Guide to the Manual xii

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Acknowledgment — x

Changes in the Ninth Edition — xi

User’s Guide to the Manual — xii

Suggested Course Outlines — xv

Volume I
Exploration and the Colonies
Part One: Exploration

Historical Perspective: Chronology to 1600 — 2

Approaching the Literature of Exploration — 5

Videos for Exploration — 8

Sample Examination Questions — 9
Parts Two, Three, & Four: The Colonies, Puritanism, The South and

the Middle Colonies

Historical Perspective: Chronology, 1603-1770 — 11

The Puritans — 19

William Bradford — 24

John Winthrop — 26

Anne Bradstreet — 27

Michael Wigglesworth — 29

Mary Rowlandson — 30

Samuel Sewall — 32

Edward Taylor — 33

Cotton Mather — 35

Sarah Kemble Knight — 37

Jonathan Edwards — 38

John Smith — 40

Thomas Morton — 43

Roger Williams — 44

Ebenezer Cook — 45

William Byrd — 47

John Woolman — 48

St. Jean de Crèvecoeur — 49

William Bartram — 51

Videos for Parts Two through Four — 52

Sample Examination Questions — 53


Part Five: Reason and Revolution

Historical Perspectives: Chronology, 1770-1815 — 56

Benjamin Franklin — 65

Thomas Paine — 69

John Adams and Abigail Adams — 72

Thomas Jefferson — 74

Olaudah Equiano — 77

Phillis Wheatley — 79

The Federalist — 80

Philip Freneau — 83

Joel Barlow — 85

Royall Tyler — 87

Charles Brockden Brown — 90

Videos for “Reason and Revolution” — 92

Sample Examination Questions — 93
The Romantic Temper and the House Divided
Part Six: Nature and Society

