Government Case Construction 2 policy case construction 3

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Table of Contents

Government Case Construction 2







Opposition - Potential arguments 9

Topicality and other Procedurals 11

Structure and Types of Procedural 11

Commonly used standards 12

Commonly used voters 12

How to answer topicality 13

How to answer ANY procedural 14

Disadvantages 15

Disadvantage (disad, DA) Stucture and Function 15

Example DA 15

Answers to a DA: 16

Counterplans 18

Counterplan Structure and Function 18

Answering counterplans: 19

Critiques (Kritiks) 21

Kritik Function 21

Kritik Structure 21

How to answer the K 22

Tips and Tricks 23

Offense/Defense 23

POI’s 23

Flowing/General Tips 24

Example Resolutions 25

Government Case Construction

  1. What kind of resolution are you faced with -

  • Policy – The US federal government should pass a comprehensive climate change bill.

  • Fact - Free speech is more expensive than censorship.

  • Value - A free homeland is better than a secure homeland.

  1. What are the different kinds of resolutions:

  • Policy resolution: These resolutions call for a policy. The government should propose a specific plan of action to deal with a problem.

  • Resolution of fact: These resolutions ask the government to prove a fact. They have an implied value, and thus can follow the same construction as a value case.

  • Value resolutions: These resolutions place two values in conflict. The government defends the hierarchy outlined in the resolution.

  1. Case construction: General comments

  • Definitions:

  • It is important to define terms that form a major part of the debate, or terms that could be contested, at the beginning of the first speech.

  • Resolutional analysis:

  • While most resolutions in Parli today fall into the category of “policy” resolutions, it’s important to tell the judge how you chose to interpret the resolution if it is unclear what category it falls into.

  • You can also outline a value/criteria here if appropriate. Value/criteria serve as a lens through which to weigh impacts. (Sometimes policies even weigh impacts through a value/criteria, but usually policy cases use “net benefits” as the criterion).

  • Gov/Opp burdens:

  • For fact or value cases or policy cases where net benefits is not the framework, explain the ground division between the government and opposition. For “net benefits” policy frameworks, the implied opp burden is for the opp to prove the world of the status quo or counterplan more beneficial than the world of the plan.


State the resolution at the beginning of the first speech, then give:

Resolutional Analysis:

  • Define the words in the resolution as you want them, especially if the resolution can be interpreted multiple ways. This is very important in answering Topicality. Also define what framework the judge should use to evaluate the debate.


  • This is what is happening in the status quo that prompted the resolution. Try not to include harms in this section. This section is more about explaining things the judge/opposition needs to know to understand why you are introducing the plan, how the plan is topical, or the details of a piece of legislation your Plan is enacting.


  • This is what you will advocate for. At a minimum, it should include an agent and an action. Always be careful when writing a plan text; some teams will want you to specify more or less than you did, so make sure to have reasons why you chose to include (or omit) everything in your plan text. Other teams may challenge the topicality of your plan; make sure to have topicality answers ahead of time if you think your plan might not be topical.

The above is generally referred to as Top of Case, and is usually on its own sheet of paper. Advantages are each written on their own sheet of paper.



  • This is what is wrong in the status quo that your plan will fix.


  • How your plan will solve the problem you presented in the Harms.


  • The results of your plan. This can be both the good effects of solving the harms, as well as other beneficial things that will result. One term you will hear constantly is “Terminalize your Impacts.” This means you should take your Impacts all the way to their logical conclusion. If your plan solves for the economy, you shouldn’t stop at saying the DOW goes up. Always ask, “Why is that good?”

  • An example for the economy would be: Economic growth leads to higher employment and better job security, which will allow people to buy food and prevent malnutrition. Malnutrition causes learning difficulties in children, which results in higher drop out rates and perpetuates the cycle of poverty. This dooms large segments of society to poverty, which is the most enduring, probable, and highest magnitude impact in the round.



  1. Government subsidies on residential and commercial solar power expire.

    1. The renewable energy tax credit amounts to up to a third of the cost of commercial projects and has been a major driver of investment in solar power.

  2. The US Government only invests a small amount into solar power every year.

  3. The AC system is out of capacity, leading to shortages in California and other regions.


The United States Federal Government will subsidize a total of 420 billion dollars through 2020 to the solar power industry for concentrated solar collectors and high voltage direct current development and placement.

NM: Subsidies would be deployed from 2011 to 2020. The HVDC transmission companies would not have to be subsidized, because they would finance construction of lines and converter stations and earn revenues by delivering electricity.


      1. Solar concentrators operate on near-ideal Stirling and Rankine engine cycles, meaning that they have the highest energy conversion (input to output) ratio known

  1. Plan provides government subsides, which are the critical barrier preventing solar development.

  1. Japan, France, and Germany have realized this and provide subsidies for solar

Ad 1: Energy security


    1. Using coal for electricity has devastating environmental effects

      1. Particulate emissions cause asthma, lung damage

      2. Release of nitrogen and sulfur containing compounds produce acid rain

      3. Release of carbon dioxide perpetuates impacts of global warming

      4. Release of PAHs, NAPL plumes, and dioxins, which are all cancerous

    1. 80% of American coal used for electricity production

      1. The sulfur dioxide produced in coal combustion contributes to thousands of premature deaths a year.

      2. Using coal to produce electricity emits 11.5 million tons of sulfur each year, mostly in Appalachia and Pennsylvania

        1. Sulfur particles work their way deep into the lungs, contributing to respiratory damage, heart disease and cancer in both humans and animals


Solar power will eradicate our coal usage by replacing coal

  1. The US has more than enough solar capacity.

    1. At least 250,000 square miles of land in the Southwest alone are suitable for constructing solar power plants, and that land receives more than 4,500 quadrillion Btu of solar radiation a year.

    2. Converting only 2.5 percent of that radiation into electricity would match the nation’s total energy consumption in 2006.

  1. Sunlight is free, duplicating fuel savings year after year.

    1. The solar grand plan would lower energy consumption.

        1. Even with 1 percent annual growth in demand, the 100 quadrillion Btu consumed in 2006 would fall to 93 quadrillion Btu by 2050, bc no energy would be consumed to extract and process fossil fuels


  1. We prevent GW, which causes extinction

    1. Increased temperatures over the next 50 years would melt polar icecaps and mountain glaciers, raising sea levels by more than 20ft. This would wipe out most of the land on earth

      1. resource wars and death/displacement of billions

    2. Changed weather patterns would decrease rainfall and make agriculture impossible

      1. Rsc wars, starvation

    3. Rapid increases in temperature make adaptation impossible

      1. Death of hundreds of thousands of plant and animal species

  1. Solve for biodiversity loss

    1. Sulfur emissions, acidic mine waste water, strip mining all contribute to destruction of environment and habitats

    2. By immediately stopping these practices, we can prevent biod loss, which follows an exponential curve once it begins, resulting in a mass extinction of up to 90% of plant and animal species

      1. Extinction

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