Grade 5 Correlation of Core Knowledge® and New York Learning Standards

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Grade 5 Correlation of Core Knowledge® and New York Learning Standards


Core Knowledge Sequence

New York Content Understandings

The specific content outlined in the Core Knowledge Sequence constitutes a solid foundation of knowledge in each subject area. This knowledge greatly helps students with their reading, as shown by the fact that reading scores go up in Core Knowledge Schools, because wide knowledge enhances students’ ability to read diverse kinds of texts with understanding. Teachers need to remember that reading requires two abilities – the ability to turn print into language (decoding) and the ability to understand what the language says. Achieving the first ability – decoding – requires a sequential program, structured to provide guided practice in various formats and frequent review throughout the year. Decoding programs that are premised on scientifically-based research are: Open Court, Reading Mastery, and the Houghton Mifflin basal. But in addition to teaching decoding skills, a good language arts program will include coherent and interesting readings in the subject areas that enhance comprehension ability. No Language Arts program currently offers such coherent, substantive material, so, in addition to teaching the Language Arts topics in the Core Knowledge Sequence, Core Knowledge teachers are encouraged to substitute solid, interesting non-fiction readings in history and science for many of the short, fragmented stories in the basals, which unfortunately do not effectively advance reading comprehension.

Language Arts

I. Writing, Grammar, and Usage

A. Writing and Research

• Produce a variety of types of writing—including reports, summaries, letters, descriptions, research essays, essays that explain a process, stories, poems—with a coherent structure or story line.

• Know how to gather information from different sources (such as an encyclopedia, magazines, interviews, observations, atlas, on-line), and write short reports synthesizing information from at least three different sources, presenting the information in his or her own words, with attention to the following:

understanding the purpose and audience of the writing

defining a main idea and sticking to it

providing an introduction and conclusion

organizing material in coherent paragraphs

illustrating points with relevant examples

documenting sources in a rudimentary bibliography


  • Respond in writing to prompts that follow the reading of literary and informational texts

  • Respond to writing prompts that follow listening to literary and informational texts

  • Write on a wide range of topics

  • Understand and use writing for a variety of purposes

  • Use a variety of different organizational patterns for writing, such as chronological order, cause/effect, compare/contrast

  • Use a variety of media, such as print and electronic, when writing

  • Use the writing process (prewriting, drafting, revising, proofreading, and editing)

  • Use a variety of prewriting strategies, such as brainstorming, freewriting, note taking, and webbing)

  • Review writing independently in order to revise for focus, development of ideas, and organization

  • Review writing independently in order to edit for correct spelling, grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and paragraphing

  • Understand and write for a variety of audiences

  • Adjust style of writing, voice, and language used according to purpose and intended audiences

  • Incorporate aspects of the writer’s craft, such as literary devices and specific voice, into own writing

  • Use multiple sources of information when writing a report

  • Review writing with teachers and peers

  • Write voluntarily to communicate ideas and emotions to a variety of audiences, from self to unknown

  • Write voluntarily for different purposes

  • Write on a variety of topics

  • Publish writing in a variety of presentation or display mediums, for a variety or audiences

B. Grammar and Usage

• Understand what a complete sentence is, and

identify subject and predicate

correct fragments and run-ons

• Identify subject and verb in a sentence and understand that they must agree.

• Know the following parts of speech and how they are used: nouns, verbs (action verbs and auxiliary verbs), adjectives (including articles), adverbs, conjunctions, interjections.

• Understand that pronouns must agree with their antecedents in case (nominative, objective, and possessive), number, and gender.

• Correctly use punctuation studied in earlier grades, as well as

the colon before a list

commas with an appositive

• Use underlining or italics for titles of books.

