: Skills and Resources

8.1.1 Interpret current North Dakota thematic maps (e.g., soils, climate, vegetation, water, climate) to identify where people live and work, and how land is used

      1. Use various primary and secondary resources (e.g., historical maps, diaries, speeches, pictures, charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines specific to North Dakota) to analyze, and interpret information.

Standard 2: Important Historical Events

      1. Explain how political parties developed to resolve issues (e.g., payment of debt, establishment of a national bank, strict or loose interpretation of the Constitution, support for England or France) in the early years of the United States

      1. Analyze the impact of immigration on the United States (e.g., labor pools, ghettos)

      1. Explain the significance of key events (e.g., settlement and homesteading, statehood, reservations) and people (e.g., Roughrider Recipients) in North Dakota and tribal history

Standard 3: Economic Concepts

      1. Evaluate how economic opportunities (e.g., manufacturing, agricultural, business) impact North Dakota and other regions (e.g., Midwest, Northeast)

      2. Describe factors (e.g., climate, population, tax laws, natural resources) governing economic decision making in North Dakota and other regions (e.g., Midwest, Southeast)

      3. Describe factors (e.g., climate, population, tax laws, natural resources) governing economic decision making in North Dakota and other regions (e.g., Midwest, Southeast)

Standard 4: Government and Citizenship

8.4.1 Explain the connections between the rights and responsibilities of citizenship (e.g., voting and staying informed on issues; being tried by a jury and serving on juries; having rights and respecting the rights of others)

      1. Explain the political party process at the local, state, and national level (e.g., the structure and functions of political parties, electoral college, how campaigns are run and who participates in them, the role of the media in the election process, various kinds of elections)

Standard 5: Concepts of Geography

      1. Compare human characteristics (e.g., population distribution, land use) of places and regions (i.e. North Dakota)

Upon completion of this unit the learner will:

  1. Articulate North Dakota’s participation in World War II as evidenced by active participation in discussion of articles Japanese Attack Pearl Harbor: North Dakotans Shocked (p.1), Delegation Votes for War (p.1), The Home Front, 1941-1945: A Special Report (pp. 2-3), and Home Front Around the State (pp. 4-5) and by passing written examination.

  1. Understand the roles of North Dakota’s major political parties and North Dakota’s role in United States politics as evidenced by active participation in discussion or readership of articles Political Pulse: The Saga of Bill Langer (p.6) and Political Pulse: Rise of the ROC (pp. 8-9), Meet Your New Governor Fred G. Aandahl: A Profile, Republican Hold on State Broken: Democrats Guy and Burdick Win (p. 28), Meet Your New Governor William L. Guy: A Profile (p. 28), Two-Party System Thrives: Popular Democracy is Alive (p. 29), and Voters Reject New Constitution: Margin is Overwhelming (p. 29) and by passing written examination.

  1. Identify components of prosperity as evidenced by active participation in discussion or readership of articles Business News: Thirty-Below Zero Conquered (p. 7), Business News: Gold Seal Strikes It Rich (p. 7), Interview with Hugo Magnuson (p. 13), Down on the Farm, 1945-1972 (pp. 16-17), Economic Development News (pp. 20-21), and Nodaks Take to the Road: Highway System Vastly Improved (p. 31) and by passing written examination.

  1. Discuss the consequences of major public works projects and national decisions have on American Indian people as evidenced by active participation in discussion or readership of article Are You For Or Against The Garrison Dam (p. 11), Town Site Speculation Rampant: Throngs Move Into Dam Area (p. 12), and Garrison Dam Dedicated: President Eisenhower Attends (p. 12), and Turtle Mountain Band Rescued: Termination Set Aside (p. 14) and by passing written examination.

  1. Examine the social changes North Dakota went through following World War II as evidenced by active participation in discussion or readership of article Social Change, 1945-1974 (pp. 18-19) and by passing written examination.

  1. Communicate the effects of Polio and its impact on North Dakota, the United States, and the world as evidenced by participation in discussion or readership of article North Dakota and the Polio Killer Virus: An Investigative Report and by passing written examination.

