Essential Question: How do maps reflect the story of why people move and how they move?
Common Core State Standards
CCSS.ELA – LITERACY.RI.4.1
Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
Massachusetts History & Social Studies Standards
Concepts and Skills- History and Geography
2. Interpret a map using information from its title, compass rose, scale, and legend. (G)
4.8 On a map of the world, locate North America. On a map of North America, locate the United States, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Gulf of Mexico, Mississippi and Rio Grande Rivers, the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and the Rocky and Appalachian Mountain ranges. (G)
4.9 On a map of North America, locate the current boundaries of the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii). Locate the New England, Middle Atlantic, Atlantic Coast/Appalachian, Southeast/Gulf, South Central, Great Lakes, Plains, Southwest Desert, and Pacific states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See Appendix H for a listing of states in each region. (G)
4.10 Identify the states, state capitals, and major cities in each region. (G)
4.11 Describe the climate, major physical features, and major natural resources in each region. (G)
Students will be able to observe a map and record what they observe and hypothesize why the map was created.
Students will carefully analyze a map of Texas, including its illustrations and text, and answer a set of questions based on their analysis.
Students will engage in a close reading of a primary source document analyzing the words and phrases used to describe immigration to Texas.
Students will compare and contrast the message of the map and the primary source document.
Students will synthesize information acquired from the map and the primary source and write a letter from the perspective of someone who emigrated from a southern state to the state of Texas.
Students will be able to identify persuasive words in the text of the map of the Texas and the Pacific Rail Way, as well as persuasive words in the text from the primary source document, The Texas Immigrant Traveller’s Guide Book.
copies of the excerpt from The Texas Immigrant Traveller’s Guide Book by J. DeCordova,
copies of the map of the Pacific Rail Way or a computer lab or laptop cart to view the map.
Students will complete the preview activity at their seats before coming together to discuss the preview question and prior to delving into the mini-lesson.
Preview Questions:Describe what you see? Why do you think this map was made?
Students should record their responses and then be prepared to share their thinking with the class. After a class discussion of student responses teacher will share background information about the Pacific Rail Way (see background information). Information may be shared via lecture, power point, poster presentation, etc.
Students will first analyze the map of the Texas and the Pacific Rail Way, including its text and illustrations, answering questions (see attached) during their analysis. Students will then engage in a close reading of the excerpt of The Texas Immigrant and Traveller’s Guide Book, answering questions (see attached) after several careful readings of the text. Students will then compare and contrast the map’s message to that of the message or advice from The Texas Immigrant and Traveller’s Guide Book.
Guiding Questions: How does the message of the Texas and the Pacific Rail Way map compare to that of The Texas Immigrant and Traveller’s Guide Book?
Processing Activity: Students will write a one to two page letter describing the experience of a recent immigrant who emigrated from Mississippi to Texas. The letter will be written from the perspective of the immigrant and include how they traveled to Texas, why the moved to Texas and what life is like now in Texas.
Extension: Students can research the Pacific Railroad Acts and their impact on the expansion of Texas and the Southwest.
Texas and Pacific Rail Way; Map of the Texas and Pacific Railway and connections; A geographically correct map of the State of Texas Author:Texas & Pacific Railway Publisher:Texas & Pacific Railway Date:1876 Location:Indian Territory, Oklahoma, Texas, United States Dimensions:34 x 66 cm. and 46 x 51 cm., on sheet 105 x 72 cm. Scale:[ca. 1:2,600,000] and [1:5,955,840] Call Number:G4031.P3 1876 .T49 http://maps.bpl.org/id/18661
(all maps viewed through the Leventhal Map Center website use zoomify)
De Cordova, J. (1856). The Texas Immigrant and Traveller’s Guide Book. DeCordova and
Frazier (1st ed.) p. 8, Austin, TX.
Preview: Describe what you see.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Why do you think that this map was made? List some possible reasons.
Background Information: TheTexas and Pacific Railway Company(known as theT&P) was created by federal charter in 1871 with the purpose of building a southern transcontinental railroadbetweenMarshall, Texas, andSan Diego, California.
The T&P had a significant foothold in Texas by the mid-1880s. Construction difficulties delayed westward progress, until American financier Jay Gouldacquired an interest in the railroad in 1879. The T&P never reached San Diego; instead it met the Southern Pacific at Sierra Blanca, Texas, in 1881.