C. Vocabulary

• Know how the following prefixes and suffixes affect word meaning:


anti (as in antisocial, antibacterial) inter (as in interstate)

co (as in coeducation, co-captain) mid (as in midnight, Midwest)

fore (as in forefather, foresee) post (as in postseason, postwar)

il, ir (as in illegal, irregular) semi (as in semicircle, semiprecious)


ist (as in artist, pianist)

ish (as in stylish, foolish)

ness (as in forgiveness, happiness)

tion, sion (as in relation, extension)

Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Development

  • Learn grade-level vocabulary through both direct and indirect means

  • Use word structure knowledge, such as roots, prefixes, and suffixes, to determine meaning

  • Use prior knowledge and experience in order to understand ideas and vocabulary found in books

  • Acquire new vocabulary by reading a variety of texts

  • Use self-monitoring strategies to identify specific vocabulary that causes comprehension difficulties

  • Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words using context clues, dictionaries, glossaries, and other resources

II. Poetry

A. Poems

The Arrow And The Song (Henry Wadsworth Longfellow)

Barbara Frietchie (John Greenleaf Whittier)

Battle Hymn of the Republic (Julia Ward Howe)

A bird came down the walk (Emily Dickinson)

Casey at the Bat (Ernest Lawrence Thayer)

The Eagle (Alfred Lord Tennyson)

I Hear America Singing (Walt Whitman)

I like to see it lap the miles (Emily Dickinson)

I, too, sing America (Langston Hughes)

Incident (Countee Cullen)

Jabberwocky (Lewis Carroll)

Narcissa (Gwendolyn Brooks)

O Captain! My Captain! (Walt Whitman)

A Poison Tree (William Blake)

The Road Not Taken (Robert Frost)

The Snowstorm (Ralph Waldo Emerson)

Some Opposites (Richard Wilbur)

The Tiger (William Blake)

A Wise Old Owl (Edward Hersey Richards)

B. Terms


III. Fiction and Drama

A. Stories

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (Mark Twain)

episodes from Don Quixote (Miguel de Cervantes)

Little Women (Part First) (Louisa May Alcott)

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (Frederick Douglass)

The Secret Garden (Frances Hodgson Burnett)

Tales of Sherlock Holmes, including “The Red-Headed League” (Arthur Conan Doyle)

B. Drama

A Midsummer Night’s Dream (William Shakespeare)

• Terms:

tragedy and comedy

act, scene

Globe Theater

C. Myths and Legends

• A Tale of the Oki Islands (a legend from Japan, also known as “The Samurai’s Daughter”)

• Morning Star and Scarface: the Sun Dance (a Plains Indian legend, also known as “The Legend of Scarface”)

• American Indian trickster stories (for example, tales of Coyote, Raven, or Grandmother Spider)

D. Literary Terms

• Pen name (pseudonym)

• Literal and figurative language


metaphor and simile symbol


IV. Speeches

• Abraham Lincoln: The Gettysburg Address

• Chief Joseph (Highh’moot Tooyalakekt): “I will fight no more forever”
V. Sayings and Phrases

Birthday suit

Bite the hand that feeds you.

Chip on your shoulder

Count your blessings.

Eat crow

Eleventh hour


Every cloud has a silver lining.

Few and far between

Forty winks

The grass is always greener on the other side of the hill.

To kill two birds with one stone

Lock, stock and barrel

Make a mountain out of a molehill

A miss is as good as a mile.

It’s never too late to mend.

Out of the frying pan and into the fire.

A penny saved is a penny earned.

Read between the lines.

Sit on the fence

Steal his/her thunder

Take the bull by the horns.

Till the cows come home

Time heals all wounds.

Tom, Dick and Harry

Vice versa

A watched pot never boils.

Well begun is half done.

What will be will be.


  • Identify purpose for reading

  • Adjust reading rate according to purpose for reading

  • Use word recognition and context clues to read fluently

  • Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words by using context clues, a dictionary, or a glossary

  • Identify signal words, such as finally or in addition, that provide clues to organizational formats such as time order

  • Use knowledge of punctuation to assist in comprehension

  • Apply corrective strategies (rereading and discussion with teachers, peers, or parents/caregivers) to assist in comprehension

  • Read aloud using inflection and intonation appropriate to text read and to audience

  • Maintain a personal reading list to reflect reading goals and accomplishments

  • Recognize content-specific vocabulary or terminology

  • Listen for unfamiliar words and learn their meaning

Comprehension Strategies

  • Read a variety of grade-level texts, for a variety of purposes, with understanding

  • Use self-monitoring strategies, such as cross-checking, summarizing, and self-questioning to construct meaning of text

  • Recognize when comprehension has been disrupted and initiate self-connection strategies, such as rereading, adjusting rate of reading, and attending to specific vocabulary

