Germany since 1866 summer 2010

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Daniel E. Miller Office Hours: By appointment

University of West Florida Office: Building 50, Rm. 137

EUH 4462-5423 Telephone: 850-474-2067

Meeting Time and Place: E-mail:

Internet Course, no scheduled meetings Secretary: 850-474-2680

Required Readings (Available in the University Bookstore)
1) Fest, Joachim. Speer: The Final Verdict. Trans. Ewald Osers and Alexandra Dring. New York and San Diego: Harcourt, Inc., 1999. NOTE: If the UWF bookstore does not have this volume, please purchase it through,,,,, or any other outlet.
2) Orlow, Dietrich. A History of Modern Germany: 1871 to Present. 6th ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2008.
3) Weitz, Eric D. Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2007.
NOTE: The instructor may place additional short readings on e-reserve through Pace Library. The readings are lighter the first two weeks and heavier the last few weeks. I strongly recommend that students pace themselves and begin reading and taking notes on the selections well before the date posted on the syllabus.

Required Internet Readings

Free Internet readings on Bismarck and GDR (copy and paste if hypertext is inactive):
1) “Documents of German Unification, 1848-1871” at
2) Bismarck’s “Blood and Iron” speech at
3) Bismarck’s Memoirs (excerpts–defeating Austria) at

4) The Dual Alliance of 1879 at

5) Three Emperors’ League of 1881 at

6) Bismarck on the Poles in Prussia, 1866 at

7) The Reinsurance Treaty, 1887 at

8) Speech in 1888 in the Reichstag at

9) “Bismarck’s Fall from Power, 1890,” at

10) “Civics 10/Chapter 1: The Character of Our Epoch,” at

Recommended Readings (Available in the University Bookstore)
1) Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, latest edition.
I encourage you to examine the website titled H-Net German, which is an academic web site that professional historians supervise. You may find it at:

Lectures: I will turn on and off the lectures as posted in the syllabus. Do not request lectures that are no longer available.

Grading: The requirements for this course will consist of two multiple choice exams (each worth 25 percent of the grade) and two assigned papers (each worth 25 percent of the grade). The grade book on UWF’s internet learning program will display the number right for the multiple choice exams. Otherwise, I will not use the online grading system. I will email grades on the exams to students after I examine overall performance. The grades on the papers will appear on the edited copy I will return to them through the e-Learning drop box.

General Information on Papers: Students will be responsible for writing two six-page papers answering questions I pose related to the readings ten days before the paper due date. Students will find the paper topics in the News section of e-Learning that appears when they log on to the course. Students must not use the Internet or other outside sources when writing the paper. Citations in the paper must follow the full reference format in the Turabian Manual of Style for footnotes or endnotes. The use of parenthetical references, not customary to the historical profession, will harm a student’s grade. Examples of proper citations appear throughout my lectures. See “Miller’s Memos” at the end of this syllabus for information on paper requirements and suggestions about improving style. Students must follow the requirements stated in the “Memo.” Keep copies of all work for your own protection. Papers must be submitted to the instructor through the “drop box” for the course in the UWF internet learning program. All files must be saved in Rich Text Format (RTF). Do not zip files. Approximately one week later, I will deposit corrected papers with grades in students’ drop boxes. The papers will include comments related to grammar and style, especially on the first or second pages. As students write their second papers, I expect them to eliminate the shortcomings that appear in their first papers. Comments regarding content will appear throughout the papers.

Exams: The exams will cover lecture materials and readings, and the final exam will not be cumulative. Each exam will consist of 50 multiple choice questions. The student will have two hours to complete the exam from the time they log on to the exam in the distance learning program. During an exam, a server may disconnect a student after a long period of inactivity. Should that occur, the student will be unable to log on to the exam again. The exam will be available for the entire day scheduled in the syllabus, that is, for a 24-hour period. Should a student begin an exam after 10:00 PM, the student will have less than two hours to complete the exam. Students may not view corrected exams. Although students will have their notes and readings available during the exam, the average time available to answer effectively each question precludes being able to search for the correct answer. As a result, thoroughly reading the material well in advance and reviewing notes are the only effective means of preparing for the exams.

Due Dates and Exam Dates: Be sure to keep a copy of all written work for your own protection. All assignments must be completed to receive a passing grade and turned in on the date due to receive full credit. Deadlines in the workplace, as in academia, are common, so I must penalize late assignments to discourage slackers. An assignment late for any reason by one day, including weekends, automatically will receive a lower grade by one degree (for example, an A- will become a B+). On the second and third days it is late, including weekends, the grade will lower by one more degree each day (for example, a B+ paper will receive a B for the first late day and will become a B- on the second day and a C+ on the third day). Assignments submitted on the fourth day or afterward will receive a grade for completion, which is a D-. Unusual events happen, including illnesses and snow emergencies, so do not receive a lower grade by putting off an assignment, risking a crisis, and not turning it in on time. Excuses for unforeseen or tragic events may require explanations from physicians, counselors, or other competent professionals. Computer viruses, glitches, and other excuses at the last minute are unacceptable. Should this policy seem unreasonable, consider the policy credit card companies have for late payments or what happens when you submit a bid after an auction closes on Ebay.

