Global History & Geography Review Sheet #2 Spiconardi Medieval Europe

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Global History & Geography Review Sheet #2


  • Medieval Europe

  • After Fall of Rome in 476 AD there was no centralized government

  • REGENTS QUESTION: After the fall of Rome, Europe can be characterized as a Period of chaos and instability

  • Referred to as the “Dark Ages”

  • Catholic Church is the most powerful institution and the only unifying force in Europe

  • Church provides order and stability

  • Charlemagne

  • Frankish king who built an empire that includes modern day France, Germany, and parts of Italy

  • Crowned “Emperor of the Romans” by Pope Leo III

  • Helped spread Christianity to northern Europe

  • Encouraged learning and set up schools and libraries

  • Traveled to all parts of his empire to see the conditions and try and improve them

  • After his death the empire collapses due to his sons’ inefficient governing

  • Feudalism

  • Political system in which local lords control their own lands, but owe military service and support to a greater lord

  • Feudal Structure

  • King 

  • Nobles 

  • Lords 

  • Lesser Lords 

  • Knights 

  • Peasants

  • Chivalry – code of conduct followed by knights during the Middle Ages. * Similar code in Japanese Feudalism called bushido. That was the code of the samurai. REGENTS LIKES TO ASK ABOUT THE SIMILARITY. BOTH ARE CODES OF BEHAVIOR FOR THE WARRIOR CLASS

  • Manorialism – an economic system structured around a lord’s manor or estate

  • Serf – a peasant bound to the lord’s land in medieval Europe

  • Most serfs don’t live past the age of 35

  • Church was center of their lives

  • Worked the land for the lord and provided services, such as repairing fences, roads, horseshoes, etc.

  • The Church in Medieval Life

  • The Church provided religious leadership as well as secular leadership

  • Secular – having to do with worldly matters as opposed to religious matters

  • Popes and kings fought over whose authority was higher

  • Excommunication – to exclude from the Catholic Church for refusing to obey Church laws

  • Popes would excommunicate kings who challenged their authority

  • Pope Boniface VIII issues papal bull that declares the authority of the papacy superior to that of the monarchy (Last pope to have kings obey his orders)

  • Investiture Controversy

  • The Great Schism  At one point there are 3 popes.

  • Church was largest landowner and taxed Christians 10% of their income (tithe)

  • Church controlled learning. Monks and nuns preserved the ancient texts

  • Medieval Cultural Achievements

  • Gothic architecture

  • Canterbury Tales by Chaucer & La Commedia by Dante

  • The Crusades

  • The Schism (1054) – Catholic Church splits into the Roman Catholic Church (West) and the Orthodox Church (East/Byzantine)

  • In 1093 the Byzantine Emperor Alexius asks Urban II for help against the Seljuk Turks

  • Urban II agrees because he believes he can reunite the Church

  • Reasons for the Crusades

  • Pope believed his power would increase in Europe

  • Christians believed their sins would be forgiven if they took back the Holy Land from the Muslims

  • Nobles believed they could gain land in the Middle East

  • Serfs hoped to escape feudal oppression

  • Christians win The First Crusade, but lose the other crusades

  • Impact of the Crusades

  • Increase in trade

  • Merchant class develops in Venice and other Italian city-states

  • New goods brought to Europe (sugar, cotton, rice)

  • Encouragement of Learning

  • Muslims preserved Greco-Roman learning

  • Europeans learn from Islamic advancements in math, science, and architecture

  • Feudalism is weakened

  • Needed money to finance Crusades, so lords charged rent

  • Religious intolerance

  • Limited Monarchy in England

  • English people are upset with King John III after he is excommunicated in 1215

  • He fought many wars and lost quite a few

  • Had high taxation

  • Had to give up England to Pope in order to be readmitted to Catholic Church

  • Magna Carta

  • Nobles force King John to sign the Magna Carta, which placed limits on the king’s power

  • King now had to get Parliament’s permission to raise taxes

  • Trial by jury

  • Establishes common law

  • Common law  Same laws are applicable to all people; no matter class, race, religion everyone goes by and are held to the same laws. This is different from Hammurabi’s Code