  • Use knowledge of text structures to recognize and discriminate differences among a variety of texts to support understanding

  • Ask questions to clarify understanding and to focus reading

  • Make connections between text being read and own lives, the lives of others, and other texts read in the past

  • Use prior knowledge in concert with text information to support comprehension, from forming predictions to making inferences and drawing conclusions

  • Read grade-level texts and answer literal, inferential, and evaluative questions

  • State or Summarize a main idea and support/elaborate with relevant details

  • Present a point of view or interpretation of a text, such as its theme, and support it with significant details from the text

  • Participate cooperatively and collaboratively in group discussions of texts

  • Note and describe aspects of the writer’s craft

  • Read aloud, accurately, and fluently, with appropriate rate of reading, intonation, and inflection

  • Demonstrate comprehension of grade-level texts through a range of responses, such as writing, drama, and oral presentations

Motivation to Read

  • Show interest in a wide range of texts, topics, and genres for reading

  • Read voluntarily for a variety of purposes

  • Be familiar with titles and authors of a wide range of literature

  • Engage in independent silent reading for extended periods of time

These are ongoing skills and should be taught throughout the year.

  • Use a thesaurus to identify antonyms and synonyms

  • Correctly spell words within own writing that have been previously studied and/or frequently used

  • Correctly spell words within own writing that follow the spelling patterns of words that have been previously studied

  • Spell a large body of words accurately and quickly when writing

  • Use a variety of spelling resources, such as spelling dictionaries and spell-check tools, to support correct spelling

  • Use legible print and/or cursive writing

  • Listen respectfully and responsively

  • Identify own purpose for listening

  • Respond respectfully

  • Initiate communication with peers, teachers, and others in the school community

  • Use language and grammar appropriate to purpose for speaking

  • Use facial expressions and gestures that enhance communication

  • Establish eye contact during presentations and group discussions

  • Use audible voice and pacing appropriate to content and audience

  • Use visual aids to support the presentation

  • Use knowledge of a variety of decoding strategies, such as letter-sound correspondence, syllable patterns, decoding by analogy, word structure, use of syntactic (grammar) cues, to read unfamiliar words

  • Integrate sources of information to decode unfamiliar words and to cross-check, self-correcting when appropriate

  • Use word recognition skills and strategies, accurately, and automatically, when decoding unfamiliar words

  • Recognize at sight a large body of high-frequency words and irregularly spelled content vocabulary

  • Listen attentively to a variety of texts read aloud

  • Listen attentively for different purposes and for an extended period of time

  • Identify own purpose(s) for listening

  • Respond appropriately to what is heard

  • Listen respectfully, and without interrupting when others speak

  • Speak in response to the reading of a variety of texts

  • Use appropriate and specific vocabulary to communicate ideas

  • Use grammatically correct sentences when speaking

  • Include details that are relevant for the audience

  • Communicate ideas in an organized and coherent manner

  • Vary the formality of language according to the audience and purpose for speaking

  • Speak with expression, volume, pace, and gestures appropriate for the topic, audience, and purpose of communication

  • Respond respectfully to others

  • Participate in group discussions on a variety of topics

  • Offer feedback to others in a respectful and responsive manner

World History and Geography

I. World Geography

A. Spatial Sense (Working with Maps, Globes, and Other Geographic Tools)

• Read maps and globes using longitude and latitude, coordinates, degrees.

• Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn: relation to seasons and temperature

• Climate zones: Arctic, Tropic, Temperate

• Time zones (review from Grade 4): Prime Meridian (O degrees); Greenwich, England; 180° Line (International Date Line)

• Arctic Circle (imaginary lines and boundaries) and Antarctic Circle

• From a round globe to a flat map: Mercator projection, conic and plane projections
B. Great Lakes of the World

• Eurasia: Caspian Sea

• Asia: Aral Sea

• Africa: Victoria, Tanganyika, Chad

• North America: Superior, Huron, Michigan

• South America: Maracaibo, Titicaca

IV. U. S. Geography

• Locate: Western Hemisphere, North America, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico

• The Gulf Stream, how it affects climate

• Regions and their characteristics: New England, Mid-Atlantic, South, Midwest, Great Plains, Southwest, West, Pacific Northwest

• Fifty states and capitals

Geography of the United States, Canada, and Latin America

Maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies such as aerial and other photographs, satellite-produced images, and computer models can be used to gather, process, and report information about the United States, Canada, and Latin America today.

