Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings


BRING tog- (i dôg, i thegir, archaic i thögir), pa.t. tunc (i thyngir) (lead)



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BRING tog- (i dôg, i thegir, archaic i thögir), pa.t. tunc (i thyngir) (lead)


BRINK 1) lanc (sharp edge, sudden end), pl. lainc, coll. pl. langath. Note: homophones mean ”naked” and also ”neck, throat”. 2) rhîf (brim), no distinct pl. form, coll. pl. rhívath (VT46:11)

BROADSWORD BLADE hathel (i chathel, o chathel) (axe blade), pl. hethil (i chethil)

BROOCH tachol (i dachol, o thachol) (pin), analogical pl. techyl (i thechyl)

BROTH salph (i halph, o salph) (liquid food, soup), pl. seilph (if the word goes like alph ”swan”), with article i seilph.

BROTHER 1) hanar (i chanar, o chanar), pl. henair (i chenair) (VT47:14). A more archaic term is *haun (spelt ”hawn” in source) (i chaun, o chaun), pl. hoen (i choen), coll. pl. honath. LITTLE BROTHER honeg (i choneg, o choneg), pl. honig (i chonig), also used as a play-name for the middle finger. (VT47:6, 16-17) 2) In older sources Tolkien listed different ”Noldorin” words for ”brother”: muindor (i vuindor), analogical pl. muindyr (i muindyr). Archaic/poetic †tôr (i dôr, o thôr, construct tor), pl. teryn (i theryn), coll. pl. toronath. In ”Noldorin”, the pl. was terein. 3) “Brother” in extended sense of “relative”: gwanur (i ’wanur) (kinsman, also kinswoman), pl. gwenyr (in gwenyr). Note: a homophone of the sg. means ”pair of twins”. SWORN BROTHER gwador (i ’wador), pl. gwedyr (in gwedyr). In ”N”, the pl. was gwedeir (LR:394 s.v. TOR)

BROWN 1) baran (swart, dark brown, yellow brown, golden-brown), pl. berain; 2) rhosc (red, russet), lenited ?throsc or ?rosc (the lenition product of rh is uncertain), pl. rhysc


BUD tui or (older) tuiw (i dui[w], o thui[w]) (sprout), no distinct pl. form except with article (i thui[w])


BUILD car- (i gâr, i cherir), pa.t. agor (make, do) (WJ:415)

BUILDER thavron (wright, carpenter), pl. thevryn, coll. pl. thavronnath. SHIPBUILDER círdan (i gírdan, o chírdan) (shipwright), pl. círdain (i chírdain)

BUILDING 1) adab (house), pl. edaib. In ”Noldorin”, the plural was edeb. 2) BUILDING car or cardh (i gar[dh], o char[dh]) (house), pl. cerdh (i cherdh) or cair (i chair). Note: cardh also means "deed, feat". Therefore, the form car (or adab) may be preferred for clarity.

BULL mund (i vund, construct mun), pl. mynd (i mynd), coll. pl. munnath

BURDEN (heavy burden) caul (i gaul, o chaul) (affliction), pl. coel (i choel), coll. pl. colath

BURIAL MOUND haudh (i chaudh, o chaudh) (barrow, grave, tomb), pl. hoedh (i choedh), coll. pl. hodhath

BURN dosta- (i dhosta, i nostar) (VT45:10-11; the source is obscure)

BURNING ruin (fiery red); no distinct pl. form. Also used as noun ”red flame, blazing fire”. (Silm app, entry ruin; PM:366) Note: a homophone means ”slot, spoor, track, footprint”.


BUSH (low-growing tree) toss (i doss, o thoss, construct tos), pl. tyss (i thyss). Tolkien mentioned ”maple, hawthorn, blackthorn, holly, etc.” as examples of the low-growing trees covered by this word.