  • The Bubonic Plague/Black Death

  • Garbage  Rats  Fleas  Humans

  • Disease originated in China and came to Europe via trading ships

  • Trade between East and West comes to a temporary stop

  • 33% of European population dies

  • Continues to weaken feudalism

  • The Renaissance

  • Humanism – intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on worldly subjects (human achievement/potential) rather than religious ones

  • There is an emphasis on the individual

  • Challenging of the “old ways” of thinking

  • Return to Greek and Roman culture

  • Renaissance begins in Northern Italy due to developing merchant class

  • Merchants and wealthy patrons like the Medici pay artists like Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci to create artwork

  • Niccolo Machiavelli

  • Writes The Prince, which encourages rulers and leaders to use any means necessary to achieve their goals

  • Gutenberg’s Printing Press

  • Books become more available

  • Literacy rate increase

  • Ideas and knowledge spread rapidly; access to new knowledge

  • Reformation and Counter-Reformation

  • Causes of the Reformation

  • Renaissance thinking

  • Monarchs wanting to break away from Church authority

  • Problems in the Church

  • Pope had become too powerful

  • More concerned with politics than religion

  • Indulgences – sale of the forgiveness of punishment for sins

  • Martin Luther

  • German monk who writes 95 Theses, which were 95 arguments against indulgences

  • Beliefs

  • Believed people could only reach Heaven through faith alone

  • All teachings must come from the Bible

  • Priest should be allowed to marry

  • No ornate vestments for priests

  • Luther is excommunicated by Leo X

  • Luther is supported by northern European kings and princes

  • Luther is NOT out to start a new faith, but his followers call themselves Lutherans and Protestants since the protested papal authority

  • John Calvin

  • Beliefs

  • Could only gain salvation through faith

  • Predestination – belief that God determined who was going to Heaven and Hell before the beginning of time; your destination in the afterlife was already determined by God

  • Founds a theocracy in Switzerland

  • Only could wear black, gray, and brown

  • No fun, games, music

  • King Henry VIII of England

  • Wanted an annulment from the pope because his wife did not “give him a son”

  • Pope refuses to grant annulment

  • Henry VIII forms the Anglican Church of England and makes himself the head of the new church and gives himself a divorce

  • Also beheads two of his wives for being “disloyal”

  • Counter Reformation

  • Purpose was to strengthen the Catholic Church and stop spread of Protestantism

  • Council of Trent

  • Pope Paul III calls reform meeting in which the Catholic Church stands by its teachings

  • Outlaws simony and limits indulgences

  • Effects of the Reformation

  • New Christian faiths and denominations emerge

  • Catholic Church loses power

  • Pope lost much of his power and authority

  • Religion no longer unites Europe

  • Religious wars between Charles V and German Protestant princes

  • Hundred Years’ War

  • Conflict between France and England

  • Marks the end of feudal Europe

  • Increase in nationalism

  • Joan of Arc

  • Middle Ages vs. Renaissance

Middle Ages


  • Life centers around the Church

  • Live your life to enter Heaven

  • Art and music reflect religious values

  • Gothic Architecture

  • Secularism

  • Humanism

  • Live life in the here and now

  • Revival of Greco-Roman art and architecture  reintroduction of columns and realistic art

Directory: cms -> lib5 -> NY01000029 -> Centricity -> Domain -> 327
327 -> Suggested Responses
327 -> America’s History – Eighth Edition (Henretta, et al.) Chapter Assignment
327 -> Schedule of Readings for American History: a survey by Alan Brinkley
327 -> Holy roman emperor clashes with the pope
327 -> The Federalist Papers Period 3: 1754 – 1800 apush – Spiconardi Directions
327 -> Circumstances in the New World nurtured new ideas about the nature of society, citizen, and government. Two ideas had taken root in the American colonies by the mid-18
327 -> America’s History – Eighth Edition (Henretta, et al.) Chapter Assignment
327 -> Atomic Bomb Droppings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Period 7: 1890 – 1945
327 -> Charlemagne homework
327 -> Machiavelli’s The Prince (1513) Global I honors: Spiconardi

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