  1. Explore the unique position North Dakota had to play during the Cold War as evidenced by participation in discussion or readership of articles Korean Truce Signed (p. 24), GOC Searches the Skies (p. 24), ND Airbases Activated (p. 25), ND Prepares for Nuclear Attack (p. 25), ND Missile Silos Ready (p. 25), Anti-Missile Missiles Set For ND (p. 25), and Vietnam Protests Gain Momentum (p. 25) and by passing written examination.

  1. Identify key figures in recent North Dakota history as evidenced by participation in discussion or readership of articles History of North Dakota Released: UND Professor Interprets State (p. 26), Interview with Dr. Bernt Lloyd Wills (p. 26), Maris Retires From Baseball: Last Season is Successful (p.27), and Jackson Plays With Knicks: First Season is Successful (p. 27) and by passing written examination.

  1. Consider the image of North Dakota in the mid-twentieth century as evidenced by participation in discussion or readership of articles Tornado Rips Fargo: Ten Are Dead (p. 10), National Geographic Visits North Dakota: Writer Sees Bright Future (p. 14), and imagery New Buildings, New Designs, New Era (p. 15) and by passing written examination.


  1. Why was Senator Gerald P. Nye against American participation in World War II?

  2. Describe “isolationism.”

  3. What event sparked American participation in World War II?

  4. What is a “Victory Garden?”

  5. Why were Americans urged to conserve food, gas, tires, shoes, cloth, paper, etc.?

  6. Describe a “war bond.”

  7. What was the greatest fear on the home front that a North Dakota family faced?

  8. Why were bridges guarded during WWII?

  9. What does “WAC” stand for?

  10. After Harry Hayashi was seized, where was he interned?

  11. After William “Bill” Langer became Senator-Elect for North Dakota, he was denied his seat in Congress. Why?

  12. Andrew Freeman invented what for vehicles?

  13. Harold Schafer added what product to his line of floor waxes?

  14. What does “ROC” stand for?

  15. John Moses served how many terms as ND governor?

  16. During Governor Moses last term as ND Governor, he was nominated for what?

  17. Who became the ND governor after John Moses?

  18. What was Fred Aandahl’s profession for five years, after he graduated from UND?

  19. What natural disaster struck the Fargo area leaving 2000 homeless and ten dead?

  20. Why was General Lewis A. Pick in favor of constructing Garrison Dam?

  21. What did Chief Thomas Spotted Wolf famously say to the US Army Corps of Engineers?

  22. How is Riverdale like a US military base?

  23. Though Garrison Dam took six years to construct, how long did planners estimate the water diversion project would take?

  24. How does Hugo Magnuson describe grocery business during WWII?

  25. What was life in Grand Forks like after WWII?

  26. What did National Geographic Magazine’s writer Leo A. Borah say North Dakota’s trademark was?

  27. From what were the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa rescued from?

  28. In terms of agricultural language, what is “Diversification?”

  29. What was part of North Dakota’s agriculture since President Teddy Roosevelt’s time in ND in the 1880s?

  30. What is “Electrification,” and what did it mean to ND farmers?

  31. What two organizations benefitted ND farmers after WWII?

  32. When television became broadcasted across ND, what did librarians fear?

  33. What happened to the “one-room” schoolhouse?

  34. Why did small town residents and farmers move to the cities?

  35. What are synthetic rubies and sapphires are turned into?

  36. Lignite coal is processed and sold as what product?

  37. What consumable products are potatoes turned into?

  38. In ND, does one need to be a member of a union to be a laborer?

  39. What disease struck suddenly and could leave victims paralyzed or dead?

  40. What did the Ground Observation Corps do?

  41. In 1963, would Americans rather have waged nuclear war or lived under a communist regime?

  42. Elwyn B. Robinson authored what book about ND?

  43. Geographer Bernt Lloyd Wills said that if ND wants to prosper, it would have to correct what?

  44. Major league baseball player Roger Maris played for what ND team before going national?

  45. What did Phil Jackson say about becoming a professional athlete?

  46. The election of Governor William Guy and Representative Quentin Burdick demonstrated that ND was what kind of state?

  47. In 1970, North Dakotans voted to adopt or reject what?

  48. With vast additions of paved roads, North Dakotans drove more, and tourists began to visit. ND formed what agency in response to increased travel?


