Great Migration (5) Boston (8) congregation (3) John Winthrop (6) Watertown (9) commonwealth



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(1) New England colonies (4) Massachusetts Bay Co. (7) Charlestown (10) General Court

(2) Great Migration (5) Boston (8) congregation

(3) John Winthrop (6) Watertown (9) commonwealth

REVIEW:

- Interest in the American colonies continued to grow in England.

- Political issues/church conflicts made many groups consider crossing the Atlantic in search of new opportunities.


- * These people settled the (1) New England Colonies.
I Puritans in Massachusetts

- Puritans in England were continuously under attack & being punished for criticizing the Anglican Church.

- * This pressure forced many Puritans to seek religious freedom in the American colonies.

- News of possible WEALTH & SUCCESS also motivated the Puritans to move.



A) Great Migration

- ** 1630 marked the beginning of the (2) Great Migration.

- 10 years after the Plymouth Colony was founded, 1,000 people crossed the Atlantic to NEW ENGLAND.

- * over the next 10 yrs., 16,000 people journeyed to this part of America.
B) Massachusetts Bay Co.

- 1625 = Charles I succeeded his father, James I, as King of England.

- He hated the Puritans and made their lives difficult for not following the Anglican church.

- The Puritans hired (3) John Winthrop (a well-to-do lawyer/landowner/later became Mass. Bay Colony’s 1st governor)

to request a colonial charter from the King.

- 1629 – They received their charter and formed (4) The Massachusetts Bay Company. Wealthy men put money up

front to purchase the ship(s) and hire the crew(s). They then charged a price for people to go to America via their

ship(s). Doesn’t this sound similar to cruise packages?

C) Settling the Massachusetts Bay Colony

- 1630; 17 ships; over 1,000 Puritans settlers; landed north of Plymouth Colony

- ** The LARGEST single migration of this type in the 17th century.

- better organized than Jamestown or Plymouth / Brought large stores of food, clothing, & tools.

D) “A City upon a Hill” [OVERCAME (1) HARSH WEATHER & (2) DISEASE – YET PROSPERED]

- * In Mass. Bay, the Puritans hoped to build a Christian society that would be a model for the rest of the world.

- ** Winthrop quoted, “For we must consider that we shall be like a City upon a Hill; the eyes of all people are on us.”

- Early 1640s, 16,000 colonists lived in (5) Boston (the capital) & in smaller neighboring towns such as (6) Watertown & (7) Charlestown.
(1) REASONS FOR LOCATION OF BOSTON: (a) good access to rivers and other waterways

(b) made Boston a successful trading system


(2) LEADERSHIP of the CHURCH:

- Using the Bible as their guide, the Puritans practiced the kind of religion they had wanted in England.

- Instead of being ruled by a bishop or other distant leader, each church was run by its (8) congregation

(members of the church) - * This meant the church members CHOSE THEIR OWN MINISTER.



** Doesn’t this sound like today’s churches?

- ** They also transformed the Mass. Bay Co. from a trading co. into a (9) commonwealth (self-governing

political unit). FIRST OF ITS KIND IN AMERICA!!

E) The General Court

- The (10) General Court made the laws.

- At first it included only Puritans who were investors in the Mass. Bay. Co.

- Later, all adult freeman became members of the co., provided they were church members.

- * These people elected the GOVERNOR and MEMBERS of the GENERAL COURT.

(1) Many laws enforced Puritan thinking

- Example: EVERYONE (members and nonmembers) had to attend long church services

- The rest of the day was spent praying and reading the Bible.

- ** Dancing, sports, and/or games WERE NOT ALLOWED = FORBIDDEN!!


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WIO (Working It Out) ENTRANCE SLIP (left side) Settling the New England Colonies Part I

Date: _________
DIRECTIONS:
1) Think/Pair/Share first

2) After discussing with your partner, write the answers to the questions below.

3) Don’t forget these questions require THOUGHT & SHOULD BE ANSWERED in

COMPLETE SENTENCES!!

4) Remember: The focus of this lesson is RELIGIOUS FREEDOM and how it MOVES people.
1) Determine the importance of religious freedom to the Puritans at the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Why?
2) Analyze their attitudes toward other religions.
3) Rationalize the importance of Puritans being able to choose their own ministers.
4) Explain why the Massachusetts Bay Colony was an economic advantage to the entrepreneurs who founded it.
5) Rationalize the reasoning for this colonization time period being known as The Great Migration.
6) Justify the significance of John Winthrop’s quote: For we must consider that we shall be like a City upon a Hill;

the eyes of all people are on us.”