Plagiarism: For those who are insulted that an instructor must warn students about the wrongs of academic misconduct, I sincerely apologize. There are some, however, who believe that deception is fine, as long as they do not get caught. This is a dangerous policy. Cheating on an exam, writing identical essays, copying papers, and submitting a paper more than once, and plagiarism from published and internet sources are obvious sins that are easily discovered.

Students must be particularly cautious about plagiarism, which is generally an attempt to present another’s writing or ideas as one’s own. One method of plagiarism is to copy directly from a source. A second is to rearrange the paragraphs and restructure the sentences of a source. A third is to select specific sentences or ideas from texts that are then placed in the student’s work. A fourth is to copy a sentence or several sentences, cite the source, but not use quotation marks. All of these forms of plagiarism are forms of intellectual piracy, that is, stealing. Please note that plagiarism can lead not only to a failing grade but also to dismissal from the university. Briefly stated: if you plagiarize or cheat, you fail the course.

You are responsible for your own intellectual integrity. If you are uncertain about how to quote, how to footnote a direct quote, or how to give credit to another for their idea, please see the references in “Miller’s Memo.” For more information on plagiarism, see the History Department circular entitled “The Use of Secondary Sources” and the “Student Handbook.”

I view catching plagiarists somewhat as an intellectual sport, and I am quite competitive. Furthermore, the department chair insists that all of us strictly follow our department’s guidelines for student academic misconduct as stated in our by-laws:
Cheating and plagiarism. We shall tolerate no cheating on examinations and no plagiarism of written work. In the event that such behavior is documented, the instructor will assign that student an “F” for the course in which the offense occurred. The chairperson of the department and the dean of the College of Arts and Sciences will be notified concerning the specific nature of the offense. Where additional penalties seem just, the instructor and/or chairperson will refer the case to the Office of the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences for further action as outlined in the rules of the Florida Administrative Code. Each student has the right to appeal the charge of cheating or plagiarism and the right to examine any materials in his/her files.
Reporting plagiarism at UWF is not complicated, and conviction will result in a permanent notation of academic misconduct on a student’s transcript.



Length of Semester: 10 May-22 June

10 May-23 May–Lectures I-V

REMINDER: First Exam, Tuesday, 25 May

LECTURE I: Introduction: The Geography of Germany and German History before 1866
LECTURE II: Bismarck and the Unification of Germany

REQUIRED: Orlow, ch. 1 and Internet readings on Bismarck.

LECTURE III: The Consolidation of the Second Reich

REQUIRED: Orlow, ch. 1 and Internet readings on Bismarck.

LECTURE IV: Wilhelmian Germany before the First World War

REQUIRED: Orlow, ch. 2.

LECTURE V: Germany in the First World War, 1914-1918

REQUIRED: Orlow, ch. 3.

24 May-6 June–Lectures VI-VIII

ON-LINE EXAM: Tuesday, 25 May

NOTE: On the 31 May holiday, UWF offices are closed, but the web page will function.

REMINDER: First paper due on Thursday, 3 June; Second paper due on Friday, 18 June

LECTURE VI: Birth and Growing Pains of the Weimar Republic, 1918-1923

REQUIRED: Orlow, ch. 4 and Weitz, Weimar Germany (entire).

LECTURE VII: The Era of Hope and Stability, Late 1923 to 1930

REQUIRED: Orlow, ch. 5.

LECTURE VIII: The Rise of the Third Reich

REQUIRED: Orlow, ch. 6.

7 June-21 June–LECTURES IX-XIV

DUE IN THE DROP-BOX: First Paper, Thursday, 3 June

DUE IN THE DROP-BOX: Second Paper, Friday, 18 June

REMINDER: On-Line Final Exam on Lectures VI-XIV, inclusive, is on Tuesday, 22 June, 12:01 AM to 11:59 PM

LECTURE IX: Germany in the Second World War, 1939-1945

REQUIRED: Orlow, ch. 7, and Fest, Speer (entire).

LECTURE X: Germany from 1945 to 1949

REQUIRED: Orlow, ch. 8.

LECTURE XI: The Federal Republic of Germany, 1949-1990

REQUIRED: Orlow, ch. 9.

LECTURE XII: The German Democratic Republic, 1949-1990

REQUIRED: Orlow, ch. 10, and Internet reading “Civics 10/Chapter 1: The Character of Our Epoch.”

LECTURE XIII: The Reunification of Germany

REQUIRED: Orlow, chs. 11 and 12.