American Romanticism — 98

Historical Perspectives: Chronology, 1816-1860 — 103

The Native American Heritage: Introduction — 113

The Native American Heritage: Tales — 113

The Native American Heritage: Oratory — 114

The Native American Heritage: Poetry — 115

Washington Irving — 118

James Fenimore Cooper — 122

Catherine Maria Sedgwick — 125

William Cullen Bryant — 127

Caroline Maria Sedgwick — 128

Francis Parkman — 130

Sample Examination Questions — 131

Part Seven: Colloquial Humor

Introduction — 134

Sample Examination Questions — 136
Part Eight: Transcendentalism

The Transcendentalists — 137

Ralph Waldo Emerson — 139

Margaret Fuller — 145

Henry David Thoreau — 147

Sample Examination Questions — 151


Part Nine: Romanticism

Edgar Allen Poe — 153

Nathaniel Hawthorne — 157

Herman Melville — 165

Videos for “Romanticism” — 171

Sample Examination Questions — 171

Part Ten: The Humanitarian Sensibility and the Inevitable Conflict

Historical Perspective: Chronology 1860-1865 — 174

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow — 177

John Greenleaf Whittier — 179

Oliver Wendell Holmes — 181

Abraham Lincoln — 182

Fanny Fern — 184

Harriet Beecher Stowe — 185

Harriet Jacobs — 188

Frederick Douglass — 190

James Russell Lowell — 191

Alice Cary — 193

Rose Terry Cooke — 194

Rebecca Harding Davis — 197

Videos for “The Human Sensibility” — 198

Sample Examination Questions — 199

Part Eleven: Pioneer of a New Poetry

Walt Whitman — 204

Sample Examination Questions — 211

Volume II
An Age of Expansion
Part One: New Voices in Poetry

Historical Perspective: Chronology, 1865-1880 — 214

Walt Whitman — 222

Emily Dickinson — 222

Sidney Lanier — 229

Sample Examination Questions — 231

Part Two: Realists and Regionalists

Realism — 233

Louisa May Alcott — 237

Mark Twain — 239


William Dean Howells — 245

Henry James — 248

Bret Harte — 253

Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins — 254

Ambrose Bierce — 255

George Washington Cable — 256

Joel Handler Harris — 257

Sample Examination Questions — 259
Part Three: The Turn of the Century

Historical Perspective: Chronology, 1890-1910 — 263

Henry Adams — 270

Sarah Orne Jewett — 272

Kate Chopin — 274

Mary E. Wilkins Freeman — 277

Charles W. Chesnutt — 278

Hamlin Garland — 280

Charlotte Perkins Gilman — 281

Edith Wharton — 283

Mary Austin — 285

Frank Norris — 286

Stephen Crane — 287

Theodore Dreiser — 291

Jack London — 292

Sample Examination Questions — 294

Literary Renaissance
Part Four: New Directions: The First Wave

Historical Perspective: Chronology, 1914-1929 — 299

Modernism — 305

Edwin Arlington Robinson — 309

Edgar Lee Masters — 310

Paul Laurence Dunbar — 311

Willa Cather — 312

Ellen Glasgow — 314

Gertrude Stein — 315

Robert Frost — 318

Carl Sandburg — 323

Susan Glaspell — 324

Sherwood Anderson — 327

Ezra Pound — 328

T. S. Eliot — 332

Amy Lowell — 336


Elinor Wylie — 337

H. D. (Hilda Doolittle) — 338

Sample Examination Questions — 339

Part Five: Poets of Idea and Order

Wallace Stevens — 344

William Carlos Williams — 349

Marianne Moore — 353

The Fugitives: John Crowe Ransom, Allen Tate — 355

Hart Crane — 358

Sample Examination Questions — 360
Part Six: A Literature of Social and Cultural Challenge