BUTTERFLY gwilwileth (i ’wilwileth), pl. gwilwilith (in gwilwilith)

BY (near) na (followed by lenition), with article nan (followed by ”mixed mutation”, according to David Salo’s reconstruction). The preposition has various meanings: ”with, by, near” and also ”to, toward, at; of”


CAIRN sarnas (i harnas, o sarnas) (pile of stones), pl. sernais (i sernais)

CAKE (of compressed flour or meal, often containing honey and milk, for use on long journeys) cram (i gram, o chram), pl. craim (i chraim), coll. pl. crammath

CALL 1) (vb.) esta- (to name) (i esta, in estar), 2) (call out) ialla- (VT46:22), also can- (i gân, i chenir) (shout, cry out). See also CRY (OUT).

CALLIGRAPHER tegilbor (i degilbor, o thegilbor), pl. tegilboer (i thegilboer) (PM:318, where the word is defined as ”one skilled in calligraphy”). Archaic *tegilbaur.

CAMP, see ENCAMPMENT

CAN, see BE ABLE

CANOPY 1) daedelu (i dhaedelu), pl. daedely (i naedhely), 2) orthelian (pl. ortheliain)

CAPE (geographic) 1) rast (also shortened ras), pl. raist, idh raist, 2) (of land) bund (i mund, o mbund, construct mun) (snout, nose), pl. bynd (i mbynd), #cast (i gast, o chast) (headland), pl. caist (i chaist) (VT42:14; compare the name Angast)

CAPTAIN hest (i chest, o chest), pl. hist (i chist)


CARPENTER thavron (wright, builder), pl. thevryn, coll. pl. thavronnath


CATCH (vb.) gad (i ’âd, i ngedir = i ñedir), pa.t. gant; CATCH IN A NET raeda- (i raeda, idh raedar) (VT42:12)

CAUSEWAY gondrath (i ’ondrath) (street of stone, raised stone highway), pl. gendraith (i ngendraith = i ñendraith). Archaic pl. göndreith. (WJ:340)

CAVE 1) grôd (i ’rôd, construct grod) (delving, excavation, underground dwelling), pl. grŷd (in grŷd) (WJ:414), 2) groth (i ’roth) (delving, large excavation), pl. gryth (in gryth) (VT46:12), 3) rond (construct ron) (cavern, vault, vaulted ceiling, hall with vaulted roof), pl. rynd (idh rynd), coll. pl. ronnath, 4) roth (delving, large excavation), pl. ryth, 4) gathrod (i ’athrod), pl. gethryd (i ngethryd = i ñethryd), 5) fela (pl. fili). In the Etymologies (LR:381 s.v. PHÉLEG) the name Felagund is said to include this word, but since Tolkien later re-explained this name as a borrowing from Dwarvish, some would consider fela as a word for ”cave” conceptually obsolete. ARTIFICIAL CAVE *rhûd (construct rhud, with article ?i thrûd or ?i rûdthe lenition product of rh- is uncertain) (dwelling underground, rockhewn hall, mine), pl. rhuid (?idh ruid). (PM:365) FORTRESS IN A CAVE/CAVES *othronn (pl. ethrynn for archaic öthrynn) (underground stronghold). Cited in archaic form othrond in the source (WJ:414).

CAVERN 1) gath (i ’ath), pl. gaith (i ngaith = i ñaith), 2) rond (construct ron) (cave, vault, vaulted ceiling, hall with vaulted roof), pl. rynd (idh rynd), coll. pl. ronnath

CAVERNOUS raudh (hollow), pl. roedh

CENTER 1) enedh (core, middle), pl. enidh, 2) nest (heart, core), pl. nist

CESSATION post (i bost, o phost) (pause, halt, rest, respite), pl. pyst (i physt)

CHAIN angwedh ("iron bond", ang + gwêdh), pl. engwidh

CHAIR ham (i cham, o cham), pl. haim (in chaim), coll. pl. hammath coinciding with the coll. pl. of hamp ”garment”. Also hanu (i chanu), analogical pl. heny (i cheny), coll. pl. likely hanwath since the archaic form was hanw (VT45:20)

