Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings

ATHWART (adverbial prefix) thar- (across, over, beyond)

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ATHWART (adverbial prefix) thar- (across, over, beyond)


AULË Gaul (na ’Aul), often in longer form Belegol (na Velegol) ”Great Aulë”; also called Barthan (na Marthan, o Mbarthan)

AUTUMN (noun) dannas (i dhannas), pl. dannais (i nannais), also dant (i dhant) (fall, falling), pl. daint (i naint). (PM:135)

AUTUMN 1) iavas, pl. iavais, coll. pl. iavassath; 2) AUTUMN lasbelin (”leaf-withering”), no distinct pl. form. Coll. pl. lasbeliniath.

AVAR 1) (non-Eldarin Elf) Avar, pl. Evair; 2) (Elf of Beleriand, also used of Easterlings) Morben (i Vorben), pl. Merbin (i Merbin). Archaic pl. ”Moerbin” = Mörbin (WJ:362, 376), 3) lefn (pl. lifn), also *lefnir with no distinct pl. form. (Suggested S form of ”N” lhifnir, LR:368 s.v. LEB-, LEM-.)

AWAKENING echui (echuiw). No distinct pl. form. Coll. pl. echuiwath.

AWAY 1) (adj.) gwachae (remote), lenited ’wachae, no distinct pl. form. The form occurring in the primary source, #gwahae, must represent the late Gondorian pronunciantion with h for ch (PM:186, isolated from gwahaedir). 2) (adv.) e, ed (out, forth); also as adjectival prefix "outer" and preposition "out from, out of" (WJ:367)

AWE anwar (pl. enwair if there is a pl.)

AWFUL 1) gaer (dreadful, fearful; holy); lenited ’aear; no distinct pl. form. Note: homophones mean "reddish, copper-coloured, ruddy" and also "sea". 2) taur (also tor-, tar- in compounds) (lofty, high, sublime, noble; vast, masterful, mighty, overwhelming, huge), lenited daur, pl. toer. Note: homophones mean ”king (of a people)” and also ”great wood, forest”.

AXE hathol (i chathol, o chathol), analogical pl. hethyl (i chethyl). Archaic *hathl. AXE BLADE hathel (i chathel, o chathel) (broadsword blade), pl. hethil (i chethil); AXE-STROKE hast (i chast, o chast), pl. haist (i chaist)

BABBLE glavra- (i ’lavra, in glavrar)

BABBLING (participle) glavrol (lenited ’lavrol)

BABE laes (no distinct pl. form); LITTLE BABY gwenig (i ’wenig, no distinct pl. form except with article: in gwenig). Also used (in children’s play) as a name of the little finger. (VT47:6, 16-17)

BACK (prep.) dan (lenited nan) (again, against); BACK (as prefix) ad-, also meaning "second, again, re-", e.g. aderthad "reunion".

BAD *faeg (poor, mean). No distinct pl. form. (Suggested Sindarin form of ”Noldorin” foeg.)

BAD um (evil), pl. ym. David Salo would read *ûm with a long vowel. (According to VT46:20, it may be that um is intended as a base rather than as a ”Noldorin” word.)

BALD rûdh (pl. ruidh)

BALL coron (i goron, o choron) (globe, mound), pl. ceryn (i cheryn)

BAN (vb.) boda- (i voda, i modar) (prohibit)

BANE (= killer) dagnir (i nagnir, o ndagnir), no distinct pl. form except with article (i ndagnir), coll. pl. dagniriath

BANK (esp. river-bank) raw (pl. roe, idh roe), coll. pl. ?rawath or ?roath. Note: homophones mean ”lion” and also ”rush, roaring noise”.

BARROW 1) gorthad (i ngorthad = i ñorthad, o n’gorthad = o ñgorthad), pl. gerthaid (in gerthaid = i ñgerthaid). The literal meaning may be ”place of the dead”: gorth ”dead” + sâd, -had ”place”. Archaic pl. ”goerthaid” = görthaid (PM:194), 2) haudh (i chaudh, o chaudh) (burial mound, grave, tomb), pl. hoedh (i choedh), coll. pl. hodhath

BATTLE (noun) 1) dagor (i nagor, o ndagor), analogical pl. degyr (i ndegyr), coll. pl. dagorath. Archaic dagr, so we might have expected dagrath as the coll. pl.; dagorath would be an analogical formation. 2) (battle of two or a few, not a general host) maeth (i vaeth) (fight), no distinct pl. except with article (i maeth). 3) auth (war), pl. oeth, coll. pl. othath. Note: a homophone means "dim shape, apparition". CRY OF ENCOURAGEMENT IN BATTLE hûl (i chûl, o chûl, construct hul), pl. huil (i chuil)

BATTLE (verb, "do battle, make war") dagra- (i nagra, i ndagrar), also dagrada- (i nagrada, i ndagradar)

BAY (noun) 1) côf (i gôf, o chôf, construct cof), pl. cŷf (i chŷf), 2) (small landlocked bay) hûb (i chûb, o chûb, construct hub) (harbour, haven), pl. huib (i chuib)

BE: The verb ”to be” is poorly attested. Apparently the root is na-. The imperative is attested as no, and nad (used = ”thing”) may be seen as an original gerund *”a being”. It seems that the copula ”is, are” (and ”was, were”?) can be omitted altogether, as in the ”Noldorin” sentence lheben teil brann i annon ”five feet high [is] the door” (AI:92), in Sindarin perhaps *leben tail brand i annon.