The Missouri Pacific Railroad, also controlled by Gould, leased the T&P from 1881 to 1885 and continued a cooperative relationship with the T&P after the lease ended. Missouri Pacific gained majority ownership of the Texas and Pacific Railway's stock in 1928 but allowed it to continue operation as a separate entity until they were eventually merged on October 15, 1976. On January 8, 1980, the Union Pacific Railroad purchased the Missouri Pacific Railroad. Because of lawsuits filed by competing railroads, the merger was not approved until September 13, 1982. However, due to outstanding bonds of the Missouri Pacific, the actual merger with the Union Pacific Railroad took place on January 1, 1997.
Several reminders of the Texas and Pacific remain to this day, mainly two towering buildings which help define the southern side of Fort Worth's skyline—the original station and office tower (pictured below) and a warehouse located immediately to the west. In 2001, the passenger platforms at the T&P station were put into use for the first time in decades as the westernmost terminus for the Trinity Railway Express, a commuter rail line connecting Fort Worth and Dallas. The warehouse still exists but there are plans to renovate it. The passenger terminal and corporate offices have been converted into luxury condominiums.
Texas and Pacific Passenger Station, Fort Worth, Texas (postcard, circa 1909)
Texas & Pacific station and office building in Fort Worth, Texas
Farms and plantations primarily utilized teams of oxen for plowing, and occasionally horses or mules. Mules became much more prevalent after the Civil War. Plows were fabricated locally, or, when cash was available, farmers might import farm equipment such as the Eagle plow through New Orleans and Galveston. Commerce generally depended on wagons to and from the port of Galveston; some produce was floated down the rivers. Although steamboat transportation and railroad construction began in Texas before the Civil War, river steamer and rail transportation were generally postwar developments.
After the war the traditional cotton plantation system continued, but with tenant farmers in place of slaves. Tenants were both black and white, but the latter far outnumbered the former by 1880. As the economy became more of a money-based system, small farmers increasingly slipped into tenancy or left farming. Generally, in tenant farming the landlord or planter contracted with the tenant for the cultivation of a small plot of land (usually in the range of 16–20 acres) on which the tenant was expected to raise as much cotton as possible. The planter ordinarily received one-third of the income from the crop for supplying the land, and one-third for provisioning the farmer with tools and housing, while the tenant received one-third for the labor. Credit was extremely expensive and scarce for the planter and disabling for the tenant, who commonly ended a year more deeply in debt than before.
Despite the difficulties, the number of farms in Texas rose from about 61,000 in 1870 to 174,000 in 1880 and 350,000 by 1900. Stimulated largely by the extension of railroads throughout Texas between 1870 and 1900, farm and ranching enterprises expanded rapidly as emphasis on commercial production and marketing grew. Subsistence farming and small farm operations declined. Cattle and cotton production dominated farming operations through the remainder of the nineteenth century, but wheat, rice, sorghum, hay, and dairying became important.
Information obtained from Texas State Historical Association
Mini-lesson/Note-making Activity: While you are analyzing the map of the Texas and the Pacific Rail Way, including its illustrations, answer the following questions:
Why do you think this map was made?
Who do you think the audience was for this map?
What do you think someone would use this map for?
What words and phrases are used to describe Texas?
Describe one of the illustrations on the map. Why do you think it was included?
What do you wonder about the map?
Make sure to use evidence to support your answers. While you are engaged in a close readingof the excerpt from The Texas Immigrant Traveller’s Guide Book answer the following questions:
Why was this article written?
Who do you think the audience was for this article?
What do you think someone would use this article for?
What words and phrases are used to describe Texas?
Describe what man would want to go to Texas?
What do you wonder about the article?
Make sure to use evidence to support your answers.
Now that you’ve analyzed both the map and the primary source document write one paragraph comparing and contrasting them both. You may use the sentence stems below to help organize your paragraph.
The map of the Texas and the Pacific Rail Wayand the excerpt from The Texas Immigrant Traveller’s Guide Book both _________________________________________________.
The map of the Texas and the Pacific Rail Way describes Texas as __________________________________________but the excerpt from The Texas Immigrant Traveller’s Guide Book describes Texas as _________________________________________.
Processing Activity: Write a one to two page letter describing the experience of a recent immigrant who emigrated from Mississippi to Texas. The letter will be written from the perspective of the immigrant and include how they traveled to Texas, why the moved to Texas and what life is like now in Texas.