Gilded Age Urbanization and Immigration

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CPUSH (Unit 7, #3) Name _________________________________

Date _____________________ Pd _________

Gilded Age Urbanization and Immigration

I. Changes in the Gilded Age

A. New Immigrants

1. What was immigration like in the Gilded Age?

2. From 1880 to 1921, a record ________________ immigrants arrived in the U.S. looking for jobs and opportunities

3. The USA did not have ______________ (limits) on ___________________________________________ from a particular country could enter the country

4. From the ___________________ era to 1880, most immigrants came from _________________, Ireland, or _________________ in Northern Europe

5. Between 1880 and 1921, ______% of all immigrants to the USA came from _______________ and _______________ Europe (___________________, Poland, Austria-Hungary, Russia)

a. These __________________________________________” were typically young, male, either ________________ or Jewish, and spoke little or no English

b. The majority were _____________________ agricultural laborers with little money or education

6. 75% of all immigrants entered the USA through the immigration center at ________________________, in New York

a. Immigrants had to pass a ______________ examination and anyone with a serious problem or ________________ was not let in

b. Inspectors questioned immigrants to made sure that they were not _____________________, could work, and had some money

7. Many Americans expressed _________________ and viewed immigrants with a sense of fear, suspicion, and hostility

a. Nativists had deep-seated _____________________ about immigrants based on ethnicity, _______________________, political and social beliefs.

b. Many Americans accused immigrants of ____________________________________________ from “real” Americans and called for ______________________ that would limit the number of immigrants

B. Cities

1. What were cities like in the Gilded Age?

2. The Gilded Age experienced massive urbanization

a. In 1850, only _____% of Americans lived in cities…By 1900, ______% of Americans lived in cities

b. City growth was due to ___________ Americans moving to cities and ______________________ entering the USA

c. Engineering innovations, such as expansive ____________ and __________________, led to modern American cities

d. Cities expanded outward from industrial centers in the central business districts to a ring of outer _____________________

e. As cities grew larger and beyond walking distance, _________________________, elevated rail lines, and subways were created

3. Most American cities were not prepared for such __________________________________________________

a. Most urban immigrants lived in ______________: low rent apartments built the ______________ parts of town called ________

b. Many urban poor developed lung ____________ or tuberculosis; About ____% of immigrant babies died before their 1st birthday

c. About 2/3 of immigrants settled in ____________, such as New York, Chicago, Boston, or Philadelphia and lived in ___________ neighborhoods called _________________________

c. Enclaves provided new immigrants with a sense of ____________________________ and security, as the immigrants were surrounded by the familiar __________________________, food and language of their homeland

C. Working Conditions

1. What were working conditions like in the Gilded Age?

2. The majority of immigrants worked in ____________________________________

3. Industries were rapidly growing and in need of ____________________________________

4. Most immigrants were ________________________ and were willing to accept almost any kind of job, no matter how un-attractive or ______________________

D. Unions and Labor Strikes

1. What problems did workers face in the Gilded Age?

2. In response to the low wages, long hours, and dangerous working conditions, many workers joined _________________________ to ___________________________________________ for improvements

a. Among the first labor unions in America was the ____________________________________

i. The Knights of Labor was open to _______________________________ regardless of race, gender, or skill

b. The most successful union was the American Federation of Labor (AFL) led by _________________________________________

i. The AFL only included _________________________________, but it used collective bargaining to gain better _____________, shorter hours, and better working conditions for its union members

ii. Most workers were unskilled and _______________________ to join the AFL

c. By the end of the Gilded Age, only ____% of all American workers were unionized

3. One of the tactics used by unions was to __________________: Strikes were designed to stop _____________________________ in order to force management to accept __________________ demands

a. Business leaders resisted strikes by hiring _________________________________________ or private police to break up strikes

b. During some strikes, _________________________ broke out

i. During the Chicago _______________________________ Strike (1886), unionists demanded an 8-hr day; When violence broke out, public opinion turned against unions, viewing them as violent and “__________________________________”

ii. Violence erupted in the _______________________________ Strike (1892) at _____________________________ steel plant; Federal troops were called to re-open the factory with replacement workers

iii. _________________________ workers led a national strike when the ____________________________ Palace Company cut wages by 50%…President Cleveland sent the ________________ to end the strike; Strikers in 27 states resisted & dozens died

E. Local, State, and National Governments in the Gilded Age

1. What problems did workers face in the Gilded Age?

2. The Gilded Age was an era of political ____________________________ in national, state, and urban governments

3. Many city governments were run by _________________________________________________

a. Political machines were parties led by a powerful _______________ who controlled a ________________________ of politicians

b. Machines politicians rallied citizens, especially ______________________, to vote for them by offering ____________________

c. Because machine politicians controlled access to city ___________, business licenses, and ________________________ projects, they tended to be _________________________

d. Many politicians used _______________ to win elections, used their influence for personal gain (_____________), or took bribes

e. The most notorious urban politician was _____________________________ of New York’s ___________________________ Hall political machine

f. The “Tweed Ring” defrauded New York City of millions of dollars until it was exposed by reporter __________________________

4. Many government positions, such as tax collectors or post office officials, were appointed as ______________________ for loyalty to a political party (called _________________________)

5. Congress passed the ___________________________________________ in 1883 that created ____________-based ____________ for most civil service jobs in the federal government

6. In the Gilded Age, presidents were seen as less ____________________ than monopolists like Carnegie, JP Morgan, and Rockefeller

a. __________________ was the most important president of the era, but his administration was plagued by ____________________

b. The worst scandal was ___________________________________ which involved bribes by railroad companies to gain lands grants

c. _______________________________________ involved companies _________________ government officials to avoid paying taxes

F. Leisure Time

1. What was leisure time in the Gilded Age?

2. While working and living conditions were difficult for poor immigrants, ______________________ Americans actually saw their work time __________________________

3. Many middle-class Americans fought off city congestion and their jobs by enjoying ________________________ parks, bicycling, _____________________ theater (variety shows), and sports such as _____________________ and boxing

II. Conclusions

A. During the Gilded Age, the United States was a land of opportunity

1. The industrial revolution created ______________ in Eastern factories

2. Millions of “_______________________________________________” swarmed to the U.S. from Eastern and Southern Europe, swelling American cities

3. The influx of urban workers helped boom industry and ___________________________________ cities, but also led to ______________________________________ working and living conditions, child labor, nativism towards immigrants

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