Giuseppe Mazzini


Cabornari-charcoal burners; were secret republican societies founded throughout Italy which were ineffective Transformismo



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Cabornari-charcoal burners; were secret republican societies founded throughout Italy which were ineffective

  • Transformismo- bribery, favors, or a seat in the cabinet “transformed” political opponents into government supporters

  • Italia irredenta-“unredeemed Italy”

    1. Causes

    • Nationalist had long wanted to unite the small mostly absolutist principalities of the Italian peninsula into a single state

    • Emperor Napoleon III’s interest in the Italian issue was heightened by Felice Orsini’s attempt assassinate him

    1. Results

    • Italia irredenta was one reason for the Italian support of the Allies against Austria and Germany during World War I

    • Economies and societies of north and south Italy were incompatible

    • Venice joined a united Italy after Italy agreed to enter an alliance with Prussia against Austria in the Austro-Prussian War

    • France protected Rome until the France-Prussian War in 1870 when they withdrew; Rome was annexed by Italy and made its capital

    German Unification

    1. Major People

    • 1) Otto von Bismarck- came from Junker (noble landlord) stock

    • During 1840s elected to provincial diet

    • 1851-1859 served as the Prussian representative to the German Confederation

    • Became Prussian ambassador to Russia and ambassador to France

    • Entered public life as a reactionary and mellowed into a conservative

    • Opposed parliamentary government, but not a constitutionalism that preserved a strong monarchy

    • Understood Prussia must have a strong industrial base

    • Appointed prime minister in 1862

    • Believed in kleindeutsch

    • Gained more prestige from victory in the Danish War

    • 2) Napoleon III- captured in battle

    • 3) Wilhelm I (William I)- accepted title of German emperor

    • 4) Count Vincent Benedetti- ambassador sent by France to meet Wilhelm I as reaction of Prince Leopold accepting the Spanish throne

    • 5) Prince Leopold- accepted the Spanish crown with Prussian blessings

    • Renounced for candidacy for the Spanish war by his father

    1. Major Terms
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