  1. After reviewing WWII posters on pages 1 and 2, how effective do you think they were in provoking Americans’ patriotism?

  2. Do you think that North Dakota’s home front efforts had much impact on the United States wartime efforts in WWII?

  3. How was Harry Hayashi’s internment an injustice?

  4. How has Andrew Freeman’s block heater invention made winters tolerable?

  5. Why was the ROC formed?

  6. In what ways was the Garrison Dam positive and productive for ND? In what ways was the dam a bad idea?

  7. According to Hugo Magnuson, how were the post WWII years good for business?

  8. Leo A. Borah saw much promise in ND. Do North Dakotans view ND the same as the National Geographic writer today as he wrote about it then?

  9. What were the major notable changes that farms went through from 1945 to 1972? What is an observation about agriculture today in ND?

  10. How has television affected ND?

  11. In what ways has education changed since WWII in ND?

  12. What business found success in ND, and why did they become successful?

  13. What were the social affects of polio to the people of ND?

  14. In a 1967 poll, Americans said that they’d rather face nuclear war than live under a communist regime. North Dakotans prepared for nuclear war. Is ND today prepared and willing for the possibility of a nuclear threat?

  15. Does the ND constitution that was adopted in 1889, weaken the governor’s elected authority?


  1. Prior to attack on Pearl Harbor, many Americans believed in isolationism. Many posters reflected isolationism before Dec. 7, 1941; many posters reflected a strong sense of patriotism and a need to get involved in WWII. Create a poster reflecting America’s renewed sense of patriotism and fighting spirit to join the Allied forces.

  2. Develop a program or skit promoting the sale of war bonds.

  3. Design a political cartoon about the Axis powers.

  4. Compose five interview questions about life without modern media. Interview someone in your family or community and share your findings with the class.

  5. The Republican Party was deeply divided in the early 1940s between the Regular Republicans and the “Anti-Langerite” Republicans. Develop an argument for “unification” that the Republican Organizational Committee could take to the communities of ND.

  6. Prepare a timeline of your community from 1941 to 1972.

  7. Write an article for the National Geographic Magazine about the future and promise of North Dakota. Is your paper any different than what Leo A. Borah wrote for the same magazine back in 1951? Is it similar? Share your paper with the class.

  8. Within this issue are various images of Main Street ND found on pages 3, 4, 13, and 18. How is Main Street (or avenue) different or the same in those images with Main Street today in your community? Discuss your findings with the class.

  9. Examine the vehicle ad on page 31 and compare to vehicle ads today. What are the similarities and differences? Are those automobiles still in production today? Share your findings with the class.

  10. Find images of ND farm vehicles and equipment from the 1940s through the 1970s. Describe how agriculture has changed over the years. Present your findings to the class.

  11. Study the images of architecture on page 15. How many of these structures still stand? How many buildings in your community built in the 1940s through 1970 still stand? Discuss with class.

  12. Develop a “new media” presentation of your community (new media being a PowerPoint presentation, a narrated video short in the new tradition of a “vlog” [video blog] or “blog”) and share with class.

13. Listen to some music of the 1940s, 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Compare what you’ve listened to with music of today. What has changed about music in each decade? Is anything the same? Share with class.

14. Watch film from the 1940s, 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Compare what you’d watched to movies of today. What has changed about music in each decade? Is anything the same? Share with class.


The map above highlights the location of six major dams of the fifteen that were built on the Missouri River.








M56 feet (17 m)



Diversion, hydroelectric

Canyon Ferry

C225 feet (69 m)



Hydroelectric, storage

Canyon Ferry Lake


H80 feet (24 m)




Hauser Lake


F124 feet (38 m)




Holter Lake

Black Eagle

O13 feet (4.0 m)





N29 feet (8.8 m)





K59 feet (18 m)





J61 feet (19 m)





L59 feet (18 m)




Fort Peck

A250 feet (76 m)



Hydroelectric, storage, flood control

Fort Peck Lake


D210 feet (64 m)



Storage, hydroelectric

Lake Sakakawea


B245 feet (75 m)



Hydroelectric, storage, flood control

Lake Oahe

Big Bend

G95 feet (29 m)



Storage, hydroelectric

Lake Sharpe

Fort Randall

E165 feet (50 m)



Storage, hydroelectric

Lake Francis Case

Gavins Point

I74 feet (23 m)




Lewis and Clark Lake

The graph above shows some basic facts of each dam. “MW” represents “Megawatt,” the number designates production per hour.

