also showed Renaissance ideas at work. It was secular in its interest in the world. It certainly displayed skepticism by challenging accepted ideas about the world. And the fact that it pitted individual captains against the forces of nature shows it was both humanistic and individualistic.
The Italian Renaissance is generally seen as lasting until about 1500, when Italy's political disunity attracted a devastating round of wars and invasions that ended its most innovative cultural period. However, in the process, the invaders took the ideas of the Italian Renaissance back to Northern Europe and sparked what is known as the Northern Renaissance.