Political boundaries change over time and place.

Different geological processes shaped the physical environments of the United States, Canada, and Latin America.

The nations and regions of the Western Hemisphere can be analyzed in terms of spatial organization, places, regions, physical settings (including natural resources), human systems, and environment and society. A region is an area that is tied together for some identifiable reason, such as physical, political, economic, or cultural features.

American History and Geography

II. Meso-American Civilizations

A. Geography

• Identify and locate Central America and South America on maps and globes.

Largest countries in South America: Brazil and Argentina

• Amazon River

• Andes Mountains

B. Maya, Inca, and Aztec Civilizations

• The Mayas

Ancient Mayas lived in what is now southern Mexico and parts of Central America; their descendants still live there today.

Accomplishments as architects and artisans: pyramids and temples

Development of a system of hieroglyphic writing

Knowledge of astronomy and mathematics; development of a 365-day calendar; early use of concept of zero

• The Aztecs

A warrior culture, at its height in the 1400s and early 1500s, the Aztec empire covered much of what is now central Mexico.

The island city of Tenochtitlan: aqueducts, massive temples, etc.

Moctezuma (also spelled Montezuma)

Ruler-priests; practice of human sacrifice
• The Inca

Ruled an empire stretching along the Pacific coast of South America

Built great cities (Machu Picchu, Cuzco) high in the Andes, connected

by a system of roads

C. Spanish Conquerors

• Conquistadors: Cortés and Pizzaro

Advantage of Spanish weapons (guns, cannons)

Diseases devastate native peoples

History of the United States, Canada, and Latin America

Different ethnic, national, and religious groups, including Native American Indians, have contributed to the cultural diversity of these nations and regions by sharing their customs, traditions, beliefs, ideas, and languages.

III. European Exploration, Trade, and the Clash of Cultures

A. Background

• Beginning in the 1400s Europeans set forth in a great wave of exploration and trade.

• European motivations

Muslims controlled many trade routes.

Profit through trade in goods such as gold, silver, silks, sugar, and spices

Spread of Christianity: missionaries, Bartolomé de las Casas speaks out against enslavement and mistreatment of native peoples

• Geography of the spice trade

The Moluccas, also called the “Spice Islands”: part of present-day Indonesia

Locate: the region known as Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, the Philippines

Definition of “archipelago”

“Ring of Fire”: earthquakes and volcanic activity

B. European Exploration, Trade, and Colonization

• Portugal

Prince Henry the Navigator, exploration of the West African coast

Bartolomeu Dias rounds the Cape of Good Hope

Vasco da Gama: spice trade with India, exploration of East Africa

Portuguese conquer East African Swahili city-states

Cabral claims Brazil

• Spain

Two worlds meet: Christopher Columbus and the Tainos

Treaty of Tordesillas between Portugal and Spain

Magellan crosses the Pacific, one of his ships returns to Spain, making the first round-the-world voyage

Balboa reaches the Pacific

• England and France

Search for Northwest Passage (review from grade 3)

Colonies in North America and West Indies

Trading posts in India

• Holland (The Netherlands)

The Dutch take over Portuguese trade routes and colonies in Africa and the East Indies

The Dutch in South Africa, Cape Town

The Dutch in North America: New Netherland (review from grade 3), later lost to England

C. Trade and Slavery

• The sugar trade

African slaves on Portuguese sugar plantations on islands off West African coast, such as Sa~ o Tomé

Sugar plantations on Caribbean islands

West Indies: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Bahamas, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica

• Transatlantic slave trade: the “triangular trade” from Europe to Africa to colonies

in the Caribbean and the Americas

The “Slave Coast” in West Africa

The Middle Passage

History of the United States, Canada, and Latin America

Connections and exchanges exist between and among the peoples of Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, Canada, Latin America, the Caribbean, and the United States. These connections and exchanges include social/cultural, migration/immigration, and scientific/technological.

The economies of the United States, Canada, and Latin American nations

Exchanges of technologies, plants, animals, and diseases between and among nations of the Americas and Europe and sub-Saharan Africa have changed life in these regions.

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