Guess the Test #1 Answer key Constantinople: The capital of the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine Empire

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Guess the Test #1 Answer key
Constantinople: The capital of the Byzantine Empire.
The Byzantine Empire: The eastern half of the Roman Empire that lasted until 1453 AD.
Justinian I: Byzantine emperor who came to power in 527 AD. He recaptured lands of the old Roman Empire, codified Rome’s laws, built the Hagia Sophia.
Theodora: Justinian’s wife and co-ruler. A former actress and circus performer, she was his chief advisor and confidant.
General Belisarius: Justinian’s general who recaptured North Africa and Rome.
The Code of Justinian : A collection of all existing laws in the Byzantine emperor at the time, updated and revised by Justinian.
The Nika Revolts: A riot after a chariot race in Constantinople in 532 in which ½ of the city was destroyed and 30,000 people died.
Hagia Sophia: A magnificent domed Christian church that Justinian built.
Mosaics: Pictures created by fitting together tiny colored tiles and cementing them in place.
Iconoclasts: “Icon breakers;” people who thought that images of Christ, the disciples and the Virgin Mary in church was too much like idol worshipping. They wanted them all removed.
Icons: Paintings or sculptures of sacred figures from the Bible.
Excommunicate: To forbid a person from attending church services.
Patriarch: The head of the Eastern Christian Church
Schism: A split in which the Christian church broke into two: the Roman Catholic Church in Italy, and the Greek Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire.
Orthodox Church: The Christian church in the Byzantine Empire led by a patriarch instead of a pope. Services are conducted in Greek instead of Latin.
Istanbul: What the city of Constantinople is called today.
Explaining Questions: 5 points each!
1. Write about Justinian I and list his ambitious projects:

  • Justinian tried to restore the old Roman Empire lands lost to Barbarian invaders. He was re-conquered North Africa and Rome.

  • He rebuilt Constantinople after it was destroyed in the Nika Revolts.

  • He collected, reviewed and modernized all Roman laws in existence and created Justinian’s Code which became the base of European law.

  • He built the Hagia Sophia – the greatest church in Christendom.

  • He stayed to fight the rioters during the Nika Revolt after his wife told him not to run away.

2. Describe Belisarius’s efforts to recapture the Roman Empire

  • First, Belisarius attacked the Vandals in North Africa and destroyed them.

  • In Italy, Belisarius attacked and defeated a large Ostrogoth army.

  • Belisarius marched victorious into Rome in 536.

  • The Ostrogoths won it back, and the two armies battled each other for 18 years.

  • By the time the Byzantines finally won it for good, Rome was destroyed.

3. Explain what the Code of Justinian is and describe the 4 works:

  • Justinian wished to examine ALL the laws of Rome, pick out the best and throw out the rest.

  • The result was 4 books that formed the basis of European and US law.

  • The Codex was a book containing 5,000 laws

  • The Digest (50 books) summarized Rome’s legal opinions

  • The Institutes was a textbook to teach law students how to use the Code.

  • The Novellae were all laws created after 534 AD.

4. Explain the schism between the Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches:

  • Iconoclasts in Constantinople convinced the patriarch to remove idols from the churches.

  • The pope in Rome excommunicated the patriarch in Constantinople.

  • The Eastern Church conducted rituals in Greek, the Western Church in Latin.

  • Eastern priests could marry, western priests could not.

  • In 1054 AD, the churches split. The western church became the Catholic Church under the pope; the Eastern Church became the Orthodox Church under the leadership of a patriarch.

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