(11) toleration

(12) Roger Williams

(13 Separation of Church & State

(14) banished

(15) Narragansett Bay

(16) Providence

(17) Rhode Island

(18) Portsmouth

(19) Thomas Hooker

(20) Hartford

(21) Fundamental Orders of Conn.

(22) constitution

(23) John Mason

(24) Sir Ferdinand Gorge

(25) New Hampshire

(26) Maine

(27) Pequot Natives

(28) Chief Metacomet

II A New Colony in Rhode Island


- Even though Puritans came here for religious beliefs, they had NO RELIGIOUS (11) TOLERATION = the

acceptance of different beliefs. Isn’t this odd? They want freedom for THEIR beliefs, yet they don’t “tolerate” other



people’s choices.

- people who disagreed with them were treated harshly = (1) banned from the colony &/or (2) left to form their own settlement.



A) Roger Williams Speaks Out

- In Salem, a town north of Boston, a young minister named (12) Roger Williams preached ideas that angered puritans.

- Said: (1) church had too much power in governing the colony



(2) civil officials should not punish people for following their consciences

(3) people SHOULD NOT have to be members of a church in order to vote

(4) ** the church and govt. should be SEPARATE.

- ** The Puritans were FURIOUS!!!



- ** these ideas of (13) Separation of Church & State would later become a basic principle of American govt.

- Williams also had a problem w/the Mass. Bay charter.

- * He said colonists could not legally settle on the land unless they obtained it from the Indians (Native Americans).

- Due to this, the General Court banished (to make leave – never to return) him from the colony (1635).

- In the dead of winter, he and a few friends fled south to (14) Narragansett Bay and spent the winter w/the Native

Americans who trusted them as friends.



B) A Place for Religious Tolerance

- He bargained w/the Narragansett natives for a piece of land to start a community – (15) Providence.

- He also accepted people w/beliefs different from his own.

- ** QUAKERS AND JEWS also came to live here.

Cause: It prospered due to (1) better farmland and (2) the harshness of the Puritans at the Mass. Bay Colony.

Effect: Three other towns were formed here. All later joined together to form the colony of (16) Rhode Island

- Williams obtained a charter from the English Parliament in 1644.

- * It was the smallest of the colonies and held on to many ideas that held it apart from the others.

C) Hutchinson Challenges Church Leaders

Cause:

- This lady Puritan found refuge in Rhode Island

- gentle; brilliant; yet, VERY outspoken for her day; very firm in her ideas of religion and church

- born Anne Marbury; married a merchant named William Hutchinson

- they were a strong Puritan family and moved to Boston in 1634.

- She headed a Bible study group where she let her beliefs be known that (1) women needed a more active role in



govt., & (2) people didn’t need to go through ministers to speak w/God. They could do this themselves directly.

- The Puritan leaders were HORRIFIED!


Effect:

- Arguments over her SPLIT THE COLONY!!

- She was put on trial and the General Court found her unfit for their society and banished her.

- Hutchinson and her friends founded the town of (17) Portsmouth (south of Providence).

- Her husband died in 1642, so she moved to the Dutch colony of New Netherland.

- She was killed the next yr. during a war between the Dutch and Native Americans.


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WIO (Working It Out) ENTRANCE SLIP (left side) Settling the New England Colonies Part II

Date: _________
DIRECTIONS:
1) Think/Pair/Share first

2) After discussing with your partner, write the answers to the questions below.

3) Don’t forget these questions require THOUGHT & SHOULD BE ANSWERED in

COMPLETE SENTENCES!!

4) Remember: The guidance of this lesson is TOLERATION and how it MOVES people.

1) Infer why you feel Roger Williams had such different views than the Puritans and why he tolerated other

people’s beliefs. Explain your reasoning.
2) If you were living in New England during this time period, would you have agreed w/the Puritans or Roger

Williams? Support your reasoning with facts.