BE ABLE gar- (i ’âr, i ngerir = i ñerir) (hold, have, possess; can); pa.t. garant. (AI:92, VT45:14)

BE OFF! ego! (WJ:365)

BEACH 1) falas (pl. felais) (shore, coast, strand, line of surf, foaming shore; the word was especially used of the western seaboard of Beleriand). (VT42:15) 2) faur (shore), pl. foer, coll. pl. forath (VT46:15)

BEACON narthan (”fire-sign”), pl. nerthain (VT45:20)

BEAR (noun) 1) graw (i ’raw), pl. groe (in groe), coll. pl. ?grawath or ?groath (VT47:12). 2) brôg (i vrôg, construct brog), pl. brŷg (i mrŷg), 3) *medli (i vedli), no distinct pl. form except with article (i medli). The word literally means ”honey-eater”. – Suggested Sindarin form of ”Noldorin” megli. BEARISH, OF BEARS *medlin (adjective derived from medli ”bear”), lenited vedlin, no distinct pl. form. – Suggested Sindarin form of ”Noldorin” meglin.

BEARD fang (pl. feng)

BEARER cyll (i gyll, o chyll), no distinct pl. form except with article (i chyll)

BEASTS, CONFUSED NOISE/YELLING OF glam (i ’lam) (din, uproar, tumult; shouting, confused noise; a body of Orcs), pl. glaim (in glaim), coll. pl. glammath

BEAT 1) blab- (i vlâb, i mlebir) (flap), pa.t. blamp, 2) dringa- (i dhringa, in dringar). BEATEN TRACK bâd (pathway) (i vâd, construct bad), pl. baid (i maid)

BEAUTIFUL bain (fair). Lenited vain. No distinct pl. form.

BED (etymologically ”resting”) haust (i chaust, o chaust), pl. hoest (i choest), coll. pl. hostath. LYING IN BED (noun) cael (sickness) (i gael, o chael). Same form in the pl. except with article (i chael). BEDRIDDEN caeleb (sick), lenited gaeleb, pl. caelib

BEECH †fêr (stem feren-, pl. ferin) (mast); BEECH TREE neldor (pl. neldyr), also brethorn (i vrethorn), pl. brethyrn (i mrethyrn) (VT46:3). The mallorn or ”golden-tree” found in Lórien was supposedly beechlike: mallorn (i vallorn), pl. mellyrn (i mellyrn).

BEGET onna- (i onna, in onnar), also prefixed edonna- (i edonna, in edonnar), passive participle ?edonnen.

BEGIN SUDDENLY AND VIGOROUSLY heria- (i cheria, i cheriar) (have an impulse, be compelled to do something, set vigorously out to do) (VT45:22)

BEGUN AGAIN eden (new), pl. edin

BEHIND (adv. and prep) adel; as prep. probably followed by soft mutation.

BELERIAND, ELF OF (literally "West-Elf", including Noldor and Sindar) Dúnedhel (i Núnedhel), pl. Dúnedhil (i Ndúnedhil) (WJ:378, 386)

BELL nell (construct nel; pl. nill); SOUND BELLS nella- (i nella, in nellar) (but according to VT46:7, this may be a misreading of Tolkien’s manuscript), RINGING OF BELLS nelladel (pl. nelledil): SOUND OF BELLS ?nellad (pl. nellaid)

BENEATH , unstressed di (in, under) (VT45:37). Note: a homophone means ”bride, lady”.

BENT cûn (bowed, bowshaped), lenited gûn; pl. cuin

BERYL edhelharn (pl. edhelhern) (literally "Elf-stone") (SD:128-31)

BETRAY gweria- (i ’weria, in gweriar) (cheat)

BETRAYER gwarth (i ’warth), pl. gwerth (in gwerth)

BETWEEN (prep.) im (within), also as prefix im- ”between, inter-”. Note: homophones include the pronoun ”I” and a noun mening ”dell, deep vale”. The word mîn (min-) means ”between” referring to a gap, space, barrier or anything intervening between two other things (VT47:11, 14)

BETWEEN mi (with article: min)

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