LECTURE XIV: Reunited Germany

ON-LINE EXAM: Tuesday, 22 June

University of West Florida Standard Syllabus Requirements

The University of West Florida requires that I provide you with the following information (I have done minimal editing to what the administration has provided):

Credits: This course is worth three (3) credit hours.

Prerequisites and Co-Requisites: none

Course Description: For the official course description, please refer to the UWF catalog.

Goals and Student Learning Outcomes: The student will gain a basic knowledge of many aspects of the topic presented in this course. The required reading assignments along with written assignments and exams will improve student analytical, writing, and research skills.

Required Materials: internet access and e-mail account

Expectations for Academic Conduct/Plagiarism Policy:

Academic Conduct Policy: (Web Format) | (PDF Format) | (RTF Format)

Plagiarism Policy: (Word Format) | (PDF Format) | (RTF Format)

Student Handbook: (PDF Format)

Assistance: Students with special needs who require specific examination-related or other course-related accommodations should contact Barbara Fitzpatrick, Director of Disabled Student Services (DSS),, (850) 474-2387. DSS will provide the student with a letter for the instructor that will specify any recommended accommodations.

About this Course: This course is delivered completely online. You must have consistent access to the Internet. Learning at a distance may be a very different environment for many of you. You will generally set your own schedules, participate in class activities at your convenience, and work at your own pace. You may spend some additional time online during the first few weeks while you become acclimated to the online class format and you may feel overwhelmed. You should also be prepared to spend approximately 6 - 8 hours per week online completing lessons, activities, and participating in class discussions. Finally, you may want to incorporate these tips to help you get started:

Set yourself a schedule–check the course web site early in the class week to see what tasks you'll need to work on for the week.

Become very familiar with the site and how to use it. It is a tool to help you learn!
Team up with your classmates to discuss class assignments and questions you might have. Check the “Classlist” link for biography info and email addresses.
Ask questions when you need answers. If you have problems, contact your instructor ASAP! I will help you come up with a solution!

Special Technology for Students: This course is totally online. All instructional content and interaction takes place over the WWW. In addition to baseline word processing skills and sending/receiving email with attachments, students will be expected to search the internet and upload / download files. In addition, students may need one or more of the following plug-ins:

Adobe Acrobat Reader:

PowerPoint Viewer:

Windows Media Player:

Quicktime Player:

Real Player:

Macromedia Flash Player:



A thesis, a logical argument, the proper use of details to support a case, and the reliance on a variety of pertinent primary and secondary sources are the ingredients of a good paper in the social sciences. There are two more factors, however, that students often overlook: style and grammar. Some of the items in this memo are mandatory; others are suggestions. All will help improve a paper and a final grade.

When planning your paper, regardless of the length, do the reading and research ahead of time. Think about the topic and develop a thesis. Make an outline, no matter how rough it is. The more drafts you write, the better the paper will be. Read your final draft aloud or have a friend read it to eliminate linguistic abuses.


NEATNESS AND BINDING: Give the reader a good impression with a neat paper. Staple all papers in the upper-left corner. Paper clips, plastic folders, or another method of binding papers is unacceptable.

LENGTH: Papers must be the proper length to receive full credit. Page numbers should appear on the upper right-hand corner. To count the number of words in your paper, select File-Properties in the property bar. To determine the words manually, count the words in four lines of the draft and divide the total by four to get the average number of words per line. Count the number of lines per page and multiply by the average words per line to obtain the number of words per page. A typical double-spaced typewritten page will have about 300 words per page. Notes, bibliographies, and illustrations are not part of the text. The text must be double-spaced with no added spaces between paragraphs. Margins are to be one inch.

PROPER GRAMMAR AND PUNCTUATION: Observe all rules of grammar and punctuation. It is inevitable that mistakes will occur–this is true for all writers–but attention to the details will eliminate most errors.

SPECIAL NOTES ON PUNCTUATION: Generally, information on punctuation is available in any grammar or in an appendix of a good dictionary. Review the rules for commas on a regular basis and proofread to put commas in their proper places. Place hyphens only at syllable breaks. When in doubt, check a dictionary. Place a space between the dots of ellipsis. If a sentence is omitted between quoted sentences, place a period at the end of the first sentence and then the ellipsis. . . . Never use ellipsis to begin or end a quotation.

CAPITALIZATION: Proper capitalization is always necessary. Consult a grammar or another source if there is any doubt about capitalization, such as the cold war, the Second World War.

PRONOUNS: Be careful about the use of possessive pronouns as opposed to contractions. Do not make the mistake of Bud Abbott and Lou Costello in One Night in the Tropics (1940) and The Naughty Nineties (1945):

Abbott: Who is on first!

Costello: I'm asking you who's on first.

Abbott: That's the man's name.

Costello: That's whose name?

Abbott: Yes.

