Globalization I. What is globalization?



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Globalization

I. What is globalization?

II. Indicators of Globalization

III. The Debate over Globalization

I. What is globalization?

  1. A. Competing Definitions

  2. internationalization

  3. greater trade flows

  4. liberalization

  5. fewer trade barriers

  6. universalization

  7. more common experiences & ideas

  8. westernization

  9. spread of Western experiences & ideas

  10. deterritorialization

  11. rise of supraterritoriality in many respects

  12. national territory less central to life
  13. transborder experiences on the rise
  14. B. Varied Dimensions

  15. production implications

  16. toward a new division of labor?

  17. from the industrial revolution to the information revolution?

  18. governance implications

  19. toward increasingly smaller government?

  20. toward a global government?

  21. toward corporate control?

  22. cultural implications

  23. toward a Clash of Civilizations, or,
    Jihad v. McWorld?

  24. toward a new awareness of richness of diversity?




II. Indicators of Globalization

  1. A. Supraterritorial Communication


radios

57 million [1935]

2.01 billion [1994]

TVs

75 million [1956]

1.10 billion [1994]

int’l air travellers

25 million [1950]

400 million [1996]

int’l tourism receipts

$19 billion [1970]

$389 billion [1996]

fixed phone lines

150 million [1965]

851 million [1998]

mobile phones

0 [1978]

305 million [1998]

internet hosts

200 [1981]

50 million [1999]

transborder NGOs

1,117 [1956]

16,586 [1998]



  1. B. Supraterritorial Production & Trade


    multinational corporations

    7,000 [1969]

    44,508 [1997]

    export-processing zones

    0 [1953]

    850 [1999]

    global patent applications

    3,000 [1979]

    54,000 [1997]

    world total of foreign direct investment [FDI]

    $66 billion [1960]

    $3.2 trillion [1996]

    world trade as a percentage of world output

    7 percent [1950]

    22 percent [1997]
  2. C. Supraterritorial Finance


    foreign exchange reserves

    $100 billion [1970]

    $1.58 trillion [1997]

    daily foreign exchange turnover

    $100 billion [1979]

    $1.2 trillion [2001]

    bank deposits held by
    non-residents

    $20 billion [1964]

    $7.9 trillion [1995]

    balances on transborder loans

    $200 billion [1972]

    $10.4 trillion [1997]

    financial derivatives contracts

    0 [1971]

    $70 trillion [1998]
  3. D. Some Contemporary Limits to Globalization

  4. 59% of the world’s Internet users in 2000 lived in the G-7 economies

  5. < 10% of the world’s population has ever accessed the Internet

  6. MNCs employ a tiny fraction of the global workforce

  7. 73 million in 1992

  8. Rural areas have been much less exposed to transborder communication of all types than urban areas

III. The Debate over Globalization

  1. A. The Big Questions

  2. Will it increase or decrease security?

  3. military security

  4. environmental security

  5. Will it increase or decrease equity within & across countries?

  6. Will it increase or decrease democracy within & across countries?

  7. Will it lead to cultural hegemony, cultural heterogeneity, or cultural conflict?

  8. B. The Policy Approaches

  9. neoliberalism:

  10. decrease size & reach of government to permit individual firms & people to interact more freely

  11. reformism (w/ roots in neomercantilism & neostructuralism):

  12. use national & international government to shape & reshape globalization

  13. radicalism (w/ roots in neomercantilism & neostructuralism):

  14. mobilize a people’s movement to transform society & government via

  15. deglobalization
  16. pursuit of global communism



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