Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings


BEYOND 1) *athar (across). Suggested correction of the reading "athan" in SD:62. As prep. probably followed by soft mutation. 2) (adverbial prefix) thar- (across, athwart, over)



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BEYOND 1) *athar (across). Suggested correction of the reading "athan" in SD:62. As prep. probably followed by soft mutation. 2) (adverbial prefix) thar- (across, athwart, over)


BIND *gwedh- (i ’wêdh, in gwedhir), pa.t. gwedhant, in older language also gwend. In LR:397 s.v. WED the verb is cited as a ”Noldorin” infinitive in -i, ”gwedi”, but this would seem to be an error for *gwedhi.

BIND nod- (i nôd, i nedir) (tie), pa.t. likely *nunt since the root is NUT (LR:378).

BIPED (also as adj. ”two-legged”) *tad-dal (i dad-dal, o thad-dal), pl. tad-dail (i thad-dail)

BIRCH TREE 1) brethil (i vrethil), pl. same as sg. except with article (i mrethil), coll. pl. ?brethiliath.

BIRD (small bird) 1) aew. No distinct pl. form. 2) fileg, pl. filig; the form filigod appears as an alternative singular. YELLOW BIRD or YELLOWHAMMER emlinn (= "yellow singer"); no distinct pl. form. Also emelin, no distinct pl. form; coll. pl. emelinnath. Adj. OF BIRDS aewen, pl. aewin.

BITE (verb) nag- (i nâg, in negir); BITING (noun) 1) naeth (gnashing of teeth in grief; woe); no distinct pl. form. 2) narch (pl. nerch) (RC:601)

BITTER saer (lenited haer; no distinct pl. form). BITTERLY COLD (adj.) helch (lenited chelch; pl. hilch)

BLACK 1) môr (dark), lenited vôr, pl. mŷr (Letters:382), also morn (dark), pl. myrn, lenited #vorn. Note: the word is also used as a noun ”darkness, night”. (Letters:386) The lenited form #vorn appears, compounded, in the name of the BLACK METAL made by the Dark Elf Eöl: galvorn (i ’alvorn), pl. gelvyrn (i ngelvyrn = i ñelvyrn) if there is a pl. (WJ:322). 2) donn (swart, swarty, shady, shadowy) (lenited dhonn, pl. dynn). (VT45:11). Also dunn- in compounds.


BLACKTHORN, see LOW-GROWING TREE


BLADE (of broadsword or axe) hathel (i chathel, o chathel), pl. hethil (i chethil)

BLAZING FIRE ruin (no distinct pl. form except with article: idh ruin) (red flame). Also used as an adj. ”fiery red, burning”. (Silm app, entry ruin; PM:366)

BLISS (final bliss), see FORTUNE

BLOCKED #tafnen (stopped, closed), lenited dafnen; pl. tefnin (WR:341, isolated from uidavnen, with f rather than v in normalized orthography)

BLOOD 1) sereg (i hereg, o sereg), pl. serig (i serig) if there is a pl. (Silm App, entry sereg.) 2) BLOOD iûr (construct iur, pl. iuir if there is a pl.), also iâr (construct iar, pl. iair if there is a pl.) (VT46:22) 3) agar (pl. egair if there is a pl.) Maybe this refers primarily to blood as "gore"; compare: BLOODSTAINED agarwaen (agar + gwaen). Probably no distinct pl. form. ”BLOOD OF STONE”, see STONECROP

BLOSSOM (verb) #edlothia- (i edlothia, in edlothiar) (flower); BLOSSOMING edlothiad (flowering), pl. edlothiaid if there is a pl.

BLOSSOM loth (see FLOWER), also goloth (i ’oloth) (collection of flowers), pl. gelyth (i ngelyth = i ñelyth). Archaic pl. gölyth. Also in the form gwaloth (i ’waloth), pl. gwelyth (in gwelyth). Also goloth.

BLOW dram (i dhram) (heavy stroke), pl. draim (in draim); BLOW WITH FIST drambor (i dhrambor) (clenched fist), pl. dramboer (in dramboer). Archaic *drambaur (dram + paur).


BLUE luin (no distinct pl. form, as demonstrated by the name Ered Luin ”Blue Mountains”) (VT48:24) PALE BLUE 1) elu (analogical pl. ely). Archaic elw (pl. ilw?) 2) gwind (lenited ’wind; no distinct pl. form)


BOARD (fixed board in a floor) pân (i bân, o phân, construct pan) (plank), pl. pain (i phain). Not to be confused with the adj. *pân ”all”.

BOAT lunt (pl. lynt, coll. pl. lunnath)

BODY rhaw (?i thraw or ?i rawthe lenition product of rh is uncertain) (flesh), pl. rhoe (?idh roe). Note: a homophone means ”wild, untamed”. (MR:350). MANIFESTED BODY OF A VALA fân (veil, cloud), construct fan, pl. fain. BODILY STRENGTH bellas (i vellas), pl. bellais (i mellais) if there is a pl.

BOGEY urug (monster, orc), pl. yryg

BOLD 1) beren (lenited veren), pl. berin. Also used as masc. name Beren. 2) cand (lenited gand, pl. caind)

BOLSTER *nedhu (pillow), analogical pl. nedhy. Cited in archaic form nedhw (LR:378, s.v. NID), so the coll. pl. is likely nedhwath.