Costello: Well, go ahead and tell me.

Abbott: That's it.

Costello: That's who?

Abbott: Yes.

Pronouns at the beginning of a sentence refer to the subject of the previous sentence. Misused, pronouns can be humorous and dangerous:

“Tom and Martha bought two cats. They already use the litter box.”

PROPER STYLE: Style is a personal affair, but formal prose has certain requirements. One would not attend a formal wedding in jeans, so one can not submit a formal paper using anything other than proper English.

ABBREVIATIONS: Do not use any abbreviations, such as etc., vs., v., or misc., unless they are part of a quotation or the standard citation for footnotes or endnotes.

CONTRACTIONS: Do not use contractions unless they are part of a quotation.

COLLOQUIALISMS: Learn to recognize and eliminate all colloquial phrases, such as in the sentences “Mohammed’s job was to convert everyone to Islam” and “She had a good head on her shoulders.”

QUOTATIONS: Too many students try to fill a paper with the thoughts of others, properly credited through the use of footnotes, but the practice is unacceptable. If a question ends with a quotation, place the question mark inside the quotation marks if the entire sentence is a question and outside the quotation marks if the quotation is only a phrase. Any quotation which exceeds eight lines in the body of the paper must be blocked, that is, indented and single spaced. Quotation marks are not used for block quotations.

FOREIGN PHRASES: Set all foreign phrases in italics, and place a translation in brackets when phrases appear for the first time, such as with the saying in vino veritas [in wine there is truth]. Translations are not usually provided for French, German, and Spanish.

FOOTNOTES OR ENDNOTES: The writer must give credit in footnotes or endnotes to any source of quotations, unusual information, or unique ideas. When employing footnotes, extend the text to compensate for the notes. There is only one acceptable style of citation in history: the full footnote or endnote as described in Turabian’s A Manual for Writers.1

BIBLIOGRAPHY: If the instructor requires a bibliography (one may not be necessary if the student uses only assigned sources), include sections for primary sources, secondary sources, and works consulted. Do not pad bibliographies. For proper bibliographical citations, see Turabian’s, A Manual for Writers.


THINGS WHICH TRAVEL IN PAIRS: There are certain phrases which must appear together. It is impossible to have something “on the other hand” if there is no “on the one hand.” “Not only” and “but also” are two more phrases which travel in pairs. Be cautious, however, not to use “both” in combination with “as well as.”

AWKWARD SENTENCES: Beware of awkward sentences and phrases that blur meaning:

Incorrect: “William, using a traditional way of reasoning, reasoned that, for the most part, he had no choice but to marry.”

Correct: “William, who held very traditional morals, reasoned that he had no choice but to marry.”

REPETITIOUS WORDS AND PHRASES: Use a thesaurus to remove repeated words and phrases in sentences and paragraphs.

SHORT SENTENCES AND PARAGRAPHS: Combine short sentences and paragraphs to eliminate the machine-gun attack of thoughts that assault the reader.

TENSE: Never mix tenses when writing. History is a record of the past, so it is best to use the past and past perfect tenses.

DATES FOR HISTORIC INDIVIDUALS: The first time an individual’s name appears in a paper, the writer should provide the full names and dates: George Washington (1732-1799); Michael S. Gorbachev (born 1931); Louis XVI (1754-1793, reigned 1774-1792).

DECADES: When referring to a decade with numerals, do not use an apostrophe. When using only the last two digits, spell them out.

Incorrect: Considering the difficulties of the 1880's, the 90s were less intense.

Correct: Considering the difficulties of the 1880s, the nineties were less tense.

PROOFREADING: Proofread all assignments before they are submitted. The instructor will note errors, and an abundance of mistakes can harm a grade.

HELPFUL AIDS FOR THE WRITER: Every college student should have: 1) a good collegiate dictionary; 2) a thesaurus; and 3) Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, latest edition. (This is an indispensable book available in most bookstores.)

Those who are serious about developing their writing skills may wish to consider purchasing:

Follett, Wilson Follett. Modern American Usage: A Guide, edited and completed by Jacques Barzun in collaboration with Carlos Baker, et al. New York: Hill and Wang, latest edition.

Fowler, H. W. A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. Rev. and ed. by Sir Ernest Gowers. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, latest edition. (This is for British English, but it is still very useful.)

Strunk, William Jr. and E. B. White. The Elements of Style. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.; London: Collier Macmillan Publishers, latest edition.

For additional copies of this style sheet, contact Daniel E. Miller at the Department of History, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL, 32514 or Revision 11.I.1

1A chapter with example footnote and bibliography entries appears in each edition of Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, most recent ed.). For those who wish to examine the Bible of academic writers in the social sciences, see University of Chicago Press Staff, A Manual of Style for Authors, Editors, and Copywriters (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, latest edition). This publication serves as the basis for Turabian’s work.

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