CHAMBER sam (i ham, o sam), pl. saim, coll. pl. sammath

CHANNEL (water-channel) rant (watercourse, stream; lode, vein), pl. raint (idh raint), coll. pl. rannath

CHANT linna- (i linna, i linnar) (sing)

CHASER (= hound of chase) rŷn (construct ryn; no distinct pl. form except with article: idh rŷn)

CHASM (gulf, void, abyss), pl. iai (LR:400, RS:437, Letters:383)

CHEAT gweria- (i ’weria, in gweriar) (betray)

CHIEF (adj.) main (lenited vain; pl. mîn) (prime, prominent) (VT45:15)

CHILD hên (i chên), pl. hîn (i chîn); also -chen, pl. -chín at the end of compounds (e.g. Eruchín ”Children of Eru”). (WJ:403) CHILDREN OF THE ONE (Elves and Men as children of God) Eruchín (sg. *Eruchen)

CHOKING faug (gasping, thirsty), pl. foeg

CIRCLE 1) rind (construct rin; no distinct pl. form except with article: idh rind), coll. pl. rinnath. 2) corn (i gorn, o chorn), pl. cyrn (i chyrn). The word is also used as an adj. "circular, round, globed", 3) (outer ring or circle) echor (pl. echyr), 4) ringorn, pl. ringyrn (idh ringyrn)

CIRCULAR 1) corn (round, globed), lenited gorn, pl. cyrn. The word is also used as a noun "circle", 2) rend (pl. rind) (VT46:11), CIRCULAR RAISED MOUND cerin (i gerin, o cherin) (circular enclosure), no distinct pl. form except with article (i cherin).

CITY ost (pl. yst) (city/town with wall around). UNDERGROUND CITY OR STRONGHOLD *othronn (pl. ethrynn for archaic öthrynn) (fortress in a cave or caves). Cited in archaic form othrond in the sources (WJ:414, VT46:12)

CLAMOUR caun (i gaun, o chaun) (outcry, cry, shout), pl. coen (i choen), coll. pl. conath, the latter often used = "lamentation" (PM:345, 362). Note: a homophone of caun means "valour".

CLAN noss (construct nos, pl. nyss) (family, house)

CLASP taew (i daew, o thaew) (holder, socket, hasp, staple), no distinct pl. form except with article (i thaew)

CLAW gamp (i ’amp) (hook, crook), pl. ?gaimp or ?gemp (i ngaimp = i ñaimp or i ngemp = i ñemp), coll. pl. gammath

CLEAN puig (tidy, neat); lenited buig, no distinct pl. form.

CLEAR (adj.) lim (sparkling, light), no distinct pl. form. Note: a homophone means ”fish”.

CLEAR (verb, ”make clear”) *glanna- (i ’lanna, in glannar) (VT45:13; this is how David Salo would normalize the form ”glantha” occurring in the primary source)

CLEAR glân (white), lenited ’lân, pl. glain. (UT:390, VT45:13). Note: a homophone means ”hem, border”.

CLEARED laden (plain, flat, wide, open), pl. ledin (for ”Noldorin” lhaden pl. lhedin, LR:368 s.v. LAT)

CLEARING IN FOREST lant (pl. laint, coll. pl. lannath). Note: a homophone means ”fall”.

CLEAVER (sword) rist (cutter), no distinct pl. except with article (idh rist). Note: a homophone means ”cleft”.

CLEAVER †hâdh (i châdh, o châdh, construct hadh, pl. haidh (i chaidh). (Tolkien’s gloss of the word hâdh was illegible [LR:389 s.v. SYAD], but a compound including hâdh is equated with Quenya Sangahyando ”Throng-cleaver”.)

CLEAVER crist (i grist, o christ) (sword), no distinct pl. form except with article (i christ)





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