(2) the lack of rainfall from the monsoons
(3) the effects of acid rain
(4) water pollution
2 How did topography and climate affect the
history of Africa?
(1) The slave trade declined in western Africa.
(2) Islam spread into southern Africa.
(3) European colonization of central Africa was delayed.
(4) Trade increased between southern and northern Africa.
3 ● Large areas in the north and south received less
than ten inches of rainfall annually.
● The presence of waterfalls and rapids slowed
●Highlands and steep cliffs limited exploration.
an impact on European exploration and
(1) South America (3) subcontinent of India