Giuseppe Mazzini

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Kleindeutsch- small German, solution to unification

  • Bundesrat- federal council composed of members appointed by the governments of the states; was a part of the Northern German Confederation

  • Reichstag- lower house chosen by universal male suffrage; was a part of the Northern German Confederation

  • Northern German Confederation- militarily tied with Prussia; President was the king, chancellor was Bismarck; Bismarck crushed Prussian liberals by making the monarchy and the army the most popular institutions in the country

  • Ems Telegram- Bismarck’s revision of the king’s telegram insulting the French ambassador

  • Zollverein- tariff union

    1. Major Wars and Battles

    • 1) Danish War

    • Worked with Austria to easily defeat Denmark in 1864

    • 2) Austro-Prussian War

    • Bismarck tried to maneuver Austria into war with Prussia

    • Constant Austro-Prussian tensions had arisen over the administration of Schleswig and Holstein

    • Bismarck ordered Prussian forces to be as obnoxious as possible to the Austrians

    • On June 1, 1866, Austria appealed to the German Confederation to intervene in the dispute

    • Bismarck claimed that this request violated the 1864 alliance

    • Seven Weeks’ War led to the decisive defeat of Austria at Konniggratz in Bohemia

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