Grade 5 Correlation of Core Knowledge® and New York Learning Standards

III. Plant Structures and Processes

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III. Plant Structures and Processes

A. Structure: Non-vascular and Vascular Plants

• Non-vascular plants (for example, algae)

• Vascular plants

Vascular plants have tubelike structures that allow water and dissolved nutrients to move through the plant.

Parts and functions of vascular plants: roots, stems and buds, leaves
B. Photosynthesis

• Photosynthesis is an important life process that occurs in plant cells, but not animal cells (photo = light; synthesis = putting together). Unlike animals, plants make their own food, through the process of photosynthesis.

• Role in photosynthesis of: energy from sunlight, chlorophyll, carbon dioxide and water, xylem and phloem, stomata, oxygen, sugar (glucose)
C. Reproduction

• Asexual reproduction

Example of algae

Vegetative reproduction: runners (for example, strawberries) and bulbs (for example, onions), growing plants from eyes, buds, leaves, roots, and stems

• Sexual reproduction by spore-bearing plants (for example, mosses and ferns)

• Sexual reproduction of non-flowering seed plants: conifers (for example, pines), male and female cones, wind pollination

• Sexual reproduction of flowering plants (for example, peas)

Functions of sepals and petals, stamen (male), anther, pistil (female), ovary (or ovule)

Process of seed and fruit production: pollen, wind, insect, and bird pollination, fertilization, growth of ovary, mature fruit

Seed germination and plant growth: seed coat, embryo and endosperm, germination (sprouting of new plant), monocots (for example, corn) and dicots (for example, beans)

VII. Science Biographies

Carl Linnaeus

Standard 4: The Living Environment
3. Individual organisms and species change over time.


•describe how the structures of plants and animals complement the environment of the plant or animal.

•observe that differences within a species may give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing.

Standard 4: The Living Environment
6. Plants and animals depend on each other and their physical environment.


•describe how plants and animals, including humans, depend upon each other and the nonliving environment.

•describe the relationship of the sun as an energy source for living and nonliving cycles.

Unit 5- Impact of Technology

  • Inventions that improve the quality of human life

  • Inventions that improve the quality of the environment

  • Effect of technology on the environment

IV. Life Cycles and Reproduction

A. The Life Cycle and Reproduction

• Life cycle: development of an organism from birth to growth, reproduction, death

Example: Growth stages of a human: embryo, fetus, newborn, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old age

• All living things reproduce themselves. Reproduction may be asexual or sexual.

Examples of asexual reproduction: fission (splitting) of bacteria, spores from mildews, molds, and mushrooms, budding of yeast cells, regeneration and cloning

Sexual reproduction requires the joining of special male and female cells, called gametes, to form a fertilized egg.

B. Sexual Reproduction in Animals

• Reproductive organs: testes (sperm) and ovaries (eggs)

• External fertilization: spawning

• Internal fertilization: birds, mammals

• Development of the embryo: egg, zygote, embryo, growth in uterus, fetus, newborn

VII. Science Biographies

Ernest Just

Standard 4: The Living Environment
1. Living things are both similar to and different from each other and nonliving things.


•describe the characteristics of and variations between living and nonliving things.

•describe the life processes common to all living things.

Standard 4: The Living Environment
2. Organisms inherit genetic information in a variety of ways that result in continuity of structure and function between parents and offspring.


•recognize that traits of living things are both inherited and acquired or learned.

•recognize that for humans and other living things there is genetic continuity between generations.

Standard 4 : The Living Environment
4. The continuity of life is sustained through reproduction and development.


•describe the major stages in the life cycles of selected plants and animals.

•describe evidence of growth, repair, and maintenance, such as nails, hair, and bone, and the healing of cuts and bruises.

Unit 5- Impact of Technology

  • Inventions that improve the quality of human life

  • Inventions that improve the quality of the environment

  • Effect of technology on the environment

V. The Human Body

A. Changes in Human Adolescence

• Puberty

Glands and hormones (see below, Endocrine System), growth spurt, hair growth, breasts, voice change
B. The Endocrine System

• The human body has two types of glands: duct glands (such as the salivary glands), and ductless glands, also known as endocrine glands.