Historical Perspective: Chronology, 1930-1945 — 363

Eugene O’Neill — 373

Robinson Jeffers — 376

Claude McKay — 378

Archibald MacLeish — 380

Edna St. Vincent Millay — 381

E. E. Cummings — 382

Jean Toomer — 387

Countee Cullen — 388

Langston Hughes — 390

Caroline Gordon — 392

F. Scott Fitzgerald — 393

John Dos Passos — 396

William Faulkner — 398

Ernest Hemingway — 402

Thomas Wolfe — 405

Katherine Anne Porter — 406

Zora Neale Hurston — 408

John Steinbeck — 410

Richard Wright — 412

Sample Examination Questions — 414

The Second World War and Its Aftermath

Historical Perspective: Chronology, 1945-1963 — 421

Part Seven: Drama

Tennessee Williams — 429

Arthur Miller — 434

Sample Examination Questions — 440


Part Eight: Poetry

Robert Penn Warren — 442

Theodore Roethke — 444

Elizabeth Bishop — 447

John Berryman — 450

William Stafford — 452

Gwendolyn Brooks — 453

Robert Lowell — 455

Howard Nemerov — 458

Richard Wilbur — 459

Sample Examination Questions — 461
Part Nine: Fiction

Eudora Welty — 463

John Cheever — 464

Ralph Ellison — 466

Bernard Malamud — 468

James Baldwin — 470

Flannery O’Connor — 472

Sample Examination Questions — 476

A Century Ends and a New Millennium Begins
Part Ten: Drama

Historical Perspective: Chronology, 1964-1980 — 479

Edward Albee — 487

Sam Shepard — 491

Sample Examination Questions — 493
Part Eleven: Poetry

James Dickey — 494

A. R. Ammons — 496

Robert Bly — 498

Allen Ginsberg — 501

James Merrill — 505

Frank O’Hara — 508

W. D. Snodgrass — 510

John Ashbery — 512

W. S. Merwin — 514

James Wright — 516

Anne Sexton — 518

Adrienne Rich — 521

Gary Snyder — 524

Sylvia Plath — 526

Amiri Baraka — 529

Mary Oliver — 531

Jay Wright — 532

Simon J. Ortiz — 533

Dave Smith — 535

Rita Dove — 537

Lorna Dee Cervantes — 538

Cathy Song — 540

Sample Examination Questions — 541

Part Twelve: Fiction

Nash Candelaria — 547

John Barth — 548

Toni Morrison — 550

John Updike — 552

Philip Roth — 554

Annie Proulx — 556

Don DeLillo — 558

Thomas Pynchon — 559

Raymond Carver — 561

Joyce Carol Oates — 564

Bobbie Ann Mason — 568

Anne Tyler — 570

Alice Walker — 571

Tim O’Brien — 573

Ann Beattie — 574

Charles Johnson — 576

Leslie Marmon Silko — 577

Amy Tan — 579

Louise Erdrich — 581

Barbara Kingsolver — 583

Sample Examination Questions — 584

Part Thirteen: The Globalization of American Literature

Historical Perspective: Chronology, 1980-1998 — 590

Vladimir Nabokov — 599

Isaac Bashevis Singer — 601

Czeslaw Milosz — 602

Saul Bellow — 604

Denise Levertov — 607

Charles Simic — 609

Joseph Brodsky — 611

Bharati Mukherjee — 612


Isabel Allende — 614

Jamaica Kincaid — 617

Jhumpa Lahiri — 619

Sample Examination Questions — 621
Appendix A

Websites — 624

Appendix B

Student Papers — 626

Appendix C

Abbreviated Chronologies — 634

About the Author — 671

I owe a debt of gratitude to several individuals who helped with the preparation of this manual. Professors George Perkins and Barbara Perkins read carefully through the manuscript and made many useful recommendations and comments. Their readings certainly resulted in an improved manual. My colleagues at St. John’s University were, as usual, dependable and helpful. Professors Joseph Marotta and Claire O’Donoghue steered me to many of the websites listed in Appendix B and helped with their insights into several authors. My brother, Dr. Charles Kitts, was especially helpful in supplying information on the historical perspectives and chronology for the 1990s.

The staff at McGraw-Hill was supportive and accommodating, particularly Sarah Touborg and Alexis Walker. It is always a pleasure to work with both.

I am especially grateful for the support of my wife Cynthia and children Dylan and Holly, who were especially patient in the final stages of completion.

Finally, I must thank my students at St. John’s, who continue to be stimulating, imaginative, and tolerant of my pedagogical experimentation.

Changes in the Ninth Edition
With the changes and improvements in the tenth edition of The American Tradition in Literature, Professors George Perkins and Barbara Perkins offer a broad and flexible text that can serve many syllabi and approaches. The following changes to this new edition are especially noteworthy:

Expanded Canon. Both volumes are improved with the inclusion of several authors new to the text. Volume I now features additional women’s voices like Caroline Stansbury Kirkland, Fanny Fern, Alice Cary, and Rose Terry Cooke. The additions to Volume II include Mary Austin, Frank Norris, Ellen Glasgow, Susan Glaspell, Claude McKay, Caroline Gordon, Mary Oliver, Jay Wright, Simon Ortiz, Lorna Dee Cervantes, Nash Candelaria, Annie Proulx, Don DeLillo, Charles Johnson, Leslie Marmon Silko, Barbara Kingsolver, and Jhumpa Lahiri. The emphasis in the additions is on expanding the range of voices represented in the text, thereby offering a more diverse depiction of the American experience.

The Globalization of American Literature. This section, new to the ninth edition, is one of the important features of The American Tradition. The section reflects a major historical shift in American literature: contributions from foreign-born or first-generation American authors. By placing authors like Isaac Bashevis Singer, Czeslaw Milosz, Bharati Mukherjee, and Isabel Allende in one section, enduring questions are dramatized and emphasized: What is an American? What is American literature? New to this section is author Jhumpa Lahiri, who won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 2000.
Fully Revised Introductions, Headnotes, Footnotes, and Bibliographies. All have been updated to meet the needs of today’s students. Especially effective are the introductions to the sections, which provide students a historical and literary context for the readings which follow.
Black and White Illustrations. New illustrations supplement ones from the ninth edition and the colored plates introduced in the eighth edition. Both the plates and the illustrations enhance the reading experience and contribute to classroom discussions.
Timelines in the text. New to the tenth edition are the timelines that appear throughout the volumes. They are handy supplements that help place authors and their works in a historical and cultural context.
With the revisions in the tenth edition, which represent changing critical attitudes and new scholarship, The American Tradition in Literature continues to combine the best of the traditional with the best of the innovative.

User’s Guide to this Manual

In this manual I have attempted to provide some insights and ideas on how to present the various texts included in The American Tradition in an undergraduate survey course. At the risk of inconsistency or unpredictability, I have presented material in various ways: sometimes a brief essay, sometimes an outline, and sometimes simply questions. I used whatever seemed to feel right at the time of writing. I hope the various methods of presentation will prove more stimulating than cumbersome. Page references refer to Volumes I and II, not the concise edition. I hope this does not cause too much inconvenience for too many.