3) Williams believed colonists couldn’t settle on land unless they had the approval of the natives living in that

area. Based on what we’ve discussed about Native American beliefs that no one OWNED the land,



conclude WHY you feel Williams still wanted their approval.
4) Speaking to a priest instead of God directly is similar to what other religion? Anne Hutchinson felt this was

wrong – that’s why she pulled away from Catholic and Anglican views. Due to her views, justify why this

made the Puritans so angry with her.


(18) Portsmouth

(19) Thomas Hooker

(20) Hartford

(21) Fundamental Orders of Conn.

(22) constitution

(23) John Mason

(24) Sir Ferdinand Gorge

(25) New Hampshire

(26) Maine

(27) Pequot Natives

(28) Chief Metacomet

III West to Connecticut


- Mid 1630s, some Puritans believed Boston was becoming too crowded & the farmland was not as healthy as

before, so some headed west along trails cut through the wilderness by Native Americans.

- In the valley of the Connecticut River they founded two towns(1) Windsor & (2) Westerfield



A) Thomas Hooker & Hartford Connecticut

(1636) (19) Thomas Hooker led his congregation to Connecticut where they built a town called (20) Hartford.



Cause: He had his own ideas about governing a colony& felt the laws that only church members could vote were wrong!
Effect: He & leaders from other towns worked out a plan of govt. known as the (21) Fundamental Orders of Connecticut.

(1) - ** first American (22) constitution (written plan of govt.) = Provided for an assembly & elected a governor.

- ALL MEN WHO OWNED PROPERTY COULD VOTE. Here, you did NOT have to be the member of a



particular church to have the ability to vote!

(2) Connecticut became a separate colony – granted a charter (in 1622) from the King = legal now
IV New Hampshire & Maine

- No one knows for sure who the first settlers of Maine and New Hampshire were; but in 1622, (23) John Mason &



(24) Sir Ferdinand Gorges received a grant in the area of what is today’s (25) New Hampshire and (26) Maine.
A) New Hampshire: became a royal colony in 1680 B) Maine: remained part of Massachusetts until 1820
V Colonists and Native Americans Clash


Cause: - more settlers in New England

Effect: - less land for Native Americans

Cause: - settlers cleared forests for farming

Effect: - drove away much of the wild game the natives

depended on for food



Cause: - settlers often let their animals run wild

Effect: - many natives lost their crops, thus leading to a

food shortage



Cause: - Native Americans were dying due to epidemics

Effect: - their population was dwindling

Cause: - Puritans wanted Nat. Ams. to be Christians

Effect: - fighting occurred for Nat. Ams. to save their

heritage



A) The Pequot Wars
Cause: - Connecticut colonists moved westward and built more towns.

Effect: - This pushed the (27) Pequot Natives from their lands, raids began, & colonists took revenge by

destroying the natives’ crops & villages.
- 1637, English settlers along w/their Native American allies held a surprise attack on the Pequot’s main fort. Some

500 Pequot men, women, and children died.


Results: (1) Nearly wiped out the Pequot nation & (2) allowed English to take over their land
B) King Phillip’s War = Cause: 1675 – tension between settlers and natives erupted again Effect: WAR
C) Native American Scuffle

CAUSE: Wampanoag (28) Chief Metacomet (nicknamed King Phillip) brought together his allies throughout

southern New England

- Natives: (1) didn’t want English on their land & (2) didn’t want to abide by English law

EFFECT: - 3 yrs of burned towns, farms, and kidnapped settlers
D) English Settlers’ Outlook
- struck back/destroyed villages/killed/wounded thousands of natives

- Metacomet’s wife and son were captured and sold into slavery in the West Indies

- 1676 – Metacomet = killed - ** King Phillip’s War = Over

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WIO (Working It Out) ENTRANCE SLIP (left side) Settling the New England Colonies Part III

Date: _________
DIRECTIONS:
1) Think/Pair/Share first

2) After discussing with your partner, write the answers to the questions below.

3) Don’t forget these questions require THOUGHT & SHOULD BE ANSWERED in

COMPLETE SENTENCES!!

4) Remember: The guidance of this lesson is TOLERATION and how it MOVES people.
1) Thomas Hooker believed that all men who owned property should be able to vote on town issues – not just church

members. Therefore, he helped create The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, which is the colonies first



written constitution. Explain the significance of this written document.
2) Determine why the Pequot and King Phillip Wars were so necessary for the Native Americans.


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