• Endocrine glands secrete (give off) chemicals called hormones. Different hormones control different body processes.

• Pituitary gland: located at the bottom of the brain, secretes hormones that control other glands, and hormones that regulate growth

• Thyroid gland: located below the voice box, secretes a hormone that controls the rate at which the body burns and uses food

• Pancreas: both a duct and ductless gland, secretes a hormone called insulin that regulates how the body uses and stores sugar, when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, a person has a sickness called diabetes (which can be controlled)

• Adrenal glands: secrete a hormone called adrenaline, especially when a person is frightened or angry, causing rapid heartbeat and breathing
C. The Reproductive System

• Females: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, menstruation

• Males: testes, scrotum, penis, urethra, semen

• Sexual reproduction: intercourse, fertilization, zygote, implantation of zygote in the uterus, pregnancy, embryo, fetus, newborn

Standard 1: Personal Health and Fitness
1. Health Education- Students will understand human growth and development and recognize the relationship between behaviors and healthy development. They will understand ways to promote health and prevent disease and will demonstrate and practice positive health behaviors.

•Know basic body systems work and interrelate in normal patterns of growth and development

•Possess basic knowledge and skills which support positive health choices and behaviors

•Understand how behaviors such as food selection, exercise, and rest affect growth and development

•Recognize influences which affect health choices and behaviors

•Know about some diseases and disorders and how they are prevented and treated

•Practice and support others in making healthy choices.

VI. Chemistry: Matter and Change

A. Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds

• Basics of atomic structure: nucleus, protons (positive charge), neutrons (neutral), electrons (negative charge)

• Atoms are constantly in motion, electrons move around the nucleus in paths called shells (or energy levels).

• Atoms may join together to form molecules and compounds.

• Common compounds and their formulas:

water H2O

salt NaCl

carbon dioxide CO2

B. Elements

• Elements have atoms of only one kind, having the same number of protons. There are a little more than 100 different elements.

• The Periodic Table: organizes elements with common properties

Atomic symbol and atomic number

• Some well-known elements and their symbols:

Hydrogen H

Helium He

Carbon C

Nitrogen N

Oxygen O

Sodium Na

Aluminum Al

Silicon Si

Chlorine Cl

Iron Fe

Copper Cu

Silver Ag

Gold Au

• Two important categories of elements: metals and non-metals

Metals comprise about @d of the known elements.

Properties of metals: most are shiny, ductile, malleable, conductive
C. Chemical and Physical Change

• Chemical change changes what a molecule is made up of and results in a new substance with a new molecular structure. Examples of chemical change: rusting of iron, burning of wood, milk turning sour

• Physical change changes only the properties or appearance of the substance, but does not change what the substance is made up of. Examples of physical change: cutting wood or paper, breaking glass, freezing water
VII. Science Biographies

Percy Lavon Julian

Standard 4: Physical Setting

3. Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.


•observe and describe properties of materials using appropriate tools.

•describe chemical and physical changes, including changes in states of matter.

Unit 5- Impact of Technology

  • Inventions that improve the quality of human life

  • Inventions that improve the quality of the environment

  • Effect of technology on the environment

These standards are ongoing scientific process skills.

Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design; Scientific Inquiry
1. The central purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop explanations of natural phenomena in a continuing, creative process.


•ask “why” questions in attempts to seek greater understanding concerning objects and events they have observed and heard about.

•question the explanations they hear from others and read about, seeking clarification and comparing them with their own observations and understandings.

•develop relationships among observations to construct descriptions of objects and events and to form their own tentative explanations of what they have observed.

Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design; Scientific Inquiry

2. Beyond the use of reasoning and consensus, scientific inquiry involves the testing of proposed explanations involving the use of conventional techniques and procedures and usually requiring considerable ingenuity.


•develop written plans for exploring phenomena or for evaluating explanations guided by questions or proposed explanations they have helped formulate.

•share their research plans with others and revise them based on their suggestions.