The Indian Termination Policy

Indian termination was the policy of the United States from the mid-1940s to the mid-1960s1. The belief was that Native Americans would be better off if assimilated as individuals into mainstream American society. To that end, Congress proposed to end the special relationship between tribes and the federal government. The intention was to grant Native Americans all the rights and privileges of citizenship, and to reduce their dependence on a bureaucracy whose mismanagement had been documented. In practical terms, the policy terminated the U.S. government's recognition of sovereignty of tribes, trusteeship of Indian reservations, and exclusion of Indians from state laws. Native Americans were to become subject to state and federal taxes as well as laws, from which they had previously been exempt2.

House Concurrent Resolution 108 of 1953 was a formal statement by the United States Congress announcing the official federal policy of termination. The resolution called for the immediate termination of the Flathead, Klamath, Menominee, Potawatomi, and Turtle Mountain Chippewa, as well as all tribes in the states of California, New York, Florida, and Texas. Termination of a tribe meant the immediate withdrawal of all federal aid, services, and protection, as well as the end of reservations3. Individual members of terminated tribes were to become full United States citizens and receive the benefits and responsibilities of any other United States citizens. The resolution also called for the Interior Department to quickly find more tribes who appeared ready for termination in the near future4.
During 1953–1964, 109 tribes were terminated, approximately 1,365,801 acres (5,527 km2) of trust land were removed from protected status, and 13,263 Native Americans lost tribal affiliation5. As a result of termination, the special federal trustee relationship of the Indians with the federal government ended, they were subjected to state laws, and their lands were converted to private ownership6.
The tribes disapproved of Public Law 280, as they disliked states having jurisdiction without tribal consent. The State governments also disapproved of the law, as they didn't want to take on jurisdiction for additional areas without additional funding. Consequently, additional amendments to Public Law 280 were passed to require tribal consent in law enforcement7. On May 3, 1958, the Inter Tribal Council of California (ITCC) was founded in response to the pressures of termination and other issues.
Many scholars believe that the termination policy had devastating effects on tribal autonomy, culture and economic welfare8910. The lands belonging to the Native Americans, rich in resources, were taken over by the federal government. The termination policy had disastrous effects on the Menominee tribe (located in Wisconsin) and the Klamath tribes (located in Oregon), forcing many members of the tribes onto public assistance roll.
Termination had a devastating effect on the Health Care and Education of Indians along with the economic stability of tribes. Along with the end of federal control over land came the end of many federal services which included education and health care11.
There were over one hundred tribes terminated during this era. A few were able to regain their federal recognition. The tribes achieved this through long court battles, which for some tribes took decades and exhausted large amounts of money.
Tribal leaders such as Ada Deer and James White of the Menominee played key roles in getting their cases heard by the United States Congress, through the political process, and by the Supreme Court in suits and appeals. The tribes garnered publicity by creating resistance groups. These both publicly protested the termination policy, and fought political and court battles in Washington for restoration of tribal sovereignty or other goals. Tribes which were terminated but regained their status as sovereign states include the Catawba, Coquille, Klamath, and Menominee. Other tribes, such as the Choctaw, were able to delay termination long enough to have it cancelled before implementation.
By the early 1960s, some federal leaders began opposing the implementation of any more termination measures, although the administration of President John F. Kennedy did oversee some of the last terminations. The final termination, that of the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska, legally began in 1962 - after Kennedy signed the order, at the urging of Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall - and culminated in 196612. Presidents Lyndon B. Johnson and Richard Nixon decided to encourage Indian self-determination instead of termination13.
In a special message on Indian affairs, July 8, 1970, President Richard Nixon made the following address, “Forced termination is wrong, in my judgment, for a number of reasons. First, the premises on which it rests are wrong.... The second reason for rejecting forced termination is that the practical results have been clearly harmful in the few instances in which termination actually has been tried.... The third argument I would make against forced termination concerns the effect it has had upon the overwhelming majority of tribes which still enjoy a special relationship with the Federal government.... The recommendations of this administration represent an historic step forward in Indian policy. We are proposing to break sharply with past approaches to Indian problems14.
On January 24, 1983, President Ronald Reagan issued an American Indian policy statement that supported explicit repudiation of the termination policy15.