BOND 1) (a ”bond” of loyalty) gwaedh (i ’waedh) (troth, compact, oath), no distinct pl. form except with article (in gwaedh), 2) (apparently referring to physical ”bonds”, cf. CHAIN) gwêdh (i ’wêdh, construct gwedh), pl. gwîdh (in gwîdh), 3) (ditto) nûd (construct nud, pl. nuid). 4) (the ”bond” of friendship) gwend (i ’wend, construct gwen) (friendship), pl. gwind (in gwind), coll. pl. gwennath. Note: a homophone means ”maiden”.

BOOK parf (i barf, o pharf), pl. perf (i pherf), coll. pl. parvath

BORDER (noun) rain; no distinct pl. form except with article (idh rain). Note: the adj. ”erratic, wandering” is a homophone of rain.

BORDER *rîw (construct riw) (hem, edge), no distinct pl. form except with article (idh rîw). – Suggested Sindarin form of ”Noldorin” rhîf.

BORDER edrain (no distinct pl. form)

BORDER glân (i ’lân, construct glan) (hem), pl. glain (in glain) (VT42:8) Note: a homophone means ”white, claer”.

BORN ?onnen (pl. ennin for archaic önnin)

BOSS dolt (i dholt) (round knob), pl. dylt

BOTH (adjectival prefix) ui- (two, twi-); ON BOTH SIDES (adv. prefix) ath- (across)

BOUND (adj.) naud, pl. noed

BOUND (verb) *glenia- (enclose, limit) (i ’lenia, in gleniar) (VT42:8; the spelling ”gleina-” in the primary source may be an error)

BOUNDARY 1) gland (i ’land, construct glan), pl. glaind (i glaind), coll. pl. glannath, 2) lest (girdle, fence), pl. list; 3) BOUNDARY, BOUNDARY LINE taeg (i daeg, o thaeg) (limit), no distinct pl. form except with article (i thaeg)

BOUNDARY MARKER glandagol (i ’landagol), pl. glendegyl (in glendegyl)

BOUNDED OR DEFINED PLACE gardh (i ’ardh) (region), pl. gerdh (i ngerdh = i ñerdh).

BOW 1) (noun) (i gû, o chû) (arch, crescent), pl. cui (i chui), 2) (bow for shooting) peng (i beng, o pheng), pl. ping (i phing), RAINBOW eilian (pl. eiliain). Archaic elianw (so the coll. pl. may be eilianwath).

BOWED cûn (bowshaped, bent), lenited gûn; pl. cuin

BOWSHAPED cûn (bowed, bent), lenited gûn; pl. cuin

BOWSTRING tang (i dang), pl. teng (i theng)

BRAIDED TRESS OF HAIR finnel (pl. finnil). Archaic †findel (pl. findil).

BRANCH olf (wand), pl. ylf, coll. pl. olvath

BRAND *ylf (no distinct pl. form; coll. pl. ylvath). (Suggested Sindarin form of ”Noldorin” iolf.) A homophone means ”drinking vessel”.

BREAD bass (i mass, o mbass, construct bas), pl. bais (i mbais). The sg. form with article "imbas" in VT44:23 may be seen as archaic Sindarin, for later *i mas(s) as suggested here. – In ”Noldorin”, the word for "bread" was bast (LR:372 s.v. MBAS), but otherwise it would have the same mutations. WAY-BREAD, JOURNEY-BREAD lembas, pl. lembais.

BREAD-GIVER (fem.) bassoneth (lady) (i massoneth, o mbassoneth), pl. bassonith (i mbassonith). Archaic *bassauneth. Also bessain (i messain, o mbessain), no distinct pl. except with article (i mbessain)

BREAK OUT SUDDENLY breitha- (i vreitha, i mreithar)

BREAKER falf (foam), pl. felf, coll. pl. falvath

BREATH 1) thûl (pl. thuil), 2) hwest (i chwest, o chwest) (puff, breeze), pl. hwist (i chwist)

BREATHE thuia-

BREEZE hwest (i chwest, o chwest) (puff, breath), pl. hwist (i chwist)

BREVE, see SHORTNESS

BRIDE 1) (i nî, o ndi) (lady), no distinct pl. form except with article (i ndî), 2) díneth (i níneth, o ndineth), pl. dínith (i ndínith)

BRIDEGROOM daer (i naer, o ndaer), no distinct pl. form except with article (i ndaer). Note: a homophone means "great, large", but has different mutations.

BRIDGE 1) *ianu, analogical pl. ieny.; coll. pl. likely ianwath, given the archaic form ianw (which is the form listed in the Etymologies), 2) iant (yoke), pl. iaint, coll. pl. iannath. SKY-BRIDGE, see RAINBOW

BRIGHT gail (light), lenited ngail; no distinct pl. form (VT45:18). The adj. calen etymologically means "bright", but is used = "green" (q.v.). BRIGHT SPARK gîl (i ngîl = i ñîl, construct gil) (star, silver glint), no distinct pl. form except with article (in gîl = i ñgîl), coll. pl. giliath (RGEO, MR:388)

BRILLIANCE 1) aglar (glitter, glory), pl. eglair if there is a pl. 2) galad (i ngalad = i ñalad), (bright light, sunlight, brilliance, radiance, glittering reflection), pl. gelaid (in gelaid = i ñgelaid), 3) rill (construct ril) (flame, glittering reflected light), no distinct pl. form except with article (idh rill). GLEAMING BRILLIANCE fael. No distinct pl. form. Note: a homophone means "fair-minded, generous, just".

BRILLIANT celair (lenited gelair; no distinct pl. form)

BRIM rhîf (brink), no distinct pl. form, coll. pl. rhívath (VT46:11)





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