•carry out their plans for exploring phenomena through direct observation and through the use of simple instruments that permit measurements of quantities (e.g., length, mass, volume, temperature, and time).

Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design; Scientific Inquiry

3. The observations made while testing proposed explanations, when analyzed using conventional and invented methods, provide new insights into phenomena.


•organize observations and measurements of objects and events through classification and the preparation of simple charts and tables.

•interpret organized observations and measurements, recognizing simple patterns, sequences, and relationships.

•share their findings with others and actively seek their interpretations and ideas.

•adjust their explanations and understandings of objects and events based on their findings and new ideas.

This standard is addressed through the kindergarten and second grade Core Knowledge content.

Standard 4: Physical Setting
1. The Earth and celestial phenomena can be described by principles of relative motion and perspective.


•describe patterns of daily, monthly, and seasonal changes in their environment.

This standard is addressed in through the kindergarten-fourth grade Core Knowledge content.
These content understandings are addressed through the kindergarten- fourth grade Core Knowledge content.

Standard 4: Physical Setting
2. Many of the phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land.


•describe the relationships among air, water, and land on Earth.
Unit 4- Healthy Planet III
Marine Studies

  • The properties of water and their relationship to supporting life on earth

  • Freshwater and saltwater

  • Zones of the ocean

  • Unicellular marine organisms

  • Marine algae and plants

  • Marine invertebrates

  • Marine vertebrates

Unit 5- Impact of Technology
Human Impact on the Environment

  • Ocean pollution

  • Habitat destruction

  • Over-fishing

  • Aquaculture

These standards are addressed through the second grade Core Knowledge content.

Standard 4: Physical Setting
5. Energy and matter interact through forces that result in changes in motion.


•describe the effects of common forces (pushes and pulls) on objects, such as those caused by gravity, magnetism, and mechanical forces.

•describe how forces can operate across distances.

Standard 4: The Living Environment
5. Organisms maintain a dynamic equilibrium that sustains life.


•describe basic life functions of common living specimens (guppy, mealworm, gerbil).

•describe some survival behaviors of common living specimens.

•describe the factors that help promote good health and growth in humans.

This standard is addressed through the second and fourth grade Core Knowledge content.

These content understanding are addressed through the second and fourth grade Core Knowledge content.

Standard 4: The Living Environment
7. Human decisions and activities have had a profound impact on the physical and living environment.


•identify ways in which humans have changed their environment and the effects of those changes
Unit 2- Healthy Planet 1
Clean Air and Water

  • The components of air

  • Air pollution

  • Air quality

  • Water pollution

  • Water quality

  • Water purification processes

Solid Waste Management

  • Recycling of materials in nature

  • Composition of our garbage

  • Reuse, reduce, and recycle

This standard is addressed through the first and second grade Core Knowledge content.

Standard 4: Physical Setting
4. Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change energy is conserved.


•describe a variety of forms of energy (e.g., heat, chemical, light) and the changes that occur in objects when they interact with those forms of energy.

•observe the way one form of energy can be transformed into another form of energy present in common situations (e.g., mechanical to heat energy, mechanical to electrical energy, chemical to heat energy).

Unit 3- Healthy Planet II

  • Sun, geothermal, nuclear, fossil fuels

  • Non-renewable and renewable energy resources

  • Conserving energy

These content understandings are addressed through the fourth, third, and second grade Core Knowledge content.

Unit 1- Healthy Body
Living and Active Life: Health and Lungs

  • The structure and function of the respiratory and circulatory systems

  • The relationship between the respiratory and circulatory systems

  • The effects of smoking on the respiratory and circulatory systems

Human Beings Change as They Grow

  • The muscular and skeletal systems

  • Exercise helps build a healthy, fit body

You are What You Eat

  • The digestive and excretory systems

  • A healthy diet and the importance of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals

Grade 5-

Alignment of the Core Knowledge® Sequence with New York Learning Standards – May 2006

© 2006 Core Knowledge Foundation. Cannot be reproduced without express, written permission from the Core Knowledge Foundation.

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