Gerald P. Nye Lynn J. Frazier

Usher Burdick Charles R. Robertson

John Moses Alexander Burr

Harry Hayashi William Langer

Andrew Freeman Harold Schafer

Milton R. Young Fred G. Aandahl

Usher Burdick Gen. Lewis Pick

Eli Perkins William F. Warne

Chief Thomas Spotted Wolf Hugo Magnuson

Elwyn B. Robinson Bernt Lloyd Wills

Roger Maris Phil Jackson

William L. Guy Quentin Burdick

Arthur Link


Isolationism Patriotism

“Food Fights for Freedom” Victory Garden

Conservation Civilian Defense

War Bond Black Out

Women’s Army Corps (WAC) Internment

Republican Organizing Committee (ROC) Garrison Dam

Indian Termination Policy Agricultural Modernization

Prosperity Citizens for the Library

Bobcat Dakota Salt and Chemical Company

Polio Ground Observation Corps

Cold War Korean War

Vietnam War

The Second World War: Prelude to Conflict,” written and produced by Michael Birch. Produced by Encyclopaedia Britannica Films, 1964.

Uses newsreels, captured Axis films, and Armed Forces' footage to portray key events and to explain conditions and political forces that contributed to the outbreak of World War II. Includes discussion of the failure of the Versailles peace treaty; the impact of the great depression; the political crisis which resulted from economic chaos in Germany; and the growth of isolationism in the United States.

The Great Plains during World War II,” by R. Douglas Hurt, University of Nebraska Press, June 2008.

After World War II, the pivotal event in twentieth-century American history, life both at home and abroad seemed more complex and more dangerous than ever before. The political, economic, and social changes wrought by the war, such as the centralization and regulation of economic affairs by the federal government, new roles for women and minorities in American life, and the world leadership of the United States, remained in place after the soldiers and sailors returned home.

Although the impact of World War II was not as transformative for the Great Plains as it was for other areas of the United States, it was still significant and tumultuous. Emphasizing the region’s social and economic history, The Great Plains during World War II is the first book to examine the effects of the war on the region and the responses of its residents. Beginning with the isolationist debate that preceded the war, R. Douglas Hurt traces the residents’ changing view of the European conflict and its direct impact on the plains. Hurt argues that the people of the Great Plains based their patriotic response to the war effort on the concept of comparative sacrifice. Drawing on a wealth of primary sources, this compelling and frank history brings to life the voices and experiences of the residents of the Great Plains in recounting the story of the daily concerns of ordinary people that have become part of the nation’s history of this seminal event.
Dear Sergeant Honey,” by Ceil Stetson, Infinity Publishing, September 2008.

Dear Sergeant Honey is a non-fiction compilation of the writings of the author's mother, Hildie Molnar, who was a member of the Women's Army Corps (WAC) in WW II. It details her 2 1/2 years of service from the time she was given a two day notice to report for duty, to basic training and overseas service. Molnar kept a daily diary and wrote detailed letters home to family and friends. This is not a recollection but rather a day-by-day record as things happened to her in WW II. Molnar was one of the first WACs to serve in the European Theatre of Operations, (ETO). She received a Bronze Star for meritorious service, and was one of the very few WACs who were entitled to wear combat ribbons for her service. You will find her reactions to these honors in the book. She met her husband-to-be in England. When they were separated they would write letters to each other with the greeting, "Dear Sergeant Honey." Don't expect ordinary love letters, though. Expect instead lyrical writing laced with cynicism, humor and commentaries on the war. This is a rare first person account of WW II seen through the eyes of a female soldier.