A few sections of the format of this manual call for brief explanations:

Historical Perspectives – Chronologies
These timelines are intended to provide a historical overview to correspond with the readings in the various sections. The chronologies begin with the approximate dates of Asian migration to North America (50,000 - 12,000 B.C.) and extend through June 2002. I have found it more and more necessary to place readings in a historical context, and even a brief review of important events of the time has been effective – although I must admit that my “brief reviews” sometimes take longer than I anticipate. The chronologies are probably too extensive to copy for students, so in Appendix C I offer abbreviated timelines that you may feel free to copy and distribute.

The information in the chronologies was, for the most part, derived from two texts:

Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People.

Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1997.

Davidson, James West, et al. Nation of Nations: A Concise Narrative of the American

Republic. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Annotated Bibliography
The lists are hardly exhaustive, nor do they necessarily recommend the most important scholarship on a particular author or literary movement. I tried to assemble a brief list of works that you might feel comfortable recommending to students; works that, with few exceptions, are widely available with accessible readability for undergraduate survey students. In the annotation, I tried not only to give a sense of the work’s approach and direction, but also to provide a piece of information that might perhaps fit into your presentation.


I use videos in the classroom regularly, but rarely do I have time to show the entire tape. I have found, however, that excerpts have enlivened class discussions and motivated students to read texts closely as we compare film versions or film discussions to the text. For students interested in seeing the video in its entirety, I place the cassette on reserve in our media reference library. I have been pleasantly surprised by the number of students who have taken advantage of this option.

Like the bibliography, my video list is hardly exhaustive. Some of the films I have not seen. However, based on summaries or recommendations, I think each is worth a trial run. For each tape, I have included the information available to me, as well as the distributor. Below are the addresses, websites, and phone numbers, of distributors cited:

Ambrose Video Publishing Mystic Fire Video

1290 Avenue of the Americas P.O. Box 422

Suite 2245 New York, NY 10012-0008

New York, NY 10104

(800) 526-8088 (800) 292-9001

fax (212) 265-4663
California Newsreel Omnigraphics

149 Ninth Street, 420 Penobscot Building

San Francisco, CA 94103 Detroit, MI 48226

(415) 621-6196 (313) 961-1340
Filmic Archives PBS Home Video/ PBS Video

The Cinema Center 1320 Braddock Place

Botsford, CT 06404-0386 Alexandria, VA 22314-1698

(800) 366-1920 (800) 344-3337

Films for the Humanities & Sciences Teacher’s Discovery

P.O. Box 2053 English Division

Princeton, NJ 08543-2053 2741 Paldan Drive

Auburn Hills, MI 48326

(800) 257-5126 (800) 583-6454


Insight Media Teacher’s Video Company

2162 Broadway P. O. Box 4455-02EN04

New York, NY 10024-0621 Scottsdale, AZ 85261
(800) 233-9910 (800) 262-8837

(212) 721-6316

Brookside Media

P. O. Box 612

Trumbull, CT 06611
(800) 934-4336

Whenever possible, I try to play audio cassettes of poets reading their works. For inquiries about any of the listed tapes, contact HarperAudio/Caedmon, A Division of HarperCollins, 10 East 53rd Street, New York, NY 10022-5299, (212) 207-7528.

Sample Examination Questions
At the end of each section, I provide sample examination questions. I divide the questions into three categories:
The five-minute quiz: There is nothing more frustrating to a literature instructor than discussing a work thatwhich fewer than half the students in class have read. I find that almost all students will keep up with the reading if they believe they might be quizzed on the material. I do not give a quiz every class, but students are aware that a quiz is always a possibility. Many students have told me gratefully that these quizzes have motivated them to read, when they might otherwise have skipped a reading. The quizzes may not be scholarly and may not be the most pedagogically sound way to motivate, but they are effective. If you make them a part of a student’syour grade (mine account for about 10 percent), students will read and, therefore, be far more responsive in class. I tend to quiz on fiction and drama, and only very rarely on poetry. My questions are simple, generated from the plot. No critical interpretation or analysis is necessary. Usually I ask five or six questions each quiz. Questions are designed to elicit the briefest of responses, so that the quiz consumes only about five minutes, and marking and recording grades, for a class of fifty, about fifteen minutes.