Enemies: World War II Alien Internment,” by John Christgau, iUniverse 2001.

They were called aliens and enemies. But the World War II internees John Christgau writes about are shown to be ordinary people victimized by the politics of a global war. The Enemy Alien Internment Program in America was born with the United Statess declaration of war on Japan, Germany, and Italy, and lasted until 1946. In all, 31,275 enemy aliens were imprisoned in camps like the one described in this bookFt. Lincoln, just south of Bismarck, North Dakota. In animated and suspenseful prose, Christgau tells the stories of several individual who were representative of the internee experience at Ft. Lincoln. The subjects lives before and after capturepresented in case studiestell of encroaching bitterness and sorrow. Christgau bases his reporting of events on voluminous and previously untouched National Archives and FBI documents in addition to letters, diaries, and interviews with his subjects. His captivating approach to unveiling the inside story of a unique episode in American history will rivet your attention from beginning to end.

Waterbuster,” written and produced by J. Carlos Peinado & Daphne D. Ross, Brave Boat Productions, Inc., 2006.

In Waterbuster, old wounds are reopened when director J. Carlos Peinado revisits the upper Missouri River basin in North Dakota in order to come to grips with the death of his grandmother. There he investigates how the massive post-war Garrison Dam project laid waste to an idyllic, self-sufficient Native American community, flooding 156,000 acres of their land. Through the use of interviews and some amazing 8 mm and 16 mm period footage, we are transported back in time to the Fort Berthold Reservation town of Elbowoods, where members of the Mandan-Hidatsa-Arikara Nation lived their lives in relative peace and prosperity. But all that changed when the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers proposed to Congress that the Missouri River be harnessed for flood control, irrigation, hydroelectric power, and barge traffic through the construction of six enormous dams from South Dakota to Montana. The Garrison Dam was the largest of the six, and it displaced nearly 4,000 people from the reservation, forever depriving them of ties to their ancestral land, culture, and identity. To add insult to injury, the displaced people then discover that the Army Corps was never interested in upholding their promise of returning 1 million acres of irrigated land to local residents. Rather, the entire dam project was undertaken to benefit those living downstream, with flood control and barge traffic the main concerns. The consequences of this policy were disastrous for the three tribes, whose members found themselves scattered throughout the American West, with no more roots from which to derive strength. Copresented by the National Museum of the American Indian.

The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia (Midwestern History and Culture),” by Andrew R. L. Cayton (Editor), Richard Sisson (Editor), Chris Zacher (Editor), Indiana University Press, November 2006.

This first-ever encyclopedia of the Midwest seeks to embrace this large and diverse area, to give it voice, and help define its distinctive character. Organized by topic, it encourages readers to reflect upon the region as a whole. Each section moves from the general to the specific, covering broad themes in longer introductory essays, filling in the details in the shorter entries that follow. There are portraits of each of the region's twelve states, followed by entries on society and culture, community and social life, economy and technology, and public life. The book offers a wealth of information about the region's surprising ethnic diversity -- a vast array of foods, languages, styles, religions, and customs -- plus well-informed essays on the region's history, culture and values, and conflicts. A site of ideas and innovations, reforms and revivals, and social and physical extremes, the Midwest emerges as a place of great complexity, signal importance, and continual fascination.

Westhope: Life as a Farmboy,” by Dean Hulse, University of Minnesota Press, April 2009.

Growing up in Westhope, North Dakota, during the 1960s and 1970s, Dean Hulse was surrounded by a thriving agricultural community. Family farms were the backbone of the local economy, and the small businesses lining the town’s main street provided the essentials of daily life. Since that time the small towns of the Great Northern Plains have witnessed severe economic decline as family farms have gradually been replaced by industrial agriculture.

In Westhope: Life as a Former Farm Boy, Hulse recalls his idyllic childhood and adolescence in a small town that will look and feel familiar to many and movingly describes his failed attempt to carry on the family farm. Like many of his generation, Hulse discovers that the way of life he grew up with—one led by his parents and his grandparents before them—is threatened with extinction. Through a loosely chronological series of highly personal essays, Hulse delivers a strong critique of the destructive, shortsighted agricultural practices and economic policies that have led to rural depopulation throughout the Great Plains.
Quentin Burdick: The Gentle Warrior,” by Dan Rylance, North Dakota Institute for Regional Studies, North Dakota State University 2007.

The Gentle Warrior is an insightful and warm biography of the late Senator Quentin Burdick of North Dakota. The book is based on interviews with Burdick, his family, Senate colleagues and many North Dakotans. The book reveals many tragedies in Burdick's life: the pain of his parents' divorce, the crippling football injuries, the death of his first wife, the mental breakdown of his first son and the tragic loss of his second son in a freak accident in Fargo at age 16. Late Democratic Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield of Montana called Burdick "the quiet senator."

Vaccine: the controversial story of medicine's greatest lifesaver,” by Arthur Allen, W.W. Norton, 2007.

In this account of vaccination's miraculous, inflammatory past and its uncertain future, journalist Arthur Allen reveals a history both illuminated with hope and shrouded by controversy--from Edward Jenner's discovery of smallpox vaccine in 1796 to Pasteur's vaccines for rabies and cholera, to those that safeguarded the children of the twentieth century, and finally to the tumult currently surrounding vaccination. Faced with threats from anthrax to AIDS, we are a vulnerable population and can no longer depend on vaccines; numerous studies have linked childhood vaccination with various neurological disorders, and our pharmaceutical companies are more attracted to the profits of treatment than to the prevention of disease.--From publisher description.

Cold War America: 1946 to 1990,” by Ross Gregory and Richard Balkin, Facts on File, December 2002.

Examining a time of immense change that called into question some of the most accepted and honored standards, principles, and institutions in the United States, this comprehensive volume provides a detailed look at everyday life during the second half of the 20th century. Cold War America chronicles all aspects of society during this tumultuous era: changes in the economy, from banking and finance to prices and inflation; trends in entertainment, from popular music to college sports; politics, from policy to scandal; the telecommunications revolution, from the post office to the internet; and much more.

Tables provide detailed statistics and information on such things as Academy Award® winners, per capita amount of meat consumed, average cost of college tuition, Vietnam casualties, blizzards, and methods of birth control. Excerpts from important documents of the time include the Twenty-second through Twenty-eighth Amendments to the Constitution; Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas; President Eisenhower's explanation of the origins of the Domino Theory; JFK's inaugural address; and Roe v. Wade. This thorough compilation of information on American life covers the major events of the 45-year period that was the cold war.
A Dakota Boy Goes To War,” by William Russell Gietzen, Hebron Herald 1993.

The personal recollections of the Vietnam War as experienced by the author William Russell Gietzen, from Hebron, North Dakota.

1 Getches, David H.; Wilkinson, Charles F.; Williams, Robert L. (2005). Cases and Materials on Federal Indian Law. St. Paul, MN: Thomson/West. pp. 199–216.

2 U.S. House of Representatives Resolution 108, 83rd Congress, 1953. (U.S. Statutes at Large, 67: B132.)".

3 Wilkinson, Charles. Blood Struggle: The Rise of Modern Indian Nations'. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2005.

4 House Concurrent Resolution 108, Digital History, University of Houston.

5 “Ponca Tribe Of Nebraska: Community Environmental Profile". Mni Sose Intertribal Water Rights Coalition.

6 “Termination” Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians.

7 “Termination Policy 1953-1968" National Relief Charities (NRC).

8 "Menominee Termination and Restoration" Milwaukee Public Museum.

9 Walch, Michael C. (July 1983). "Terminating the Indian Termination Policy". Stanford Law Review (Stanford Law Review) 35 (6): 1181–1215.

10 "Termination: An Oregon Experience" University of Oregon College of Education.

11 William C. Canby, Jr., American Indian Law in a Nut Shell, 3rd Edition, (West Group, 1998).

12 Charles F. Wilkinson and Eric R. Biggs, "Evolution of Termination Policy," American Indian Law Review 5, no. 1 (1977).

13 "A History of American Indians in California: 1934-1964". National Park Service. 2004-11-17.

14 "President Nixon, Special Message on Indian Affairs," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

15 President Ronald Reagan on American Indian Policy,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

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