Full-period, short-answer questions: I find this kind of test very effective. All questions are derived from class discussions and require responses of approximately three or four sentences each. I ask between twenty and to twenty-five questions each exam, which students have approximately ninety minutes to complete. This type of exam also leads to an attentive and more responsive class atmosphere. With this kind of examination, however, it is important to assign essays throughout the course to give students an opportunity to think analytically and creatively.
Essay questions or writing topics: These questions may be used in class for testing purposes or for home assignment. I use these questions for home assignment to balance the full-period, short-answer examinations.

Appendix A — Websites

I recommend ten websites each with many links. Most are concerned primarily with American literature and the level of quality is high. I comfortably recommend these to students.

Appendix B — Student Papers

Feel free to copy and distribute these three student papers, one on Anne Bradstreet, one on Eugene O’Neill’s The Hairy Ape, and another on Alice Walker’s “Everyday Use.”

Suggested Course Outlines

by George Perkins and Barbara Perkins
In devising course outlines, most instructors will want to select carefully from the riches supplied in the individual volumes of The American Tradition in Literature. Among many approaches, we suggest and provide lists for the following:






Although we have provided authors and titles as they will be found in the two volumes of the complete edition, instructors will find that with very little adjustment the lists can be applied to the shorter, one-volume edition. In following any of these threads, instructors will need to adapt actual day-by-day assignments to the number of class meetings and the abilities of their students.
These are the authors central to discussions of the American literary tradition as we approach the twenty-first century. They supply the benchmarks against which the margins of American literature are discussed, and they form the backbone of much longer canonical lists, including the generous, expanded canon provided by the many other names that accompany them in the current edition of The American Tradition in Literature. Instructors exploring this center will want to assign complete selections as far as possible, removing authors or titles to fit the time available, the abilities and prior knowledge of the students, and the teaching strategies employed.
Volume I
William Bradford Ralph Waldo Emerson

John Winthrop Henry David Thoreau

Anne Bradstreet Edgar Allen Poe

Edward Taylor Nathaniel Hawthorne

Cotton Mather Herman Melville

Jonathan Edwards Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

John Woolman John Greenleaf Whittier

Benjamin Franklin Oliver Wendell Holmes

Thomas Paine Harriet Beecher Stowe

Philip Freneau Frederick Douglass

Washington Irving James Russell Lowell

James Fenimore Cooper Walt Whitman

William Cullen Bryant
Volume II
Reflecting the literary richness of times closer to our own, the list for Volume 2 is longer than for Volume 1. Instructors may need to eliminate authors or cut selections.
Walt Whitman Arthur Miller

Emily Dickinson Elizabeth Bishop

Louisa May Alcott Robert Lowell

Mark Twain Ralph Ellison

Henry James James Baldwin

Kate Chopin Edward Albee

Edith Wharton Sam Shepard

Stephen Crane August Wilson

Edwin Arlington Robinson Allen Ginsberg

Robert Frost James Merrill

Ezra Pound John Ashbery

T. S. Eliot Anne Sexton

Wallace Stevens Sylvia Plath

William Carlos Williams John Barth

Eugene O’Neill Toni Morrison

F. Scott Fitzgerald John Updike

John Dos Passos Philip Roth

William Faulkner Thomas Pynchon

Ernest Hemingway Vladimir Nabokov

Tennessee Williams Saul Bellow

Directory: sites
sites -> The United States and Post-Castro Cuba
sites -> Fighting Fit: Exploring Military Medicine (1850-1950)
sites -> 9. 5 Political Powers and Achievements Tom Burns- beacon High School
sites -> Indiana Academic Standards Resource Guide World History and Civilization Standards Approved March 2014
sites -> Penn State Harrisburg American Studies/Women Studies 104: Women and the American Experience Spring 2015 Instructor: Kathryn Holmes
sites -> Penn State Harrisburg am st/wmnst 104: Women and the American Experience Spring 2015 Instructor: Kathryn Holmes
sites -> Abolition and Women’s Rights Chap. 14 Se
sites -> In the years between the Seneca Falls Convention and the Civil War, powerful links existed between antislavery and women’s rights advocates. Virtually all women’s rights advocates supported abolition

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